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实用英语综合教程第二册-8

时间:2007-01-11 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:belle0920   字体: [ ]
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UNIT 8
Text A

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, think about the questions.

1. Who is the painter of "the Mona Lisa", the world famous painting?
A. Vincent van Gogh.
B. Leonardo da Vinci.
C. Claude Monet.
D. Frans Hals.
2. Where did the painter of "the Mona Lisa" come from?
A. England.
B. Italy.
C. France.
D. Poland.

Now read the passage and check your answers.

The Crime of the Century

1 On Tuesday August 11th, 1911, a young artist, Louis Beraud, arrived at the Louvre in Paris to complete a painting of the Salon1 Carre. This was the room where the world's most famous painting, the Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci, was on display. To his surprise there was an empty space where the painting should have been. At 11 o'clock the museum authorities realized that the painting had been stolen. The next day headlines all over the world announced the theft.
2 Actually the Leonardo had been gone for more than twenty-four hours before anyone noticed it was missing. The museum was always closed on Mondays for maintenance. Just before closing time on Sunday three men had entered the museum, where they had hidden themselves in a storeroom. The actual theft was quick and simple. Early the next morning Perrugia removed the painting from the wall while the others kept watch. Then they went out a back exit.
3 Nothing was seen or heard of the painting for two years when Perrugia tried to sell it to a dealer2 for half a million lire. Perrugia was arrested on December 13th. Perrugia claimed he had stolen it as an act of patriotism3, because, he said, the painting had been looted from the Italian nation by Napoleon. Perrugia was imprisoned5 for 7 months. It seemed that the crime of the century had been solved.
4 But had it? Perrugia was keen to claim all responsibility for the theft, and it was twenty years before the whole story came out. In fact Perrugia had been working for two master criminals, Valfierno and Chaudron, who went unpunished for their crime. They would offer to steal a famous painting from a gallery for a crooked6 dealer or an unscrupulous private collector. They would then make a copy of the picture and, with the help of bribed8 gallery attendants, would then tape the copy to the back of the original painting. The dealer would then be taken to the gallery and would be invited to make a secret mark on the back of the painting. Of course the dealer would actually be marking the copy. Valfierno would later produce forged newspaper cuttings announcing the theft of the original, and then produce the copy, complete with secret marking. If the dealer were to see the painting still in the gallery, he would be persuaded that it was a copy, and that he possessed9 the genuine one.
5 Chaudron then painted not one, but six copies of the Mona Lisa, using 400-year-old wood panels from antique Italian furniture. The forgeries10 were carefully aged11, so that the varnish12 was cracked and dirty. Valfierno commissioned Perrugia to steal the original, and told him to hide it until Valfierno contacted him. Perrugia waited in vain in a tiny room in Paris with the painting, but heard nothing from his partners in crime. They had gone to New York, where the six copies were already in store. They had sent them there before the original was stolen. At that time it was quite common for artists to copy old masters, which would be sold quite honestly as imitations, so there had been no problems with US Customs. Valfierno went on to sell all six copies for $300 000 each. Valfierno told the story to a journalist in 1914, on condition that it would not be published until his death.
6 Does the story end there? Collectors have claimed that Perrugia returned a copy. It is also possible that Leonardo may have painted several versions of the Mona Lisa, or they might be copies made by Leonardo's pupils. There has been a lot of controversy13 and argument about a 450-year-old painting, but after all, maybe that's what she's smiling about.

New Words

artist
n. a person who practices any of the fine arts, esp. painting 艺术家,美术家

painting
n. a painted picture (一幅)油画

display
n. a show or exhibition 展示,陈列
v. 1.陈列,展览
2.显示,表现

authority
n. 1.(复数)当局,官方
2.the right, responsibility, or power to influence 权(力), 权威

headline
n. 1. a main point of broadcast news (复数)新闻广播提要
2. the newspaper heading 报纸的标题

theft
n. (the act or, an instance of) stealing 偷窃,失窃

maintenance
n. 1.维修,保养
2.维持,保持

storeroom
n. a room used for storing things, esp. in a house 贮藏室

exit
n. a way out 出口

dealer
n. a trader 商人,贩子

lira
n. 里拉(意大利货币单位)

arrest
v. to seize (someone) by the authority of the law 依法逮捕,拘捕

patriotism
n. 爱国主义,爱国心

Italian
a. 意大利的
n. 意大利人,意大利语

loot
v. 掠夺,抢劫

imprison4
v. to put or keep in or as if in prison 关押,监禁

keen
a. 1. 热衷的, 渴望的
2. 激烈的,强烈的

unpunished
a. not punished 未受惩罚的

gallery
n. a room or building for the display of works of art (艺术作品的)陈列室,陈列馆

crooked
a. (of a person or his actions) dishonest 不诚实的,欺诈的

unscrupulous
a. 肆无忌弹的,无耻的

bribe7
v. 向...行贿,收买
n. 贿赂

attendant
n. a servant 服务员
original
a. 1. not copied 非仿制的
2. first or earliest 起初的, 原来的
n. that from which copies can be made 原物,原作品,原文

forge
v. to make a copy of something in order to deceive 伪造

persuade
v. to make someone believe or do something by talking to him 使相信,劝说

genuine
a. real; truly what it is said to be 真正的,真实的

paint
v. to make a picture (of) 画,绘画

panel
n. 油画板

antique
a. 1.古式的
2.古老的,古代的

forgery14
n. 伪造品,赝品

varnish
n. 1.光泽,光泽的表面
2.清漆

crack
v. to break with or without completely separating into parts 使裂开

commission
v. 委托,指使
n. 佣金,回扣

vain
a. without the desired result 徒劳的, 无效的

partner
n. 合伙人,合作者

imitation
n. 仿制品,仿造品

version
n. 形式,变体,版本

controversy
n. (an) argument about something over which there is much disagreement 争议,争吵

argument
n. a disagreement 争论

Phrases and Expressions

on display
展览,陈列

to someone's surprise
使某人感到意外

keep watch
放哨,守望

hear of
听到,听说

come out
(真相等)被发现,透露

in vain
徒劳,白费力

in store
储存着,准备着

on condition (that)
在...的条件下,如果

Proper Names

Louis Beraud
路易斯.贝劳德

the Louvre
罗浮宫(法国巴黎)

Paris
巴黎(法国首都)

the Salon Carre
卡雷沙龙

the Mona Lisa
蒙娜莉莎

Leonardo da Vinci
列奥纳多.达.芬奇

Perrugia
佩鲁吉亚

Napoleon
拿破仑

Valfierno
瓦尔菲尔诺

Chaudron
肖德龙

Text B

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Read the first paragraph of the passage and then answer the questions.

1. What is the role of the fingerprints16 in criminal charges?
2. What is the problem of the fingerprints presented here?

Now read the passage and check your answers.

The Finger of Suspicion

1 Fingerprints, one of the great deciders of innocence17 or guilt18 in criminal charges, are now in the dock themselves. This is because of a growing number of claims from defendants20 that their "prints" have been "lifted" and planted at scenes of crimes. And these allegations are being taken seriously by lawyers, judges and policemen because it is possible to move a fingerprint15 from one spot and place it elsewhere.
2 With one of the cornerstones of evidence now being placed in doubt a committee of criminal lawyers is carrying out an inquiry21 into fingerprinting22. The investigation23 has been ordered by Justice, the prestigious24 legal organisation25, and a report is due early next year. Last night a spokesman for Justice said: "There are an increasing number of cases where people are claiming their prints have been transferred and put on incriminating objects. We are not aiming to establish if these allegations are true or not, but we are questioning current fingerprinting methods as part of a general investigation into scientific evidence. Some of Britain's top criminal lawyers are worried about this increasing number of claims."
3 How can a fingerprint be transferred? A fingermark left on a greasy26 glass or some other smooth surface can be "lifted" with a strip of adhesive27. It can then be deposited on another, perhaps incriminating object. Accusations29 about "planted prints" were first put up at an Old Bailey IRA bomb trial nine years ago -- without success. Fingerprints at the scene of a crime used to be dusted down with fine powder, photographed for identification purposes, then the pictures and the objects carrying the prints were produced in court.
4 However, since 1973 a new method of taking prints has been generally used in Britain. Police experts now use a strip of adhesive tape to "lift" a print which is then produced in court as evidence. Before 1973 the object on which the prints were found-a bottle, dagger30 or a gun -- used to be shown in court as well. This is no longer necessary. As a result criminals are claiming that their prints have been "lifted" and planted elsewhere. There have been two successful claims in the United States, though this line of defence has failed in Britain.
5 According to the ex-chief of Scotland Yard's fingerprint department, Mr Harold Squires31, who is now an independent defence witness: "More than 55% of the cases I now get are making these claims. But so far I have not seen any fingerprint evidence that proves the allegations to be true. Petty crooks32 are always accusing the police of lifting their prints and planting them at the scene of a crime. "According to ex-Chief Superintendent33 Squires, lifting a mark and transferring it to another object "requires great skill and trouble". He added: "It's almost impossible but it can be done. It can usually be easily detected by someone like me, but there is a chance that even I may not be able to tell."
6 Mr Squires sees the new line of defence as an attack on the police by desperate men. He would like the old method of photographing prints and producing them together with the object pictured to be generally used again.


New Words

suspicion
n. the feeling that a person has when he suspects 怀疑

fingerprint
n. a mark made by fingers when pressed on a surface 指纹

innocence
n. 1.清白,无罪
2.单纯,幼稚

guilt
n. 犯罪,有罪

charge
n. a statement that a person has done wrong, esp. that he has broken the law 指控,控告
v. 1.控告,指控
2. 要(价), 收(费)

dock
n. (刑事法庭的)被告席,犯人栏

defendant19
n. a person against whom a legal action is brought 被告,被告人

allegation
n. a statement, esp. one made without proof (指无证据或有待证实的)陈述,说法

lawyer
n. a person who practices law 律师

cornerstone
n. foundation 基础

inquiry, enquiry
n. 1.质询,调查
2.询问,探问

investigation
n. the careful and thorough inquiry 调查

prestigious
a. 有威望的,有声望的

legal
a. 法律上的,合法的

organisation
n. 组织,机构

spokesman
n. a person who speaks or is chosen to speak officially for a group 发言人,代言人

transfer
v. to (cause to) move from one place to another 搬,使移动

incriminate
v. 1. to indicate as guilty 暗示(或显示)...有罪,牵连
2. to charge with crime 控告

establish
v. 1. to cause people to accept a belief, claim, custom, etc. 使被接受,确立
2. to set up; begin 建立,设立

fingermark
n. a mark, e.g. on a wall, made by a dirty finger 指痕

greasy
a. 油污的

adhesiven. 粘合剂,粘胶
a. 粘的

deposit
v. to lay or put down 放,置

accusation28
n. 指控,指责

bomb
n. 炸弹

trial
n. 1. 审讯,审判
2. 试,试验

powder
n. dry material made up of fine particles 粉,粉末

identification
n. 鉴定,确认

court
n. a place where law-cases are held 法庭,法院

dagger
n. 匕首

ex-chief
n. 前任首领,前任领导

petty
a. 1. small, unimportant 小的,不重要的
2. on a small scale 小规模的,小型的

accuse
v. to say that someone has done wrong, or has broken the law 指控,控告

superintendent
n. a police officer above a chief inspector34 in rank (等级较高的)警官

detect
v. to discover existence or presence of 查出,查明

desperate
a. 1.胆大妄为的, 无法无天的
2.绝望的

Phrases and Expressions

in the dock
受到谴责,处于被动局面

in doubt
不能肯定的,不确定的

used to
(过去)常常

dust down
(把粉末)撒于

as a result
作为结果,因此

so far
迄今为止

accuse ... of
指控,控告

Proper Names

Old Bailey
老贝利(英国伦敦中央刑事法院的俗称)

IRA
爱尔兰共和军(the Irish Republican Army的缩写)

Scotland Yard
伦敦警察厅

Harold Squires
哈罗德.斯夸尔斯(人名)


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 salon VjTz2Z     
n.[法]沙龙;客厅;营业性的高级服务室
参考例句:
  • Do you go to the hairdresser or beauty salon more than twice a week?你每周去美容院或美容沙龙多过两次吗?
  • You can hear a lot of dirt at a salon.你在沙龙上会听到很多流言蜚语。
2 dealer GyNxT     
n.商人,贩子
参考例句:
  • The dealer spent hours bargaining for the painting.那个商人为购买那幅画花了几个小时讨价还价。
  • The dealer reduced the price for cash down.这家商店对付现金的人减价优惠。
3 patriotism 63lzt     
n.爱国精神,爱国心,爱国主义
参考例句:
  • His new book is a demonstration of his patriotism.他写的新书是他的爱国精神的证明。
  • They obtained money under the false pretenses of patriotism.他们以虚伪的爱国主义为借口获得金钱。
4 imprison j9rxk     
vt.监禁,关押,限制,束缚
参考例句:
  • The effect of this one is going to imprison you for life.而这件事的影响力则会让你被终身监禁。
  • Dutch colonial authorities imprisoned him for his part in the independence movement.荷兰殖民当局因他参加独立运动而把他关押了起来。
5 imprisoned bc7d0bcdd0951055b819cfd008ef0d8d     
下狱,监禁( imprison的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • He was imprisoned for two concurrent terms of 30 months and 18 months. 他被判处30个月和18个月的监禁,合并执行。
  • They were imprisoned for possession of drugs. 他们因拥有毒品而被监禁。
6 crooked xvazAv     
adj.弯曲的;不诚实的,狡猾的,不正当的
参考例句:
  • He crooked a finger to tell us to go over to him.他弯了弯手指,示意我们到他那儿去。
  • You have to drive slowly on these crooked country roads.在这些弯弯曲曲的乡间小路上你得慢慢开车。
7 bribe GW8zK     
n.贿赂;v.向…行贿,买通
参考例句:
  • He tried to bribe the policeman not to arrest him.他企图贿赂警察不逮捕他。
  • He resolutely refused their bribe.他坚决不接受他们的贿赂。
8 bribed 1382e59252debbc5bd32a2d1f691bd0f     
v.贿赂( bribe的过去式和过去分词 );向(某人)行贿,贿赂
参考例句:
  • They bribed him with costly presents. 他们用贵重的礼物贿赂他。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • He bribed himself onto the committee. 他暗通关节,钻营投机挤进了委员会。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
9 possessed xuyyQ     
adj.疯狂的;拥有的,占有的
参考例句:
  • He flew out of the room like a man possessed.他像着了魔似地猛然冲出房门。
  • He behaved like someone possessed.他行为举止像是魔怔了。
10 forgeries ccf3756c474249ecf8bd23166b7aaaf1     
伪造( forgery的名词复数 ); 伪造的文件、签名等
参考例句:
  • The whole sky was filled with forgeries of the brain. 整个天空充满了头脑里臆造出来的膺品。
  • On inspection, the notes proved to be forgeries. 经过检查,那些钞票证明是伪造的。
11 aged 6zWzdI     
adj.年老的,陈年的
参考例句:
  • He had put on weight and aged a little.他胖了,也老点了。
  • He is aged,but his memory is still good.他已年老,然而记忆力还好。
12 varnish ni3w7     
n.清漆;v.上清漆;粉饰
参考例句:
  • He tried to varnish over the facts,but it was useless.他想粉饰事实,但那是徒劳的。
  • He applied varnish to the table.他给那张桌子涂上清漆。
13 controversy 6Z9y0     
n.争论,辩论,争吵
参考例句:
  • That is a fact beyond controversy.那是一个无可争论的事实。
  • We ran the risk of becoming the butt of every controversy.我们要冒使自己在所有的纷争中都成为众矢之的的风险。
14 forgery TgtzU     
n.伪造的文件等,赝品,伪造(行为)
参考例句:
  • The painting was a forgery.这张画是赝品。
  • He was sent to prison for forgery.他因伪造罪而被关进监狱。
15 fingerprint 4kXxX     
n.指纹;vt.取...的指纹
参考例句:
  • The fingerprint expert was asked to testify at the trial.指纹专家应邀出庭作证。
  • The court heard evidence from a fingerprint expert.法院听取了指纹专家的证词。
16 fingerprints 9b456c81cc868e5bdf3958245615450b     
n.指纹( fingerprint的名词复数 )v.指纹( fingerprint的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • Everyone's fingerprints are unique. 每个人的指纹都是独一无二的。
  • They wore gloves so as not to leave any fingerprints behind (them). 他们戴着手套,以免留下指纹。 来自《简明英汉词典》
17 innocence ZbizC     
n.无罪;天真;无害
参考例句:
  • There was a touching air of innocence about the boy.这个男孩有一种令人感动的天真神情。
  • The accused man proved his innocence of the crime.被告人经证实无罪。
18 guilt 9e6xr     
n.犯罪;内疚;过失,罪责
参考例句:
  • She tried to cover up her guilt by lying.她企图用谎言掩饰自己的罪行。
  • Don't lay a guilt trip on your child about schoolwork.别因为功课责备孩子而使他觉得很内疚。
19 defendant mYdzW     
n.被告;adj.处于被告地位的
参考例句:
  • The judge rejected a bribe from the defendant's family.法官拒收被告家属的贿赂。
  • The defendant was borne down by the weight of evidence.有力的证据使被告认输了。
20 defendants 7d469c27ef878c3ccf7daf5b6ab392dc     
被告( defendant的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The courts heard that the six defendants had been coerced into making a confession. 法官审判时发现6位被告人曾被迫承认罪行。
  • As in courts, the defendants are represented by legal counsel. 与法院相同,被告有辩护律师作为代表。 来自英汉非文学 - 政府文件
21 inquiry nbgzF     
n.打听,询问,调查,查问
参考例句:
  • Many parents have been pressing for an inquiry into the problem.许多家长迫切要求调查这个问题。
  • The field of inquiry has narrowed down to five persons.调查的范围已经缩小到只剩5个人了。
22 fingerprinting 8348cf585ea52015e22700eed3897352     
v.指纹( fingerprint的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  • Institutions from banks to pawnshops are fingerprinting to authenticate transactions. 从银行到当铺,都在使用指纹识别对交易进行验证。 来自互联网
  • In addition, a digital fingerprinting algorithm based on binary codes is described. 介绍了一种二进制指纹编码方案。 来自互联网
23 investigation MRKzq     
n.调查,调查研究
参考例句:
  • In an investigation,a new fact became known, which told against him.在调查中新发现了一件对他不利的事实。
  • He drew the conclusion by building on his own investigation.他根据自己的调查研究作出结论。
24 prestigious nQ2xn     
adj.有威望的,有声望的,受尊敬的
参考例句:
  • The young man graduated from a prestigious university.这个年轻人毕业于一所名牌大学。
  • You may even join a prestigious magazine as a contributing editor.甚至可能会加入一个知名杂志做编辑。
25 organisation organisation     
n.组织,安排,团体,有机休
参考例句:
  • The method of his organisation work is worth commending.他的组织工作的方法值得称道。
  • His application for membership of the organisation was rejected.他想要加入该组织的申请遭到了拒绝。
26 greasy a64yV     
adj. 多脂的,油脂的
参考例句:
  • He bought a heavy-duty cleanser to clean his greasy oven.昨天他买了强力清洁剂来清洗油污的炉子。
  • You loathe the smell of greasy food when you are seasick.当你晕船时,你会厌恶油腻的气味。
27 adhesive CyVzV     
n.粘合剂;adj.可粘着的,粘性的
参考例句:
  • You'll need a strong adhesive to mend that chair. 你需要一种粘性很强的东西来修理那把椅子。
  • Would you give me an adhesive stamp?请给我一枚带胶邮票好吗?
28 accusation GJpyf     
n.控告,指责,谴责
参考例句:
  • I was furious at his making such an accusation.我对他的这种责备非常气愤。
  • She knew that no one would believe her accusation.她知道没人会相信她的指控。
29 accusations 3e7158a2ffc2cb3d02e77822c38c959b     
n.指责( accusation的名词复数 );指控;控告;(被告发、控告的)罪名
参考例句:
  • There were accusations of plagiarism. 曾有过关于剽窃的指控。
  • He remained unruffled by their accusations. 对于他们的指控他处之泰然。
30 dagger XnPz0     
n.匕首,短剑,剑号
参考例句:
  • The bad news is a dagger to his heart.这条坏消息刺痛了他的心。
  • The murderer thrust a dagger into her heart.凶手将匕首刺进她的心脏。
31 squires e1ac9927c38cb55b9bb45b8ea91f1ef1     
n.地主,乡绅( squire的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The family history was typical of the Catholic squires of England. 这个家族的历史,在英格兰信天主教的乡绅中是很典型的。 来自辞典例句
  • By 1696, with Tory squires and Amsterdam burghers complaining about excessive taxes. 到1696年,托利党的乡绅们和阿姆斯特丹的市民都对苛捐杂税怨声载道。 来自辞典例句
32 crooks 31060be9089be1fcdd3ac8530c248b55     
n.骗子( crook的名词复数 );罪犯;弯曲部分;(牧羊人或主教用的)弯拐杖v.弯成钩形( crook的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • The police are getting after the crooks in the city. 警察在城里追捕小偷。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The cops got the crooks. 警察捉到了那些罪犯。 来自《简明英汉词典》
33 superintendent vsTwV     
n.监督人,主管,总监;(英国)警务长
参考例句:
  • He was soon promoted to the post of superintendent of Foreign Trade.他很快就被擢升为对外贸易总监。
  • He decided to call the superintendent of the building.他决定给楼房管理员打电话。
34 inspector q6kxH     
n.检查员,监察员,视察员
参考例句:
  • The inspector was interested in everything pertaining to the school.视察员对有关学校的一切都感兴趣。
  • The inspector was shining a flashlight onto the tickets.查票员打着手电筒查看车票。
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TAG标签:   实用英语  综合教程
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