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21世纪大学英语读写教程第一册 Unit1

时间:2006-02-21 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:yxdzgd5   字体: [ ]
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Unit 1

Text A

Listening

First Listening
Before listening to the tape, have a quick look at the following words.
grade
分数

concentrate
全神贯注

schedule
时间表

pressure
压力

selectively
有选择地

relevant1
有关的

skip over
跳过;略过

approach
方法

Second Listening
Listen to the tape again. Then, choose the best answer to each of the following questions.
1. The purpose of this listening passage is ____.
A) to describe college life
B) to give advice for college success
C) to warn against being lazy at college
D) to increase college enrollment(入学人数)
2. According to the listening passage, the most important key to getting good grades at college is _____.
A) asking questions in class
B) doing assignments ahead of time
C) working as hard as you can
D) learning3 how to study effectively
3. Which of the following does the listening NOT say you should do?
A) Organize your time and materials.
B) Write down every word the professor says in class.
C) Treat studying like business.
D) Study together.

Pre-reading Questions

1. Based on the title, guess what the text is about.
2. Look at the subheadings, 1-8, in the text. Which of these activities do you already do? In which areas do you feel you need improvement4?
3. Are there any "secrets" to your own success as a student? In other words, do you have any special study techniques which have been very successful for you?

Secrets of A Students

Edwin Kiester & Sally Valentine Kiester

Alex, now a first-year student in natural sciences at Cambridge, played football for his school in Manchester and directed the school production of a play — but he left school with five A's. Amanda, studying English at Bristol University, acted in plays at her school and played tennis regularly. Yet she still managed to get four A's.
How do A students like these do it? Brains aren't the only answer. The most gifted students do not necessarily5 perform best in exams. Knowing how to make the most of one's abilities counts for much more.
Hard work isn't the whole story either. Some of these high-achieving students actually put in fewer hours than their lower-scoring classmates. The students at the top of the class get there by mastering a few basic techniques that others can easily learn. Here, according to education experts and students themselves, are the secrets of A students.
1. Concentrate! Top students allow no interruptions7 of their study time. Once the books are open, phone calls go unanswered, TV unwatched and newspapers unread. "This doesn't mean ignoring important things in your life," Amanda explains. "It means planning your study time so that you can concentrate. If I'm worried about a sick friend, I call her before I start my homework. Then when I sit down to study, I can really focus."
2. Study anywhere — or everywhere. A university professor in Arizona assigned8 to tutor9 underachieving college athletes, recalls11 a runner who exercised daily. He persuaded him to use the time to memorise12 biology terms. Another student stuck a vocabulary list on his bathroom wall and learned13 a new word every day while brushing his teeth.
3. Organize your materials. At school, Tom played basketball. "I was too busy to waste time looking for a pencil or a missing14 notebook. I kept everything just where I could get my hands on it," he says. Paul, a student in New Mexico, keeps two folders16 for each subject — one for the day's assignments, the other for homework completed and ready to hand in. A drawer keeps essentials together and cuts down on time-wasting searches.
4. Organize your time. When a teacher set a long essay, Alex would spend a couple of days reading round the subject and making notes, then he'd do a rough draft17 and write up the essay. He would aim to finish a couple of days before the assignment was due so that if it took longer than expected, he'd still meet the deadline. Amanda stuck to a study schedule that included breaks every two hours. "Trying to study when you're overtired isn't smart," she advises. "Even a short break to stretch or get some fresh air can work wonders."
5. Learn how to read. "I used to spend hours going through irrelevant18 material," Amanda remembers. "But then I got used to reading quickly; if the first sentence of a paragraph wasn't relevant, I'd move on to the next paragraph." "The best course I ever took," says an Oklahoma student, "was speed-reading. I not only increased my words per minute but also learned to look at a book's table of contents and pictures first. Then, when I began to read, I had a sense of the material and I retained20 a lot more." To such students, the secret of good reading is to be an active reader — one who keeps asking questions that lead to a full understanding of the material being read.
6. Take good notes. "Before writing anything, I divide my page into two parts," says Amanda, "the left part is about a third of the page wide; the right, two-thirds. I write my notes in the wider part, and put down the main ideas on the left. During revision, this is very useful because you can see immediately why the material is relevant, rather than being worried by a great mass of information." Just before the end of lesson bell rings, most students close their books, put away papers, talk to friends and get ready to leave. But a smart student uses those few minutes to write two or three sentences about the lesson's main points, which he scans22 before the next class.
7. Ask questions. "If you ask questions, you know at once whether you have got the point or not," says Alex. Class participation23 is a matter of showing intellectual25 curiosity26. In a lecture on economics27, for example, curious students would ask how the Chinese economy could be both socialist28 and market-driven, thus interesting themselves not only in whats, but also in whys and hows.
8. Study together. The value of working together was shown in an experiment at the University of California at Berkeley. A graduate student there who observed a first-year calculus29 course found that Asian-American students discussed homework, tried different approaches and explained their solutions to one another while the others studied alone, spent most of their time reading and rereading the text, and tried the same approach time after time even if it was unsuccessful.
After all, the secrets of A students are not so secret. You can learn and master them and become an A student, too.
(795 words)

New Words

perform
vt. 执行, 完成; 演出, 表演
vi. 演出, 表演; 工作, 表现; 执行, 完成

high-achieving
a. 得高分的

lower-scoring
a. 得分较低的

concentrate
vi. direct all one's attention, etc. towards sth. 全神贯注;集中思想;专注;专心

interruption6
n. 打扰; 干扰; 中止; 阻碍

ignore
vt. take no notice of; refuse to pay attention to!! 不理;忽视

focus
v. direct attention, etc. on sth. 集中注意力于某事情

assign2
vt. appoint to a job or duty 委派; 指派

underachieving
a. doing less well than was expected, esp. in school work 未能充分发挥学习潜力的;学习成绩不良的

athlete
n. a person who is good at or who often does spors 运动员

recall10
vt. bring back to the mind; remember 回想(起);记得

memorise, -rize
vt. learn and remember 记住;熟记

missing
a. 缺失的, 找不到的;失踪的,下落不明的

notebook
n. small book for writing notes in 笔记本;记事本

folder15
n. 文件夹

assignment
n. a duty or piece of work that is given to someone (指定的)作业;(分派的)任务

drawer
n. 抽屉

essential
n. (usu. pl.) sth. that is necessary or very important [常用复数] 必需品
a. (to, for) necessary; central 绝对必要的;非常重要的

essay
n. a short piece of writing giving sb. 's ideas about politics, society, etc. 论说文; 散文

draft
n. the first rough written form of anything or a rough plan 草稿;草案
vt. make a draft of 起草;草拟

due
a. expected or supposed (to happen, arrive, etc.) 到期的;预定应到的

*deadline
n. a date or time before which sth. mush be done or completed 最后期限

schedule
n. a timetable for things to be done 时间表;日程安排表

overtired
a. 过度疲劳的

stretch
vi. 舒展身体,伸懒腰

irrelevant
a. (to) not having any real connection with or relation to sth. else 不相关的;不相干的

relevant
a. directly connected with the subject or problem being discussed or considered 相关的; 相干的

speed-reading
n. 快速阅读

per
prep.for each 每;每一

content
n. 1.(pl.) a list in a book saying what the book contains [复数] 目录
2.the subject matter, esp. the ideas, of a book, speech, etc. 内容

retain19
vt. keep (possession of); avoid losing 保持;保留

revision
n. 复习;修改

scan21
vt. look at quickly without careful reading 浏览,扫视

participation
n. 参与;参加

participate
vi. (in) to take part or have a share in an activity or event 参与;参加

intellectual
a. of intellect24 知识的;智力的
n. 知识分子

curiosity
n. the desire to know or learn 好奇(心);求知欲

economics
n. the scientific study of the way in which wealth is produced and used 经济学

economy
n. the system by which a country's wealth is produced and used 经济(制度)

market-driven
a. 市场驱动的

graduate
a. 研究生的
vi. 毕业
n. 有学位者,大学毕业生

graduate student
研究生

calculus
n. 微积分

approach
n. a manner or method of doing sth. or dealing30 with a problem 方式;方法
v. come near or nearer to sb. or sth. 靠近;接近

solution
n. an act or way of finding31 an answer to a difficulty or problem 解决(办法)

Phrases and Expressions

make the most of
get the best use or greatest gain from 充分利用

count for much/little
be of much/little worth or importance 很有 / 没有多少价值或重要性

not the whole story/only part of the story
不是全部情况 / 只是部分情况

put in
spend (time or money) 花费(时间或金钱)

get (or lay) one's hands on
find; obtain 把 … 弄到手

hand in
give (sth.) to sb. in charge by hand; send in 交上;提交

keep ... together
cause to remain together 把 … 聚在一起

cut down on
reduce 减少

stick to
keep to; not abandon or change 坚持;不放弃,不改变

work wonders
do things that people did not think possible 创奇迹;产生奇妙作用

go through
read from beginning to end; examine 从头至尾看;遍查

lead to
have as a result; cause 导致;引起

a couple of
two; a few 两(个);两三(个)

write up
write in a complete form 写出,写成

put down
write down 写下

put away
put (sth.) in its proper place 把(某物)收藏在合适的地方

time after time
again and again; repeatedly 一再;屡次

Proper Names

Edwin Kiester
埃德温·基斯特

Sally Valentine Kiester
莎莉·瓦伦丁·基斯特

Alex
阿历克斯(男子名)

Cambridge
剑桥(英格兰东南部城市, 剑桥大学所在地); 剑桥大学 (=Cambridge University)

Manchester
曼彻斯特(英格兰西北部港市)

Amanda
阿曼达(女子名)

Bristol
布里斯托尔(英格兰西南部港市)

Arizona
亚利桑那州(美国州名)

New Mexico
新墨西哥州(美国州名)

Oklahoma
俄克拉荷马州(美国州名)

California
加利福尼亚州(美国州名)

Berkeley
伯克利(美国加利福尼亚州西部城市)


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 relevant cV0xf     
adj.有关的,贴切的
参考例句:
  • I don't think his remarks are relevant to our discussion.我认为他的话不切我们的议题。
  • These materials are relevant to the case.这些材料与这案件有关。
2 assign uvOzN     
vt.派,指派;分配,分派;指定或选定
参考例句:
  • It is possible to assign an exact date to this building.这座建筑物的确切年代是可以确定的。
  • It's difficult to assign any reason for the failure.失败的原因很难确定。
3 learning wpSzFe     
n.学问,学识,学习;动词learn的现在分词
参考例句:
  • When you are learning to ride a bicycle,you often fall off.初学骑自行车时,常会从车上掉下来。
  • Learning languages isn't just a matter of remembering words.学习语言不仅仅是记些单词的事。
4 improvement 39vxg     
n.改进,增进;改进之处,改善的地方
参考例句:
  • The doctor noticed a gradual improvement in his patient.医生注意到病人在逐渐恢复健康。
  • I can detect signs of improvement in your thinking.我可以察觉出你思考问题方面的进步。
5 necessarily iGQxo     
adv.必要地,必需地;必定地,必然地
参考例句:
  • More work does not necessarily call for more men.增加工作量不一定就要增添人员。
  • A voter must necessarily be no younger than eighteen.选民必须在18岁以上。
6 interruption wqgzK5     
n.打扰;干扰;中止;阻碍
参考例句:
  • Never mind the interruption;proceed with your story.不要理睬别人的插话,继续讲你的故事。
  • The day passed by without further interruption.这一天过去了,没有再发生什么意外的事。
7 interruptions 018d24b8e289680cef468d675671d403     
n.中断( interruption的名词复数 );打断;障碍物;打岔的事
参考例句:
  • Many interruptions have prevented me from finishing the work. 许多打岔的事使得我未能完成这项工作。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • I could not say all I wished because of the interruptions. 由于他不断的插话,我无法把想说的话都说出来。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
8 assigned gyezob     
adj.选定的;被布置的
参考例句:
  • But read-only values are different,in that they are assigned at runtime.但是只读的值是不同的,因为它们是在运行时被赋值的。
9 tutor Bldwv     
n.家庭教师,导师,助教,监护人;vt.当…的教师,教,指导,约束
参考例句:
  • I think you should get her a tutor.我认为你应该替她请个家教。
  • What do you think of your tutor?你觉得你的家庭教师怎么样?
10 recall mtByJ     
n.回忆,召回,取消;vt.回想起,召回,与...相似,恢复
参考例句:
  • As you may recall, he was in the army then.你可能记得当时他正在从军。
  • We demand that you recall your army from our border.我们要求你们撤回在我们边境的部队。
11 recalls 458529043e980db7dd8500015b99cf79     
回忆起( recall的第三人称单数 ); 使想起; 使想到; 勾起
参考例句:
  • The sight recalls the days of childhood to me. 那情景使我想起了童年。
  • Moreover, extensive use of voluntary recalls can undercut agency accountability. 此外,大量利用自愿撤回会削弱行政机关的责任心。
12 memorise memorise     
vt.记住,熟记
参考例句:
  • An actor must be able to memorise his lines.演员须善于熟记台词。
  • I shall try to memorise all these phrases.我要熟记所有这些词组。
13 learned m1oxn     
adj.有学问的,博学的;learn的过去式和过去分词
参考例句:
  • He went into a rage when he learned about it.他听到这事后勃然大怒。
  • In this little village,he passed for a learned man.在这个小村子里,他被视为有学问的人。
14 missing 3nTzx7     
adj.遗失的,缺少的,失踪的
参考例句:
  • Check the tools and see if anything is missing.检点一下工具,看有无丢失。
  • All the others are here;he's the only one missing.别人都来了,就短他一个。
15 folder KjixL     
n.纸夹,文件夹
参考例句:
  • Peter returned the plan and charts to their folder.彼得把这份计划和表格放回文件夹中。
  • He draws the document from its folder.他把文件从硬纸夹里抽出来。
16 folders 7cb31435da1bef1e450754ff725b0fdd     
n.文件夹( folder的名词复数 );纸夹;(某些计算机系统中的)文件夹;页面叠
参考例句:
  • Encrypt and compress individual files and folders. The program is compact, efficient and user friendly. 加密和压缩的个人档案和folders.the计划是紧凑,高效和用户友好。 来自互联网
  • By insertion of photocopies,all folders can be maintained complete with little extra effort. 插入它的复制本,不费多大力量就能使所有文件夹保持完整。 来自辞典例句
17 draft ksvxX     
vt.起草,作...的草稿;n.草稿,草图,草案
参考例句:
  • He's now revising the first draft of his essay.他目前正修改他的文章初稿。
  • The draft of this article has been done。这篇文章已经定稿。
18 irrelevant ZkGy6     
adj.不恰当的,无关系的,不相干的
参考例句:
  • That is completely irrelevant to the subject under discussion.这跟讨论的主题完全不相关。
  • A question about arithmetic is irrelevant in a music lesson.在音乐课上,一个数学的问题是风马牛不相及的。
19 retain pBDzJ     
vt.保持,保留;记住
参考例句:
  • We shall retain our rights.我们将保留我们的权利。
  • China dishes retain heat longer than metal pans.瓷器盘子比金属盘子保温时间长。
20 retained 59fcc6f95cc4c7f5ab1ff33f516582d2     
v.保持( retain的过去式和过去分词 );拦住;保存;止住
参考例句:
  • He was smiling, but his eyes retained a look of solemnity. 他脸上挂着笑容,但眼神依旧严肃。
  • Nonconformists retained a deep distrust of their Anglican neighbours. 非英国国教者一直不信任圣公会的人。 来自《简明英汉词典》
21 scan FZ1xu     
n.审视,浏览,扫描,押韵,细查;vt.细看,浏览,扫描,详细调查,信件扫描(指BBS处理直递邮件或会议邮件时,对所有或特定信区做检查的动作)
参考例句:
  • The first scan was bad, so I had to do it again.第一次扫描不好,所以我得重做。
  • A scan determines the position of the baby in the womb.扫描可以确定胎儿在子宮中的位置。
22 scans 68bbe47a14d3445ed1278c497c690173     
n.浏览( scan的名词复数 );审视;(雷达)(屏面上的)光点v.扫描( scan的第三人称单数 );细看;细查;(雷达)对…进行扫描
参考例句:
  • This apparatus scans patients' brains for tumours. 这台仪器扫描检查病人的脑瘤。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Brain scans have confirmed that the disease is in remission. 脑部扫描已经证实疾病得到了控制。 来自辞典例句
23 participation KS9zu     
n.参与,参加,分享
参考例句:
  • Some of the magic tricks called for audience participation.有些魔术要求有观众的参与。
  • The scheme aims to encourage increased participation in sporting activities.这个方案旨在鼓励大众更多地参与体育活动。
24 intellect c5Hxi     
n.理智,才智,有才智的人,知识分子
参考例句:
  • Newton is a man of great intellect.牛顿有非凡的才智。
  • It is not often that one so young has such a giant intellect.年纪这样轻、智力又如此高的人可不多。
25 intellectual O5Nxi     
n.知识分子;adj.智力的,理智的,有理解力的
参考例句:
  • Thinking is an intellectual process.思维是一个智力活动过程。
  • Chess is a highly intellectual game.象棋是需用高度智力的运动项目。
26 curiosity ByGxj     
n.好奇心,新奇的事物,珍品
参考例句:
  • He gave in to curiosity and opened my letter.他抑制不住好奇心,拆开了我的信。
  • The children are dying of curiosity to see what's in the parcel.孩子们出于好奇,迫不及待地想看看包裹中是什么东西。
27 economics grzxZ     
n.经济学,经济情况
参考例句:
  • He is studying economics,which subject is very important.他正在学习经济学,该学科是很重要的。
  • One can't separate politics from economics.不能把政治与经济割裂开来。
28 socialist jwcws     
n.社会主义者;adj.社会主义的
参考例句:
  • China is a socialist country,and a developing country as well.中国是一个社会主义国家,也是一个发展中国家。
  • His father was an ardent socialist.他父亲是一个热情的社会主义者。
29 calculus Is9zM     
n.微积分;结石
参考例句:
  • This is a problem where calculus won't help at all.对于这一题,微积分一点也用不上。
  • After studying differential calculus you will be able to solve these mathematical problems.学了微积分之后,你们就能够解这些数学题了。
30 dealing NvjzWP     
n.经商方法,待人态度
参考例句:
  • This store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing.该商店因买卖公道而享有极高的声誉。
  • His fair dealing earned our confidence.他的诚实的行为获得我们的信任。
31 finding 5tAzVe     
n.发现,发现物;调查的结果
参考例句:
  • The finding makes some sense.该发现具有一定的意义。
  • That's an encouraging finding.这是一个鼓舞人心的发现。
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TAG标签:   大学英语  读写教程  第一册  unit
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