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新视野大学英语读写教程词汇 第一册 unit05 a

时间:2010-12-17 06:02来源:互联网 提供网友:wokan222   字体: [ ]

  <TITLE>New Words</TITLE>
  ||<1>AIDS |n. |[U] Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome |获得性免疫缺陷综合征(艾滋病)
  |@|<2>acquire|vt.|get or gain sth. |获得
  ||   ||He acquired a knowledge of the language by careful study. |他通过认真学习掌握了这门语言。
  ||   ||The company has recently acquired a new office building in central Shanghai. |这家公司最近在上海市中心买了一栋新的办公楼。
  |@|<3>immune      |a.|1. safe from a disease or illness |免疫的
  ||   ||Once you've had the disease, you will be immune to it for life. |一旦你得了这种病,你就会对这种病终身免疫。
  ||   ||The medicine will make you immune to the disease. |这种药可以使你免于感染这种疾病。
  ||   ||2. not affected by sth. |不受影响的
  ||   ||You would be immune from punishment if you helped the police find the murderer. |如果你帮警察找到杀人犯,就可免受处罚。
  ||   ||These goods are not immune from customs duties. |这些商品不免税。
  ||<4>deficiency|n.|[C, U] the state of having none or not enough of |不足;缺乏
  ||   ||The weakness is caused by a deficiency of Vitamin C. |这种衰弱是由于缺乏维生素C而引起的。
  ||   ||The officer was quite worried about the deficiency in the supply of water. |这位军官很担心水供应不足。
  |★|<5>syndrome|n.|[C] an illness which consists of a set of physical or mental problems |综合征
  ||   ||The syndrome is likely to strike those whose immunity is weakened. |免疫系统受到破坏的人身上可能出现这类综合征。
  ||   ||David was suffering from a Gulf War Syndrome. |戴维遭受海湾战争综和征的折磨。
  ||<6>diagnose|vt.|find out what illness sb. has by examining them |诊断
  ||   ||His illness was diagnosed as food poisoning at the beginning.|开始他的病被诊断为食物中毒。
  ||   ||After diagnosing the patient's disease, the doctors discussed how to treat it. |对这个病人的病情诊断之后,医生们讨论如何治疗的问题。
  |@|<7>infect|vt. |1. cause sb. to have a disease |感染
  ||   ||Anyone with a bad cold may infect the people around him. |得重感冒的人会使周围的人受到感染。
  ||   ||He was shocked when he knew he was infected with the HIV virus. |当他知道自己染上艾滋病病毒时感到很震惊。
  ||| |2. affect; influence |影响;感染
  ||   ||He thought that parents might infect their children with their ideas. |他认为家长的观念会影响孩子。
  ||   ||His urge for revenge would never infect her. |他想报复的冲动绝不会对她有影响。
  ||<8>HIV |n.|[U] human immunodeficiency virus |艾滋病病毒,人体免疫缺陷病毒
  ||<9>virus |n.|1. [C] a living thing which can cause a disease |病毒
  ||   ||The medicine is very effective in controlling the spread of the virus. |这种药能有效地控制这种病毒的传播。
  ||   ||He could be carrying the AIDS virus. |他可能是艾滋病病毒携带者。
  || ||2. [C] a program that enters a computer and destroys information |计算机病毒
  ||   ||The anti-virus program is very useful. |这种杀毒程序很有用。
  ||   ||The virus destroyed all the files. |这个病毒破坏了所有的文件。
  ||<10>rural|a.|of or like the countryside |农村的;乡村的
  ||   ||The program is good for rural development. |这项计划有利于农村发展。
  ||   ||My grandfather prefers to live a rural life. |我祖父想过一种乡村式的生活。
  |@|<11>constitute|vt.|make up; form |组成,构成
  ||   ||Girls constitute 20 percent of the student population in the university. |女生占这所大学学生总数的百分之二十。
  ||   ||Seven days constitute a week. |一周有7天。
  ||<12>segment    |n.|[C] a part of sth. |部分
  ||   ||This is the fastest growing segment of the market. |这部分市场增长速度最快。
  ||   ||Farmers constitute the richest segment of society in the country. |农民是这个国家最富有的社会群体。
  ||<13>alarm      |vt.|cause sudden fear or worry |使惊恐, 使担心
  ||   ||The news that war might break out alarmed the people. |战争可能爆发的消息使人们惊恐不安。
  ||   ||The young couple were alarmed to find the baby in high fever. |那对年轻夫妇发现孩子发高烧,大惊失色。
  ||        |n.|1. [U] sudden fear and worry|惊慌
  ||   ||Hearing a scream, she sat up in alarm.|听到尖叫声,她慌忙坐了起来。
  ||   ||In his speech the worker emphasized the management's alarm over the strike. |这个工人在演讲中强调了资方对这次罢工事件所表现出的慌恐。
  ||        ||2. [C] a piece of equipment that warns people about danger, the time, etc. |报警器;闹钟
  ||   ||He set his alarm for 7:30 before going to bed. |在睡前他把闹钟设在了7点半。
  ||   ||Does this bank have an alarm system? |这家银行有报警系统吗?
  ||<14> <em>alarming</em> |a. |frightening or worrying |令人惊恐的;令人担心的
  ||   ||The forests are disappearing at an alarming rate. |森林正以惊人的速度消失。
  ||   ||There was an alarming increase in crime in that area. |那个地区犯罪率的增长令人担忧。
  ||<15>federal |a.| |联邦的,联邦制的
  ||   ||federal government/republic |联邦政府/共和国
  |@|<16>implement|vt. |carry out or put certain decisions into practice |实施,执行
  ||   ||The new plan will be implemented immediately. |新的计划将很快得到实施。
  ||   ||The government promised to implement a new program to control pollution. |政府承诺要执行新的计划来控制污染。
  ||<17>organization|n.|(BrE organisation) |
  ||||1. [C] a group of people with a special purpose |组织,机构
  ||   ||World Trade Organization |世界贸易组织
  ||   ||World Health Organization |世界卫生组织
  ||   ||You may apply to join the organization. |你可以申请加入这个组织。
  ||||2. [U] the adjusting or planning of parts so as to form an effective whole |组织,安排
  ||   ||Several programs have been delayed by poor organization |几个项目由于组织不力而被耽搁。
  ||   ||I think the organization of the book is not good. |我认为这本书的结构安排不好。
  |@|<18>emerge|vi.|appear or come out from somewhere |浮现,出现
  ||   ||Insects emerge in the spring and start multiplying rapidly. |春天里各种昆虫开始现身,并迅速繁衍。
  ||   ||He emerged from behind the large rocks and confronted his enemy. |他从大石头后冲到敌人面前。
  ||<19>network    |n.|1. [C] a group of people that are connected or work together |人际关系网,联络网
  ||   ||He had a large network of believers who were fighting for his cause. |他有很多信徒为他的目标而奋斗。
  ||   ||We have a network of shops all over the country. |我们有遍及全国的商店网。
  ||||2. [C] a system of lines, wires, roads, etc. that are connected to each other |网络
  ||   ||A network of veins and arteries carries the blood around the body. |血管和动脉组成的网络将血液运送到身体各处。
  ||   ||A 24-hour strike brought the railway network to a standstill. |24小时的罢工使铁路系统处于停滞状态。
  ||<20>combat|vt.    |take action to stop sth. bad or harmful |与...斗争
  ||   ||Measures to combat pollution in the city have been introduced. |市里已采取了各种措施来防治污染。
  ||   ||The government sees price controls as a way to combat inflation. |政府将价格控制视为解决通货膨胀问题的一种手段。
  |||n.     |[U] fighting, esp. during a war |战斗
  ||   ||About one million people lost their lives in combat. |有大约一百万人在战争中丧生。
  ||   ||Both men are trained with weapons and in unarmed combat. |两人都受到过武器和徒手格斗训练。
  |@|<21>resource|n. |[C] (usu. pl.) sth. that can be used to increase wealth or help achieve sth. |资源
  ||   ||The police used every resource available to track down the killer. |警察动用了一切可用的资源来追捕凶手。
  ||   ||Each country will have to look at its own resources and solutions. |每个国家必须审视自己的资源和对策。
  |@|<22>creative|a.|producing new ideas or things |创造性的,有创造力的
  ||   ||He is a creative writer. |他是一位有创造力的作家。
  ||   ||Children should be allowed to develop their creative abilities as well as their academic abilities. |应该让孩子们在学习能力和创造能力上都有所发展。
  ||<23> <em>creatively</em> |ad.   |in a creative way |创造性地,有创造力地
  ||   ||Power can be used creatively or destructively. |权力的使用既可以是创造性的,也可以是破坏性的。
  ||   ||There's much room to express yourself creatively. |你有很大的余地来创造性地表现自己。
  ||<24> <em>educational</em> |a.     |connected with education |教育的;与教育相关的
  ||   ||He likes watching educational TV programs. |他喜欢看教育电视节目。
  ||   ||She was a leading publisher of educational books and software. |她是教育类书籍和软件方面的大出版商。
  ||<25>client|n. |[C] sb. who pays for the services or advice of a professional person or organization |客户,顾客
  ||   ||Our manager normally meets with clients in the afternoon. |我们经理通常在下午与客户见面。
  ||   ||Every employee should be patient with their clients. |每一位职员都要对客户有耐心。
  |@|<26>publication |n. |1. [C] sth. published, such as a book or magazine |出版物
  ||   ||He picked up some publications and read each of them. |他拿起几本杂志逐一读起来。
  ||   ||He was the author of 70 major scientific publications. |他出版过70种科学读物。
  ||||2. [U] the act of making sth. known to the public; the process of getting sth. published |公布;发表;出版
  ||   ||The publication of a second report is imminent. |第二份报告的发布为期不远。
  ||   ||The publication of his results has inspired a new wave of research. |他的成果发表后激起了新一轮的研究热潮。
  ||<27>appointment |n. |[C] an arrangement for a meeting at an agreed time and place for a particular purpose |约会,约定
  ||   ||I have an appointment with the doctor at 5 o'clock. |我与医生约在5点。
  ||   ||You should make an appointment in advance. |你应该提前预约。
  |@|<28>educate|vt. |teach or train sb., esp. at school |教育;训练
  ||   ||Youngsters must be educated about the dangers of drugs. |必须使年轻人受教育,认识到毒品的危害。
  ||   ||What we're trying to do is to educate young people to be responsible citizens. |我们目前要做的是教育年轻人做负责任的公民。
  ||<29> <em>stylist</em> |n. |[C] sb. who cuts or arranges people's hair as their job |发型师
  ||   ||She is the top stylist at the salon. |她是发廊里最好的发型师。
  ||   ||I used to be a hair stylist myself. |我自己就曾是一个发型师。
  ||<30>literacy   |n. |[U] the ability to read and write |有文化;识字
  ||   ||You need to attend special classes in basic skills such as literacy. |你应该参加像识字之类传授基本技能的特殊课程。
  ||   ||Local politicians and educators have started working together to improve the literacy rate of the nation. |当地政要和教育家联合起来着手提高当地人的识字比率。
  ||<31>literature |n.|1. [U] printed material about a subject |资料
  ||   ||Reading medical literature is one of the important tasks for the students. |阅读医学资料是学生们的重要任务之一。
  ||   ||This question has not received intensive consideration in the literature of any major discipline. |各大学科的文献资料都没有对这个问题进行深思。
  ||| |2. [U] written works which are of artistic value |文学
  ||   ||Do you ever read twentieth-century literature? |你读过20世纪的文学作品吗?
  ||   ||Pupils use drama to gain insights into moral and social issues in works of literature. |学生通过戏剧来认识文学作品所涉及的社会、道德问题。
  |@|<32>solve      |vt.|find an answer to or a way of dealing with a problem |解决;解答
  ||   ||She is very good at solving crossword puzzles. |她对填字游戏十分拿手。
  ||   ||I don't think money would solve all their problems. |我认为钱不能解决他们所有的问题。
  |@|<33>illustrate|vt.|show the meaning of sth. by giving pictures or examples |说明
  ||   ||Pictures illustrate some of the ways in which rocks are formed. |图片演示了岩石形成的一些方式。
  ||   ||This point can be illustrated by two brief examples. |可举两个简单的例子来说明这一点。
  |@|<34>establish |vt.|start a school, an organization, etc. |建立,创办
  ||   ||The company was established in 1980. |该公司创办于1980年。
  ||   ||A committee was established to look into the problem. |成立了一个委员会来调查这个问题。
  |■|<35>buster|n.|[U] (infml.) sb. or sth. that ends a situation or stops an activity |克星
  ||   ||crime buster |犯罪克星
  ||   ||budget buster |预算杀手
  |@|<36>risk       |n.|[C, U] the possibility that sth. bad or dangerous may happen |危险性;风险
  ||   ||There is no risk that the disease will spread further. |疾病没有进一步蔓延的危险。
  ||   ||The risk of heart disease can be decreased by exercising regularly. |定期锻炼可以降低患心脏病的危险。
  ||        |vt.|put sth. in a situation in which it could be lost, destroyed, or harmed |使遭受(失去、毁坏、或伤害)的危险
  ||   ||Companies cannot risk losing customers through computer problems. |公司不可能因为计算机问题而冒失去顾客的风险。
  ||   ||He had risked his own health to help the sick during the epidemic. |在流行病肆虐期间,他不顾自己的健康受到威胁而去帮助病人。
  |@|<37>pressure|n.|[C, U] a way of living or working which causes a lot of anxiety |压力
  ||   ||He performs best under pressure. |他在压力下能发挥最佳水平。
  ||   ||There is a lot of pressure put on everyone. |每个人的压力都很大。
  |@|<38>define |vt.|give the meaning of; describe exactly |下定义;描述
  ||   ||The dictionary defines it as "a narrow passage". |词典上给它下的定义是“狭窄的通道”。
  ||   ||It is difficult for me to define the word. |对我来说给这个词下定义很难。
  ||<39> <em>redefine</em> |vt. |consider and explain sth. in a new way |重新说明
  ||   ||We will have to redefine our relationship with neighboring states. |我们将不得不重新界定与邻国的关系。
  ||   ||It is trying to redefine itself as a consumer business rather than a manufacturer. |它正尝试给自己重新定位为消费业而非制造商。
  |▲|<40>marital|a.|connected with marriage |婚姻的
  ||   ||Age, sex, and marital status all affect consumption. |年龄、性别以及婚姻状况都对消费有影响。
  ||   ||Many wives do not report acts of marital violence to the police. |许多妇女没有向警方报告婚姻暴力行为。
  |@|<41>plague|vt.|cause pain, suffering, or trouble to sb., esp. for a long period of time |折磨;使苦恼
  ||   ||Heavy rains continue to plague the state. |大雨继续在该州肆虐。
  ||   ||Social problems plague these low-income communities. |社会问题困扰着这些低收入社区。
  |||n.|[C] a disease that spreads quickly to a large number of people and causes death |瘟疫;传染病
  ||   ||an outbreak of plague |瘟疫的爆发
  ||   ||AIDS has been called a plague. |艾滋病已被称为一种瘟疫。
  |@|<42>establishment|n. |[C] an organization or institution, esp. a business, shop, etc. |机构,单位
  ||   ||Universities and other research establishments have done much to change the situation. |各大学以及其他研究机构为了改变这一现状都做了大量工作。
  ||   ||The commercial establishments welcome the reform. |商业机构欢迎这一改革。
  |@|<43>emphasize|vt.|(BrE emphasise) give particular importance or attention to sth. |强调
  ||   ||My teacher always emphasized the importance of reading. |老师总是强调阅读的重要性。
  ||   ||Good manners are emphasized in schools. |学校强调礼貌待人。
  ||<44>regardless|ad.|without being affected or influenced by sth. |无论如何,不管怎样
  ||   ||But, regardless, it is very important we are as frank as possible. |但是,无论如何,我们要尽可能地坦诚,这很重要。
  ||   ||It may rain by the end of the day, but we plan to carry on, regardless. |天黑以前可能要下雨,但无论如何我们都打算继续干下去。
  |@|<45>solution  |n.|[C] a way of solving a problem |解决办法;解答
  ||   ||One possible solution might be to borrow money. |一种可行的解决办法也许就是借钱。
  ||   ||This is not the best solution to the problem. |这不是解决问题的最好办法。
  |@|<46>crisis    |n.|[C, U] an urgent, difficult or dangerous situation |危机;紧急关头
  ||   ||In times of crisis you will find out who your real friends are. |在紧急关头你就会发现谁是真正的朋友。
  ||   ||The economic crisis greatly influenced our income. |经济危机大大影响了我们的收入。
  |@|<47>cure |n.|1. [C] a medical treatment to end an illness |治愈,治疗
  ||   ||There's no known effective cure for the disease. |这种病还没有有效的治疗方法。
  ||   ||Prevention is far better than any cure. |预防远胜于治疗。
  ||||2. [C] a solution to a problem |(解决问题的)办法,措施
  ||   ||Some social problems seem to continue forever without a cure. |有些社会问题没有解决措施,始终继续存在。
  ||   ||There were people who thought that the United Nations would be a cure to the problem of war. |有人曾把联合国作为解决战争问题的办法。
  |||vt.|1. stop sb. from being affected by an illness |治愈,痊愈
  ||   ||The only thing that can cure a cold is time. |只有时间能治愈感冒。
  ||   ||It is possible that in the near future we will be able to cure AIDS. |也许在不久的将来我们就能治愈艾滋病。
  ||||2. solve a problem or improve a bad situation |解决问题;改善状况
  ||   ||I am here to cure you of your hopelessness. |我来是为了把你从绝望情绪中解救出来。
  ||   ||New policies were enacted to cure unemployment. |制定了新政策来解决失业问题。
  |@|<48>represent|vt.|1. be sth. |表示,应视为
  ||   ||This company's order represents 10% of our sales. |这个公司的订单是我们销售额的10%。
  ||   ||Our tent represents home when we go camping. |外出野营时,帐篷就是我们的家。
  ||||2. be a sign or symbol of sth. |表示,象征
  ||   ||Yellow is used to represent warning. |黄色用来代表警告。
  ||   ||This treatment represents a significant advance in the field of cancer research. |这种治疗手段反映了癌症研究领域取得的显著进步。
  ||||3. act or speak officially for another person or group of people |代表
  ||   ||The athletes will represent China in this year's Olympic Games. |这些运动员将代表中国参加今年的奥运会。
  ||   ||Each class will elect two students to represent them on the School Council. |每个班将选出两名学生代表参加校务会议。
  ||<49>epidemic|n.|[C] a widely or rapidly spreading disease |流行病, 传染病
  ||   ||AIDS has become an epidemic in some countries. |艾滋病在某些国家已经蔓延开来。
  ||   ||Doctors warn that a flu epidemic may be on the way. |医生警告说流感可能已开始传播。
  |@|<50>threaten|vt.|1. be likely to harm or destroy sth. |威胁到,危害到
  ||   ||The flood is threatening the local people's safety. |洪水威胁着当地人的安全。
  ||   ||Some people think free trade threatens the health of our economy. |有些人认为自由贸易会危及到我们的经济状况。
  ||||2. say that you will cause sb. harm or trouble if they do not do what you want |威胁,恐吓
  ||   ||Every time we have a quarrel, she threatens to leave me. |我们每次吵架,她都威胁说要分手。
  ||   ||The terrorists are threatening to kill the hostages. |恐怖分子扬言要杀死人质。
  ||<51>racial|a.|connected with race |种族的
  ||   ||Racial equality is an object for which they are struggling. |他们斗争的目标是种族平等。
  ||   ||We welcome all of you, whatever your racial background. |无论你们是什么种族背景,所有的人我们都欢迎。
  ||<52>distract|vt.|take sb.'s attention away from sth. |使转移注意力,使分心
  ||   ||Don't distract me while I'm driving! |我开车的时候不要打扰我。
  ||   ||I was distracted by the noise in the street. |大街上的噪音使我分了神。
  ||<53>efficiency |n.|[U] the quality of doing sth. well and effectively |效率;功效
  ||   ||I was impressed by her speed and efficiency. |她的速度和效率给我留下了深刻印象。
  ||   ||But much greater economic efficiency is not the only gain. |然而,经济效率较大幅度提高还不是唯一的收获。
  ||<54> <em>inefficiency</em> |n.     |[U] the quality of being unable to do a task effectively |效率低下,无效
  ||   ||He criticized his employees for inefficiency. |他批评雇员们效率低下。
  ||   ||The inefficiency of the post office bothers me. |这个邮政所服务效率太低,使我很反感。
  ||<55> <em>undeclared</em> |a.    |not officially announced |未正式宣布的
  ||   ||Several undeclared candidates were waiting for an opportunity to join the race. |几个还未正式宣布的候选人正等着机会参加竞选。
  ||   ||A student in his junior year who is still undeclared should make some quick decisions about what he is going to do with his life. |还未确定专业的大三学生应该尽快决定自己将来一生要干什么。
  <TITLE>Phrases and Expressions</TITLE>
  ||<56>be infected with |make sb. get a disease |感染(疾病)
  ||      |The whole class were infected with the virus. |全班都感染上了这种病毒。
  ||      |He had become infected with AIDS from an improperly sterilized needle. |由于使用了消毒不当的针头,他感染上了艾滋病。
  ||<57>in place of      |instead of |代替
  ||      |William talked at the meeting in place of the manager who was sick. |威廉代替身体不适的经理在会上作了发言。
  ||      |In addition, students may offer a dissertation in place of one of the above courses. |另外,学生也可以提交一篇论文以替代一门上述课程。
  ||<58>suffer from |experience sth. unpleasant, e.g., an illness |受...之苦,患(某种疾病)
  || |Kevin is suffering from depression. |凯文患上了抑郁症。
  || |Dewey had been in hospital for several weeks suffering from malaria. |因为患疟疾,杜威已经住院几周了。
  ||<59>hand out   |give sth. to each person in a group |分发,散发
  |||She plans to hand out gifts at a children's hospital tomorrow. |她准备明天去一家儿童医院分发礼物。
  |||A boy was standing by the road, handing out leaflets. |一个小男孩站在路边散发传单。
  ||<60>set up     |start a company, organization, etc. |建立,创立(公司、机构等)
  |||Kate and her partner are setting up their own printing business. |凯特和合伙人正着手创办自己的印刷厂。
  |||He wants to set up a software company. |他想创办一家软件公司。
  ||<61>at risk    |in danger |有危险,有风险
  |||Millions of lives are at risk because of food shortages. |因为食品短缺,几百万人面临生命危险。
  |||Accidents in the home are extremely common, and elderly people are most at risk. |家庭事故非常常见,而老年人面临的危险最大。
  ||<62>regardless of    |without being affected or influenced by |不顾,不管
  ||      |All men are born equal regardless of race or color. |无论种族与肤色,所有人生来都是平等的。
  ||      |Regardless of the weather, we have to go. |不管天气好坏,我们都必须走。
  ||<63>guard against    |prevent sth. from happening |防止...发生
  ||      |The coach reminded us to guard against over-confidence. |教练提醒我们要防止过于自信。
  ||      |Use sunscreen on your skin to guard against skin cancer. |为了防止皮肤癌,要涂上防晒霜。
  ||<64>wipe out   |destroy or get rid of sth. completely |彻底摧毁;消灭
  |||The whole village was wiped out by the floods. |洪水摧毁了整个村庄。
  |||We wish to wipe out poverty. |我们希望能彻底消灭贫困。
  ||<65>distract sb. from  sth.  |take sb.'s attention from sth. |使分心
  ||      |The music soon distracted the boy from his homework. |音乐很快就让这个男孩不能专心做家庭作业了。
  ||            |He's easily distracted from any writing that isn't creative. |如果作品没有独到之处,他就容易分心。
  ||<66>sign up for |put one's name on a list to take part in sth. |报名参加
  || |Her teacher encouraged her to sign up for the English speech contest. |老师鼓励她参加英语演讲比赛。
  || |He signed up for the course to improve his French. |为了提高法语水平,他报了个班。
  <TITLE>Proper Names</TITLE>
  ||<67>Latino     | |拉丁美洲人

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