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实用英语综合教程第二册-6

时间:2007-01-11 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:belle0920   字体: [ ]
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UNIT 6
Text A

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, think about the questions.

1. What makes human beings different from animals?
A. The ability to use tools.
B. The learning and sharing of behavior.
c. The use of language.
2. Do you think animals have a culture? If yes, give an example.

Now read the passage and compare your answers with the author's.

Do Animals Have a Culture?

1. Lately social scientists have begun to ask if culture is found just in humans, or if some animals have culture too. When we speak of culture, we mean a way of life a group of people have in common. Culture includes the beliefs and attitudes we learn. It is the patterns of behaviour that help people to live together. It is also the patterns of behaviour that make one group of people different from another group.
2. Our culture lets us make up for having lost our strength, claws, long teeth, and other defenses. Instead, we use tools, cooperate with one another, and communicate in language. But these aspects of human behaviour, or "culture", can also be found in the lives of certain animals.
3. We used to think that the ability to use tools was the dividing line between human beings and other animals. Lately, however, we have found that this is not the case. Chimpanzees can not only use tools but actually make tools themselves. This is a major step up from simply picking up a handy object and using it. For example, chimps2 have been seen stripping the leaves and twigs4 off a branch, then putting it into a termite5 nest. When the termites6 bite at the stick, the chimp1 removes it and eats them off the end -- not unlike our use of a fork!
4. For some time we thought that although human beings learned their culture, animals could not be taught such behaviour. Or even if they could learn, they would not teach one another in the way people do. This too has proven to be untrue. A group of Japanese monkeys was studied at the Kyoto University Monkey Centre in Japan. They were given sweet potatoes by scientists who wanted to attract them to the shore of an island. One day a young female began to wash her sweet potato to get rid of the sand. This practice soon spread throughout the group. It became learned behaviour, not from humans but from other monkeys. Now almost all monkeys who have not come into contact with this group do not. Thus we have a "cultural" difference among animals.
5. We have ruled out tool use and invention as ways of telling animal behaviour from human behaviour. We have also ruled out learning and sharing of behaviour. Yet we still have held onto the last feature -- language. But even the use of language can no longer separate human culture from animal culture: Attempts to teach apes to speak have failed. However, this is because apes do not have the proper vocal7 organs. But teaching them language has been very successful if we are willing to accept other forms than just the spoken word. Two psychologists trained a chimpanzee named Washoe to use Standard American Sign Language. This is the same language used by deaf people. In this language, "talk" is made through gestures, and not by spelling out words with individual letters. By the time she was five years old, Washoe had a vocabulary of 130 signs. Also, she could put them together in new ways that had not been taught her originally. This means she could create language and not just copy it. She creates her own sentences that have real meaning. This has allowed two-way talk. It permits more than one-way command and response.
6. Of course, there are limits to the culture of animals. As far as we know, no ape has formed social institutions such as religion, law, or economics. Also, some chimps may be able to learn sign language; but this form of language is limited in its ability to communicate abstract ideas. Yet with a spoken language we can communicate our entire culture to anyone else who knows that language. Perhaps the most important thing we have learned from studies of other animals is that the line dividing us from them is not as clear as we used to think.

New Words

lately
ad. recently 近来,最近

attitude
n. a way of feeling, thinking or behaving 态度,看法

behaviour
n. the way of behaving; manners (good or bad) 行为,举止,品行

claw
n. (鸟、兽、昆虫等的)爪

defense/defence
n. 防御能力,防御(物)

cooperate
v. to work or act together with another or others 合作

handy
a. 1. not far away 手边的,近便的
2. convenient; useful 方便的,便利的

chimpn. [口语]黑猩猩(=chimpanzee)

strip
v. to take off (coverings, clothes, parts, etc.) 剥去,除去

twig3
n. a small shoot on or at the end of a branch 小枝,嫩枝

nest
n. 窝,巢,穴

unlike
prep. not like; different from 不像,不同

female
n. 1.雌性动物
2.女子
a. 1.雌(性)的
2.女(性)的

rid
v. (rid, rid)to make free 使摆脱,从...清除

attempt
n. a try 试图,企图,尝试
v. to try (to do something) 尝试,试图

successful
a. having success 成功的

chimpanzee
n. 黑猩猩

vocabulary
n. a list or collection of words 词汇(量)

command
n. 1. an order 命令,指令
2. the ability to control and use 控制,运用能力

economics
n. 经济学

Phrases and Expressions

speak of
谈起,提到

in common
共同

different from
与...不同,不同于

make up for
补偿,弥补

cooperate with
与...合作/相配合

strip off
剥去

get rid of
除去

come into contact with
与...接触,接触到

rule out
排除在外

hold onto
保持,继续

tell...from
区别

separate...from
区分

be willing to
愿意,乐意

spell out
拼(写)出(词的字母)

Proper Names

the Kyoto University Monkey Center
京都大学猴子研究中心

Washoe
一黑猩猩名


Text B

PRE-READING TASK
Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, think about the questions.

1. Have you ever heard of I.P. Pavlov, a famous Russian scientist?
2. What was the important theory he developed?

Now read the passage to learn more about Pavlov.

Animal Learning: Pavlov and Beyond

1. Much of an animal's behaviour depends on what it inherits from its parents, that is, on instincts. These do not change according to circumstances. Behaviour which is learned, on the other hand, does vary and can adapt to different conditions.
2. All animals can learn, but learning is easier for some species than for others. Worms and octopuses8, for example, learn much more slowly than mice. Some species (chimpanzees, gorillas10 and elephants, for instance) are famous for their ability to learn and to remember. And interestingly in all species, including man of course, learning is easier for some than for others.
3. I.P. Pavlov (1849-1936), a famous Russian scientist, found that dogs associated the sound of a bell with food if they always received food after hearing a bell. Of course, when they see food, most animals salivate. Pavlov discovered that, after a time, salivating occurred when the dogs heard the bell, even if there was no food. This was because conditioning had taken place. He called this kind of reaction a conditioned reflex.
4. However, Pavlov also found that the effect of conditioning disappeared gradually if there was no reward (that is, the dogs stopped salivating if on many occasions the bell rang but no food followed). This showed that reinforcing the animals' conditioned behaviour was very important.
5. Learning through conditioned reflexes is not the only kind of learning that animals are capable of. In laboratory experiments with rats, for instance, it has been proved that those which are brought up in a very "limited" (boring) environment find it more difficult to learn things later than those which are brought up in "stimulating11" environments, with more things to do (like climbing ladders, exploring tunnels, etc.). It seems that, as Julian Huxley said, "Captivity12 cages minds as well as bodies".
6. Then there is the question of intelligence. Some species can recognise colours (bees, for example), some can recognise numbers, and some (such as chimpanzees) can do quite complicated tasks, while others (like the famous elephant that "never forgets") can distinguish and remember hundreds of different commands. Some animals, especially chimpanzees and gorillas, can solve problems which are new for them and, using different kinds of codes, can even "speak" to the scientists studying them, using sign language.
7. In fact, many animals can communicate, but they cannot really speak. They are physically13 incapable14 of doing so. Human beings have been able to speak for thousands of years, and speaking may be the most important element in learning. Certainly, it has helped man to distinguish himself from other species.

New Words

inherit
v. 1. to derive15 (qualities, etc.) from ancestors 由遗传而得(性格、特征等)
2. 继承(财产、爵位等)

adapt
v. to make suitable for a new use, need, situation, etc. 使适应,使配合

worm
n. 虫,蠕虫,蛆

mouse
n. (复数 mice) 鼠

gorilla9
n. 大猩猩

conditioning
n. 条件作用,条件反射作用

conditioned
a. 在某种条件下的, 有条件的

reflex
n. 反射,反射作用

reinforce
v. 1.强化
2.to strengthen or support 增强,加强

laboratory
n. a room or building used for scientific experiments, research, testing, etc. 实验室

bore
v. to make someone tired or uninterested 使厌烦, 使厌倦

boring
a. dull 令人厌烦的,乏味的

stimulate16
v. to excite 刺激,激励

stimulating
a. exciting 使人兴奋的, 激励的

tunnel
n. an underground passage 隧道,地道

captivity
n. 囚虏,监禁,束缚

cage
v. 控制住,把...囚禁起来
n. 笼子

distinguish
v. 1. to recognize clearly 辨别出,认出
2. to recognize the difference (between) 区分,辨别

incapable
a. not capable 无能力的,不能胜任的

element
n. 1. 要素,性质
2. 元素

Phrases and Expressions

adapt to
适应

associate with
联想, 使联合,使结合

capable of
1.有...能力的
2.能...的, 可以...的

bring up
养育

incapable of
不能...的

distinguish ... from
区别,区分

Proper Names

Pavlov
巴甫洛夫(1849-1936, 前苏联生理学家)

Julian Huxley
朱利安.赫胥黎(1887-1975, 英国生物学家,科学哲学家)


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 chimp WXGza     
n.黑猩猩
参考例句:
  • In fact,the color of gorilla and chimp are light-color.其实大猩猩和黑猩猩的肤色是较为浅的。
  • The chimp is the champ.猩猩是冠军。
2 chimps 2a09048610e52de775e2fe426c063f06     
(非洲)黑猩猩( chimp的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Chimps are too scarce, and too nearly human, to be routinely slaughtered for spare parts. 黑猩猩又太少,也太接近于人类,不可以作为人器官备用件说杀就杀。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 医学的第四次革命
  • And as nonprimates, they provoke fewer ethical and safety-related concerns than chimps or baboons. 而且作为非灵长类,就不会产生像用黑猩猩或狒狒那样的伦理和安全方面的顾虑。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 医学的第四次革命
3 twig VK1zg     
n.小树枝,嫩枝;v.理解
参考例句:
  • He heard the sharp crack of a twig.他听到树枝清脆的断裂声。
  • The sharp sound of a twig snapping scared the badger away.细枝突然折断的刺耳声把獾惊跑了。
4 twigs 17ff1ed5da672aa443a4f6befce8e2cb     
细枝,嫩枝( twig的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Some birds build nests of twigs. 一些鸟用树枝筑巢。
  • Willow twigs are pliable. 柳条很软。
5 termite npTwE     
n.白蚁
参考例句:
  • The termite control was also probed into further in this text.本文还进一步探讨了白蚁的防治方法。
  • Termite often destroys wood.白蚁经常破坏树木。
6 termites 8ee357110f82dc8b267190e430924662     
n.白蚁( termite的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Termites are principally tropical in distribution. 白蚁主要分布在热带地区。 来自辞典例句
  • This spray will exterminate the termites. 这种喷剂能消灭白蚁。 来自辞典例句
7 vocal vhOwA     
adj.直言不讳的;嗓音的;n.[pl.]声乐节目
参考例句:
  • The tongue is a vocal organ.舌头是一个发音器官。
  • Public opinion at last became vocal.终于舆论哗然。
8 octopuses d5a93f5ab1e0649b2c2a607e16ad063b     
章鱼( octopus的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Snails and octopuses are molluscs. 蜗牛和章鱼是软体动物。
  • Limpets, snails and octopuses are mollusks. 帽贝、蜗牛和章鱼都是软体动物。
9 gorilla 0yLyx     
n.大猩猩,暴徒,打手
参考例句:
  • I was awed by the huge gorilla.那只大猩猩使我惊惧。
  • A gorilla is just a speechless animal.猩猩只不过是一种不会说话的动物。
10 gorillas a04bd21e2b9b42b0d71bbb65c0c6d365     
n.大猩猩( gorilla的名词复数 );暴徒,打手
参考例句:
  • the similitude between humans and gorillas 人类和大猩猩的相像
  • Each family of gorillas is led by a great silverbacked patriarch. 每个大星星家族都由一个魁梧的、长着银色被毛的族长带领着。 来自《简明英汉词典》
11 stimulating ShBz7A     
adj.有启发性的,能激发人思考的
参考例句:
  • shower gel containing plant extracts that have a stimulating effect on the skin 含有对皮肤有益的植物精华的沐浴凝胶
  • This is a drug for stimulating nerves. 这是一种兴奋剂。
12 captivity qrJzv     
n.囚禁;被俘;束缚
参考例句:
  • A zoo is a place where live animals are kept in captivity for the public to see.动物园是圈养动物以供公众观看的场所。
  • He was held in captivity for three years.他被囚禁叁年。
13 physically iNix5     
adj.物质上,体格上,身体上,按自然规律
参考例句:
  • He was out of sorts physically,as well as disordered mentally.他浑身不舒服,心绪也很乱。
  • Every time I think about it I feel physically sick.一想起那件事我就感到极恶心。
14 incapable w9ZxK     
adj.无能力的,不能做某事的
参考例句:
  • He would be incapable of committing such a cruel deed.他不会做出这么残忍的事。
  • Computers are incapable of creative thought.计算机不会创造性地思维。
15 derive hmLzH     
v.取得;导出;引申;来自;源自;出自
参考例句:
  • We derive our sustenance from the land.我们从土地获取食物。
  • We shall derive much benefit from reading good novels.我们将从优秀小说中获得很大好处。
16 stimulate wuSwL     
vt.刺激,使兴奋;激励,使…振奋
参考例句:
  • Your encouragement will stimulate me to further efforts.你的鼓励会激发我进一步努力。
  • Success will stimulate the people for fresh efforts.成功能鼓舞人们去作新的努力。
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