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新视野大学英语读写教程词汇 第一册 unit01 a

时间:2010-12-17 05:41来源:互联网 提供网友:wokan222   字体: [ ]

  <TITLE>New Words</TITLE>
  |@|<1>reward |vt.|give sth. in return for good and valuable doings |奖赏;回报
  ||||He was rewarded handsomely for his efforts. |他的努力得到了可观的回报。
  ||||It is often necessary to reward people for their hard work, if you want them to continue working hard for you. |如果你想要人们继续努力工作,就有必要奖励他们的工作。
  |||n.|[C, U] sth. as a return for good and valuable doings |奖赏;回报
  ||||As a reward for passing the exams, she got a new bike from her parents. |因为通过了考试,父母奖励给她一辆新自行车。
  ||||She got no reward for all the hard work she did. |她辛苦的工作并没有得到嘉奖
  ||<2> <em>rewarding</em>|a.|giving sb. satisfaction, pleasure, or profit |值得做的,有益的,有意义的
  ||||Doing exercise can be very rewarding for everyone. |锻炼身体对每个人都会有好处。
  ||||She finds her career very rewarding. |她觉得自己的工作很有意义。
  ||<3>frustrate   |vt.|1. cause sb. to have feelings of disappointment |使沮丧,使灰心
  ||||The lack of evidence in this case is frustrating the police. |警方因案件缺乏证据而感到伤脑筋。
  ||||The difficulties of learning a new language frustrated the students who wanted to use the language right away. |学习一门新语言的困难使那些想立即使用那种语言的学生沮丧不已。
  ||||2. cause the failure of sth. |使挫败,使受挫折
  ||||The bad weather frustrated our hopes of going out. |坏天气使我们打消了外出的念头。
  ||||The police frustrated his attempt to escape. |警方挫败了他逃跑的企图。
  ||<4>junior|a.|having a low position, level, or rank |(地位、水平、层次)较低的
  ||||She started work as a junior reporter on a local newspaper before working her way up to higher positions. |她从本地一家报社当初级记者干起,通过努力职位不断上升。
  ||||Students spend six years in elementary education and three years in junior middle school. |学生在小学上六年,初中上三年。
  |||n.|1. [C] sb. who is younger |年少者
  ||||He is my junior by several years. |他比我小几岁。
  ||||She married a man seven years her junior. |她跟一个比自己小7岁的男人结了婚。
  ||||2. [C] sb. of low or lower position |(地位或等级)较低者;晚辈
  ||||She joined the firm a year ago and is now my junior. |她一年前到公司工作,现在是我的下属。
  ||||The senior officer should have been aware of what his juniors were doing. |那位上司早该清楚自己下属的所作所为。
  |@|<5>positive|a.|1. helpful and encouraging in achieving sth. |积极的
  ||||Everyone went to Mary for advice, because Mary was known for having a positive attitude and being able to make other people feel good. |大家都向玛丽讨教,因为众所周知她总是态度积极, 会使大家感觉良好。
  ||||We need to take positive steps to improve the situation of families in poverty. |我们必须采取积极措施改善贫困家庭的处境。
  ||||2. definite; allowing no room for doubt |确实的,明确的
  ||||It seems unlikely to me, but she seemed very positive. |这在我看来是不可能的,但她却非常肯定。
  ||||I'm absolutely positive I haven't made a mistake. |我没有错,这一点我绝对肯定。
  ||<6>senior|a.|having a higher position, level, or rank |(地位、水平、层次)较高的
  ||||Students leave middle school at the end of their senior year. |学生在中学高年级结束之后离校。
  ||||The delegation consists of senior figures from education and business. |代表团由教育界和工商界的资深人士组成。
  |||n.|1. [C] sb. who is older |较年长者
  ||||Seniors can get a 10% discount in this department store. |老人在该百货店可得到九折的优惠。
  ||||Her husband was nine years her senior. |她丈夫比她大9岁。
  ||||2. [C] sb. of high or higher position |(地位或等级)较高者;长辈
  ||||Only the seniors made the decisions among us. |在我们中间只有年资较高的人才有决定权。
  ||||The three vice ministers are my seniors. |三位副部长都是我的上司。
  |@|<7>former|a.|of an earlier period |在前的,以前的,旧时的
  ||||In former times, people were hanged for stealing in Britain. |以前,在英国小偷被处以绞刑。
  ||||The park has been reduced to half its former size. |公园的规模已被缩减到以前的一半大了。
  |||n.|(the ~) the first of the two people or things just mentioned |前者
  ||||Between small changes and big changes, the former is more likely. |在小变化和大变化两者之中,前者的可能性更大。
  ||||Given the choice between a white T-shirt and a green one, most people would choose the former because green is not popular. |如果让大家选择是要白T恤还是绿T恤,大多数会选择前者,因为绿色不流行。
  ||<8>unlike|prep.|not like; different from  |不像;和...不同
  ||||He was firm and steady unlike other men she knew. |他坚毅、稳健,跟她认识的其他男人不一样。
  ||||Her recent report is quite unlike her earlier work. |她最近的报告与以前的大不相同。
  ||<9>intimidate|vt.|create a feeling of fear |恐吓,威胁
  ||||They intimidated him into doing what they wanted. |他们胁迫他干他们要干的事。
  ||||John intimidated his brother into not telling their parents the truth. |约翰威胁他弟弟,不准他把真相告诉父母。
  |@|<10>opportunity |n. |[C, U] a good moment or chance for doing sth. |机会,时机
  || | |He loved music, but because his family was poor, he didn't have an opportunity to take lessons. |他喜爱音乐,但因家里太穷,他没有机会去学。
  || | |All he needs is an opportunity to show his ability. |他需要的只是展现自己才能的机会。
  ||<11>online|a.|connected to other computers through the Internet |联线的;联网的;在线的
  ||||He took an online course to improve his English. |他选了网上课程以提高英语水平。
  ||||The result of the online survey has proved to be positive. |在线调查结果证明是积极的。
  |||ad.|doing sth. online |联线地;联网地
  ||||I'll just go online and look up her address. |我刚好要上网查她的地址。
  ||||Today more than 80% of customer's questions are answered online. | 现今,顾客80%以上的咨询都给予在线答复。
  ||<12>communication |n. |[U] the action of sending and exchanging information |交流;交际;通讯
  ||||Mobile phone is an important means of communication. |手机是重要的通讯工具。
  ||||Generation gap arises from a lack of communication between the young and the old. |代沟的产生是由于青老年间缺乏交流。
  ||<13>medium|n.|[C] (pl. media or mediums) a method for giving information |媒介,媒体
  ||||TV is a medium for giving information and opinions. |电视是传递消息和观点的媒体。
  ||||Light travels through the medium of air. |光通过空气传送。
  |||a.|of middle size, amount, or quality |中等的
  ||||They have a medium-sized house in the heart of the city. |他们在市中心有幢中等大小的房子。
  ||||What size shirt does he wear—medium or large? |他适合穿哪个尺码的衬衣——大号还是中号?
  ||<14>modem|n.|[C] |调制解调器
  ||||He forgot to get a modem when he bought his computer. |他买计算机时忘记拿调制解调器了。
  ||||A modem is necessary for connecting to the Internet. |连接因特网必须用调制解调器。
  |@|<15>access|n.|1. [U] the right to have or use sth. |享用权
  ||||The people in the school have access to that computer lab for free. |这个学校里的人可以免费使用那间电脑室。
  ||||Students have access to many different courses to satisfy their individual interests and career plans. |学生可以选择多种课程以满足他们的个人兴趣和职业规划。
  ||||2. [U] the means of entering a place |通道;入口
  ||||That is the only access into the building. |这是通向大楼的唯一通道。
  ||||The road was the only access into and out of the small village. |这条路是进出这个小村子的唯一通道。
  |@|<16>participate |vi. |take part |参与,参加
  || | |Some members refused to participate. |有些成员拒绝参加。
  || | |Only persons aged 8 years or over may participate in the spelling contest. |只有年满8岁或8岁以上的人才可参加拼写比赛。
  |@|<17>virtual|a.|1. created by the computer to be similar to the experience of real life |虚拟的
  ||||This device helps make virtual reality a more usable and accessible technology. |该设备有助于提高虚拟现实技术的实用性和易用性。
  ||||Their recent online studies began with an introduction to the demands of the virtual classroom. |他们新近的在线研究是以对虚拟教室需求介绍开始的。
  ||||2. almost what is stated |实质上的;实际上的
  ||||It is a virtual certainty that you will become the best student in this class; you've always been the best in everything. |事实上已肯定你将是班上最好的学生; 你一直在各方面都是最棒的。
  ||||Finding a parking space in the busy season is a virtual impossibility. |想在旺季找到停车位是不现实的。
  |@|<18>commitment|n.     |1. [U] the hard work and loyalty that sb. gives to an organization, activity, etc. |投入, 致力,献身
  ||||My commitment to study has made me the most successful person in my small town. |我对学习的投入使我成为小镇上最成功的人。
  ||||It's a part-time program, but it's still a big time commitment. |这虽然不是个全职项目,但却需要投入大量的时间。
  ||||2. [C] a promise to follow certain beliefs or actions |承诺,许诺,保证
  ||||Marriage is a lifelong commitment. |婚姻是终生的承诺。
  ||||The governor has made a strong commitment to creating more jobs in the state. |州长信誓旦旦地保证要给州里创造更多工作机会。
  ||<19>discipline|n. |1. [U] a state of order and control; self-control |纪律;自制能力
  ||||He did not like the army because of the strict discipline. |因为纪律太严,他不喜欢军队生活。
  ||||It takes a lot of discipline to eat less and lose weight. |要做到少吃减肥得遵守许多清规戒律。
  ||||2. [C] a branch of learning |学科
  ||||She has not yet decided which discipline to take at college, but she might study history. |她没有决定在大学选修哪门学科, 但她可能学历史。
  ||||The traditional academic disciplines are less popular among students, who now prefer subjects such as business studies. |传统的学术科目受学生欢迎的程度有所降低,而今工商类的课程更受他们青睐。
  |@|<20>minimum|a.|the least, or the smallest possible |最低的,最小的
  ||||The minimum age to buy cigarettes is 18. |购买香烟最低年龄是18岁。
  ||||The minimum amount of money to open an account at that bank is ten dollars. |在那个银行开户至少要有10美元。
  |||n.|[sing.] the smallest amount |最低限度;最少量
  ||||You have to stay for a minimum of seven days. |你起码要呆上7天。
  ||||The price is her minimum; she refuses to lower it any more. |这是她开的最低价,她拒绝再降价。
  ||<21>assignment|n.|[C] a piece of work given to a particular person |任务;作业
  ||||Half the workers were given different assignments. |有一半的工人被分配到不同的任务中。
  ||||The teacher asked her students to finish their assignments every day. |老师要求学生每天完成作业。
  |@|<22>embarrass|vt.|make sb. feel ashamed, nervous, or uncomfortable |使尴尬,使难堪
  ||||Getting up on stage without knowing what to say embarrassed me. |上台不知道说什么使我感到尴尬。
  ||||I hope I didn't embarrass you in front of your friends. |但愿我没有让你在朋友面前感到尴尬。
  ||<23> <em>embarrassing</em> |a.   |making sb. feel embarrassed |使人尴尬的;令人难堪的
  ||  |  |Don't ask me such embarrassing questions. |别问我这种尴尬的问题。
  ||  |  |The situation is embarrassing. |这种情形令人很尴尬。
  ||<24> <em>frustration</em> |n. |[C, U] the feeling of being disappointed, annoyed, or upset |沮丧;不安;灰心
  || | |Poetry helps me express some of the frustrations I feel at the world. |诗歌一定程度上表达了我对世事的挫折感。
  || | |I was close to tears with frustration while trying to complete the difficult math exam, but I held back. |数学考试很难,做题时我沮丧得差点掉泪,但还是忍住了。
  |@|<25>post|vt.|put up sth. on a screen, wall, or notice board |发帖子;张贴
  ||||Could you photocopy the advertisement and post it on the notice board for us? |你能不能帮我们把广告复印一份贴到公告栏里?
  ||||They post notices on the Internet, recommending that all users, whether frequent or casual, have their disks checked. |他们在网上贴出通知,告诫所有用户检查自己的软盘。
  ||<26>continual|a.|1. continuing without stopping |不间断的,不停的
  ||||The continual noise is making me angry. |噪音不断,我很生气。
  ||||Despite continual pain, he refused all drugs. |尽管疼痛不止,他仍然拒绝使用任何药物。
  ||||2. happening again and again |多次重复的;频繁的
  ||||There have been continual requests for improved working conditions. |人们不断要求改善工作环境。
  ||||The continual news reports about the economy have scared many manufacturers. |有关经济状况的频繁新闻报道使很多生产厂家担心不已。
  ||<27> <em>continually</em> |ad. |1. continuing for a long time without stopping |不间断地,不停地
  || | |The Museum is continually developing—there's something  new to see every year. |博物馆不断地扩展——年年都可看到新东西。
  || | |No matter how hard you try not to think about past failures, they continually cross your mind. |不管你怎样努力不去想以往的失败,这些事老在心头萦绕。
  || | |2. repeatedly for many times and over a long period of time |多次重复地; 频频地
  || | |The child was continually changing his mind. |小孩的想法老是在变。
  ||<28>reap |vt.|1. get sth., esp. sth. good, as a result of what one has done|获得,得到
  ||||Now they have come to reap the benefits of their hard work. |现在他们该摘取他们的劳动成果了。
  ||||Those who take risks often reap great rewards. |肯冒风险,才有大收获。
  ||||2. cut and gather a crop of grain |收割;收获
  ||||The women were all out reaping the fields. |妇女们都出去收割庄稼了。
  ||||Summer is the time for reaping a harvest of fruits and vegetables. |夏天是收获水果和蔬菜的季节。
  |@|<29>benefit  |n.|[C] anything that brings help or profit |益处,好处
  ||||Some countries offer newcomers many benefits, such as job training and language lessons. |有些国家为初来者提供许多优惠,如工作培训和语言课程。
  ||||Tourism has brought many benefits to the area.  |旅游业给这个地区带来了丰厚的收益。
  |||v.|be useful or helpful to |有益于
  ||||The new teaching program will benefit many students. |这个新的教学项目会使许多学生受益。
  ||||He expects stocks to continue to rise higher, benefiting from falling interest rates. |他指望股票还能持续涨高,这样就可从下跌利率中赚上一把。
  |@|<30>insight|n.|[C, U] an accurate or deep understanding of sth. |洞悉;深刻的见解
  ||||The lecture provides new insights into the way we process language. |这次讲座使我们对语言处理有了新的认识。
  ||||Her research has given us some insight into what sparks a child's curiosity. |她的研究使我们对诱发孩子好奇心的因素有所了解。
  |@|<31>communicate |vi. |exchange feelings, opinions, or information with other people |交流;交际
  || | |He is slow in speaking and cannot communicate with other people very well. |他说话慢慢吞吞,与人交流能力比较差。
  || | |They couldn't communicate in writing, because William was illiterate. |他们不能书信交流,因为威廉不识字。
  || |vt. |make (opinions, feelings, or information) known or understood by others |传达;传播
  || | |Our teachers communicate their ideas very clearly. |我们的老师表达思想非常清楚。
  || | |She tried to communicate her fears to her mother. |她尽力向母亲表明自己的担忧。
  |@|<32>favorite|a.|(BrE favourite) best liked or most enjoyed |最喜欢的
  ||||Of the many colors in nature, red is my favorite color because it is the most beautiful. |在自然界的诸多颜色中, 我最喜欢红色, 它最美。
  ||||Most people at the stadium will be cheering on their favorite players. |在运动场上, 大多数人都会为自己喜爱的运动员加油。
  |||n.|[C] sb. or sth. that is loved above all others |特别喜爱的人或物
  ||||I like all her books but this is my favorite. |她写的书我都喜欢,但最喜欢这本。
  ||||Conflicts in the home often result from one child being thought of as his parents' favorite. |父母视其中一个孩子为掌上明珠常会引发家庭冲突。
  |@|<33>gap|n.|[C] a big difference between two amounts, situations, or groups of people|差距;分歧
  ||||There's a ten-year gap between Kay's two children. |凯的两个小孩年龄相差10岁。
  ||||The age gap between us didn't seem to matter until we decided to have children. |在我们决定要孩子以前,年龄差距对我们似乎没什么影响。
  <TITLE>Phrases and Expressions</TITLE>
  ||<34>at times|sometimes but not usually |有时,偶尔
  |||He used to go to the theatre at times. |他以前偶尔会去看看戏。
  |||At times he feels that he wants to leave his job. |有时他真想辞职。
  ||<35>be worth sth./doing sth. |be rewarding enough for the time, effort, money, etc. |值得...的
  |||The watch is worth more than the price. |这表的价值超出标价。
  |||Doing morning exercises is worth the time. |花点时间做早操是值得的。
  ||<36>not only...but also...||不仅...而且...
  |||Not only did I find the game very boring, but I also felt it was meaningless. |我觉得这场比赛非常枯燥而且没什么意义。
  |||Not only the story is interesting to us but also the English is good for us to learn. |这故事不仅有趣,而且其英语地道,值得一学。
  ||<37>far from|not... at all; rather than |一点都不
  |||The composition is far from perfect. |这篇作文太糟了。
  |||I know he was hurt, but he was far from being the person who was hurt most. |我知道他受了伤害, 但他还不是受伤害最深的人。
  ||<38>a couple of|two; a small number of |两个;一些,几个
  |||I will need a couple of minutes to complete the report to my boss. |我还需要几分钟时间完成给老板的报告。
  |||I met him a couple of times last year. |去年我遇见过他几次。
  ||<39>get/have/obtain access to |have the right to have or use sth. |有权享用;可以使用
  |||People living here have access to that swimming pool for free. |住在这里的人可以免费去那个游泳池游泳。
  |||If I could get access to the head offices, I could tell the management my new ideas about how to improve this company. |如果我可以到总部办公室去,我就能向管理部门提出改善公司状况的新主意。
  ||<40>participate in|take part in |参加
  |||We are expected to participate actively in English class. |我们要积极参与英语课的活动。
  |||She participated in several sports in senior middle school. |在高中时,她参加过好几项运动项目。
  ||<41>keep up with |keep the same speed as |赶上;不落后
  |||The small child had to run in order to keep up with his brother. |这小孩为了赶上他哥哥只好跑了起来。
  |||I'm having trouble keeping up with the rest of the class. |我要赶上班上其他人还有困难。
  ||<42>feel like sth./doing sth. |want to have or do sth. |想要;想做
  |||I feel like a cup of tea. |我想要杯咖啡。
  |||I just don't feel like doing anything tonight. |今晚我什么事情都不想干。
  ||<43>give up|stop doing or stop trying to do sth. |停止,放弃
  |||My teacher told me not to give up no matter how difficult things become. |老师要我无论如何困难都不要放弃。
  |||I've given up trying to get her to change her mind. |我已不再争取让她改变主意。
  ||<44>think out|consider all the aspects and details of sth. before doing it |仔细考虑;推敲;琢磨
  |||I need time to think things out. |我需要时间好好想一下。
  |||She hadn't thought out what she was going to say at the party. |她还没有想清楚自己在聚会上要说些什么。
  ||<45>come across |meet, find, or discover sb. or sth. by chance |偶然遇到;偶然发现
  |||I've never come across anyone like her father before. |我从来没有遇到像她父亲那样的人。
  |||While I was cleaning the house, I came across some old baby pictures of my father that I had never seen before. |在打扫房间时,我偶然发现了几张我父亲还是婴儿时的老照片,这些照片我过去从未见过。
  ||<46>reap the benefit(s) |get sth. as a reward for sth. done |获得益处,得到好处
  |||Only a part of the people have reaped the benefits from the new policy. |只有一部分人从新政策中受益。
  |||But the teenagers should reap the benefits of a more personal, better-run service. |然而青少年应该享受到更加个性化、实施质量更好的服务。
  ||<47>trade for|exchange for |用...换...
  |||I traded my old car for a new one. |我把旧车换成了新车。
  |||In order to pay off his debts, he had to trade his piano for money. |为了还债,他只好把钢琴拿去换钱。
  ||<48>give sb. insight(s) into |give sb. a deep understanding of sth. |深刻理解
  |||The discussion gave us a real insight into the causes of the present economic crisis. |这场讨论使我们对当前经济危机的原因有了真正的认识。
  |||The story gave us insight into his determination to win and his desire to become the best. |这件事使我们对他决心获胜、渴望完美的心情有了深刻的认识。
  ||<49>now that|because of sth. or as a result of sth. |既然,由于
  |||Now that you have come, you may stay here. |你既然来了,就留在这里吧。
  |||Now that we know each other better, we get along fine. |既然大家相互了解更深了,相处也就融洽了。
  ||<50>instead of||而不是;代替
  |||They raised prices and cut production instead of cutting costs. |他们又是提价,又是减产,却没有降低成本。
  |||He took English as his major instead of Japanese. |他选择学英语,而没选日语。
  ||<51>reach out to|communicate with; contact |接触,联系
  |||Online learning helps us reach out to new friends. |网络学习使我们接触新朋友。
  |||I realized at the same time he was reaching out to me;he was also asking for help. |我同时也察觉到他正在联系我;他在寻求帮助。

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