英语 英语 日语 日语 韩语 韩语 法语 法语 德语 德语 西班牙语 西班牙语 意大利语 意大利语 阿拉伯语 阿拉伯语 葡萄牙语 葡萄牙语 越南语 越南语 俄语 俄语 芬兰语 芬兰语 泰语 泰语 泰语 丹麦语 泰语 对外汉语

21世纪大学英语读写教程第四册 Unit1

时间:2006-02-21 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:scholaryang   字体: [ ]
特别声明:本栏目内容均从网络收集或者网友提供,供仅参考试用,我们无法保证内容完整和正确。如果资料损害了您的权益,请与站长联系,我们将及时删除并致以歉意。
    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

Unit 1

Text A

Pre-reading Activities

First Listening
Before listening to the tape, have a quick look at the following words.

genetics
遗传学

psychiatry1
精神病学

persistent2
坚持不懈的

Second Listening
Listen to the tape again and then answer the following questions.

1.What question did professor Simonton's research project seek to answer?
2.What three personality traits of great people are mentioned?
a) __________________________________________________________.
b) __________________________________________________________.
c) __________________________________________________________.
3.What negative trait of "great" people is mentioned?
4. Does professor Simonton believe that great people are more often mentally ill than other people?

Who Is Great?

Michael Ryan

As a young boy, Albert Einstein did so poorly in school that teachers thought he was slow. The young Napoleon Bonaparte was just one of hundreds of artillery3 lieutenants4 in the French Army. And the teenage George Washington, with little formal education, was being trained not as a soldier but as a land surveyor.
Despite their unspectacular beginnings, each would go on to carve a place for himself in history. What was it that enabled them to become great? Were they born with something special? Or did their greatness have more to do with timing5, devotion and, perhaps, an uncompromising personality?
For decades, scientists have been asking such questions. And, in the past few years, they have found evidence to help explain why some people rise above, while others—similarly talented, perhaps—are left behind. Their findings could have implications for us all.
Who is great? Defining who is great depends on how one measures success. But there are some criteria6. "Someone who has made a lasting7 contribution to human civilization is great," said Dean Keith Simonton, a professor of psychology8 at the University of California at Davis and author of the 1994 book Greatness: Who Makes History and Why. But he added a word of caution: "Sometimes great people don't make it into the history books. A lot of women achieved great things or were influential9 but went unrecognized."
In writing his book, Simonton combined historical knowledge about great figures with recent findings in genetics, psychiatry and the social sciences. The great figures he focused on include men and women who have won Nobel Prizes, led great nations or won wars, composed symphonies that have endured for centuries, or revolutionized science, philosophy, politics or the arts. Though he doesn't have a formula to define how or why certain people rise above (too many factors are involved), he has come up with a few common characteristics.
A "never surrender" attitude. If great achievers share anything, said Simonton, it is an unrelenting drive to succeed. "There's a tendency to think that they are endowed with something super-normal," he explained. "But what comes out of the research is that there are great people who have no amazing intellectual processes. It's a difference in degree. Greatness is built upon tremendous amounts of study, practice and devotion."
He cited Winston Churchill, Britain's prime minister during World War II, as an example of a risk-taker who would never give up. Thrust into office when his country's morale10 was at its lowest, Churchill rose brilliantly to lead the British people. In a speech following the Allied11 evacuation at Dunkirk in 1940, he inspired the nation when he said, "We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end...We shall never surrender."
Can you be born great? In looking at Churchill's role in history—as well as the roles of other political and military leaders—Simonton discovered a striking pattern: "Firstborns and only children tend to make good leaders in time of crisis: They're used to taking charge. But middle-borns are better as peacetime leaders: They listen to different interest groups better and make the necessary compromises. Churchill, an only child, was typical. He was great in a crisis, but in peacetime he was not effective—not even popular."
Timing is another factor. "If you took George Washington and put him in the 20th century he would go nowhere as a politician," Simonton declared. "He was not an effective public speaker, and he didn't like shaking hands with the public. On the other hand, I'm not sure Franklin Roosevelt would have done well in Washington's time. He wouldn't have had the radio to do his fireside chats."
Can you be too smart? One surprise among Simonton's findings is that many political and military leaders have been bright but not overly so. Beyond a certain point, he explained, other factors, like the ability to communicate effectively, become more important than innate12 intelligence as measured by an IQ test. The most intelligent U.S. Presidents, for example—Thomas Jefferson, Woodrow Wilson and John F. Kennedy—had a hard time getting elected, Simonton said, while others with IQs closer to the average (such as Warren G. Harding) won by landslides14. While political and economic factors also are involved, having a genius IQ is not necessary to be a great leader.
In the sciences, those with "genius level" IQs do have a better chance at achieving recognition, added Simonton. Yet evidence also indicates that overcoming traditional ways of thinking may be just as important.
He pointed15 to one recent study where college students were given a set of data and were asked to see if they could come up with a mathematical relation. Almost a third did. What they did not know was that they had just solved one of the most famous scientific equations in history: the Third Law of Planetary Motion, an equation that Johannes Kepler came up with in 1618.
Kepler's genius, Simonton said, was not so much in solving a mathematical challenge. It was in thinking about the numbers in a unique way—applying his mathematical knowledge to his observations of planetary motion. It was his boldness that set him apart.
Love your work. As a child, Einstein became fascinated with the way magnets are drawn16 to metal. "He couldn't stop thinking about this stuff," Simonton pointed out. "He became obsessed17 with problems in physics by the time he was 16, and he never stopped working on them. It's not surprising that he made major contributions by the time he was 26."
"For most of us, it's not that we don't have the ability," Simonton added, "it's that we don't devote the time. You have to put in the effort and put up with all the frustrations18 and obstacles."
Like other creative geniuses, Einstein was not motivated by a desire for fame, said Simonton. Instead, his obsession19 with his work was what set him apart.
Where such drive comes from remains20 a mystery. But it is found in nearly all creative geniuses—whether or not their genius is acknowledged by contemporaries.
"Emily Dickinson was not recognized for her poetry until after her death," said Simonton. "But she was not writing for fame. The same can be said of James Joyce, who didn't spend a lot of time worrying about how many people would read Finnegans Wake."
Today, researchers have evidence that an intrinsic passion for one's work is a key to rising above. In a 1985 study at Brandeis University conducted by Teresa Amabile, now a professor of business administration at Harvard University, a group of professional writers—none famous—were asked to write a short poem. Each writer was then randomly21 placed in one of three groups: One group was asked to keep in mind the idea of writing for money; another was told to think about writing just for pleasure; and a third group was given no instruction at all.
The poems then were submitted anonymously22 to a panel of professional writers for evaluation23. The poetry written by people who thought about writing for money ranked lowest. Those who thought about writing just for pleasure did the best. "Motivation that comes from enjoying the work makes a significant difference, "Amabile said.
(1 214 words)

New Words

artillery
n. heavy guns, often mounted on wheels, used in fighting on land, branch of an army that uses these 火炮;大炮;炮兵(部队)

surveyor
n. a person whose job is to examine and record the area and features of a piece of land by measuring and calculating (土地)测量员;勘测员

unspectacular
a. ordinary; not exciting or special 不引人注意的;不惊人的

spectacular
a. (attracting attention because) impressive or extraordinary 引人注目的;出色的;与众不同的

carve
vt. 1. form (sth.) by cutting away material from wood or stone 雕刻;雕刻成
2. build (one's career, reputation, etc.)by hard work 靠勤奋创(业),靠勤奋树(名声)

uncompromising
a. not ready to make any compromise; firm or unyielding. 不妥协的,坚定的;不让步的

influential
a. having a lot of influence on sb./sth. 有影响的;有权势的

genetics
n. the scientific study of the ways in which different characteristics are passed from each generation of living things to the next 遗传学

psychiatry
n. the study and treatment of mental illness 精神病学;精神病治疗

compose
vt. write (music, opera, poetry, etc.) 创作(音乐、歌剧、诗等)

symphony
n. a long complex musical composition for a large orchestra, usu. in three or four parts 交响乐

characteristic
n. a typical feature or quality 特点

unrelenting
a. not becoming less strong or severe; continuous 不松懈的,不放慢的;持续的

endow
vt. provide (sb./sth.) with a good quality, ability, feature, etc. 给予,赋予

super-normal
a. 超出一般的;超常的;非凡的

amazing
a. extremely good; esp. in a surprising and unexpected way 惊人的,令人吃惊的

cite
vt. mention (sb./sth.) as an example or to support an argument; refer to 引用,引证;举出

risk-taker
n. a person who dares to take risks 敢于冒险的人

thrust
vt. push (sth./sb./oneself) suddenly or violently (用力)推;强使

morale
n. state of confidence, enthusiasm, determination, etc. that a person or group has at a particular time 士气,精神状态

brilliantly
ad. in an outstanding manner 杰出地;才华横溢地

Allied
a. of the Allies (a group of countries fighting on the same side in a war, esp. those which fought with Britain in World Wars I and II) (第一次世界大战时期)协约国的;(第二次世界大战时期)同盟国的

ally
n. person, country, etc. joined with another in order to give help and support 同盟者;同盟国

evacuation
n. leaving a place of danger for a safer place 撤离;撤退

evacuate24
v. 1. remove (sb.) from a place of danger to a safer place 撤退,撤出
2. leave or withdraw from (a place) 撤离(某处)

flag
vi. become tired or weak; begin to lose enthusiasm or energy 疲乏;变弱;(热情、精力等)衰退,低落

striking
a. attracting attention; unusual or interesting enough to be noticed 引人注目的;显著的,突出的

firstborn
n. a child born before other children 长子(或长女)

peacetime
n. a period when a country is not at war 和平时期

fireside
n. part of a room beside the fireplace, esp. considered as a warm comfortable place 壁炉旁

chat
n. a friendly informal conversation 闲谈,聊天

fireside chat
炉边亲切闲谈;(政治领袖在无线电或电视广播中)不拘形式的讲话

innate
a. (of a quality, feeling, etc.) in one's nature; possessed25 from birth 天生的

landslide13
n. (竞选中)压倒多数的选票;一面倒的胜利

equation
n. 等式;方程(式)

boldness
n. the state or quality of being confident and brave 勇敢,无畏

bold
a. confident and brave; daring 勇敢的,无畏的;敢作敢为的

magnet
n. a piece of iron or other material that can attract iron, either naturally or because of an electric current passed through it 磁铁

obsession
n. the state of being obsessed 着迷

contemporary
n. a person who lives or lived at the same time as another, usu. being roughly the same age 同代人;(几乎)同年龄的人
a. belong to the same time; of the present time; modern 属于同一时代的;当代的;现代的

poetry
n. poems collectively or in general [总称]诗

intrinsic
a. (of a value or quality) belonging naturally to sb./sth.; existing within sb./sth., rather than coming from outside 固有的;本质的;内在的

randomly
ad. without method or conscious choice 任意地,胡乱地

submit
vt. give (sth.) to sb./sth. so that it may be formally considered or so that a decision about it may be made 提交,呈递

anonymously
ad. without revealing one's name 用匿名的方式

evaluation
n. the act of assessing or forming an idea of the amount, quality or value of sb./sth. 评价,评估

Phrases and Expressions

have (sth., nothing, a lot, etc.) to do with sb./sth.
be connected or concerned with sb./sth. to the extent specified26 与某人 / 某事有(一些、毫无、很大)关系

make history
be or do sth. so important or unusual that it will be recorded in history 创造历史,影响历史的进程;做出值得纪念(或载入史册的)事情

rise above
become successful or outstanding 取得成功;出类拔萃

leave behind
cause to lag behind; surpass 把…丢在后面;超过

focus on
concentrate on 集中于;着重于

be endowed with
naturally have a good quality, ability, feature, etc. 天生具有

come out of
originate in or develop from 从…中获得;从…中发展而来

build...upon
base ... on; use (sth.) as a foundation for further progress 把…建立在…上

take charge
take control (of sth.); be responsible (for sth.) 掌管;负责

go /get nowhere
achieve no success or make no progress 不能成功;无进展

set ... apart
make (sb./sth.) different from or superior to others 使显得突出,使显得与众不同

put up with
tolerate or bear (sb./sth.) 忍受,容忍

Proper Names

Michael Ryan
迈克尔·赖恩

Napoleon Bonaparte
拿破仑·波拿巴 (1769 — 1821, 法兰西第一帝国和百日王朝皇帝)

George Washington
乔治·华盛顿 (1732 — 1799, 美国第一任总统)

Keith Simonton
基思·西蒙顿

Dunkirk
敦刻尔克(法国北部港市)

Franklin Roosevelt
富兰克林·罗斯福 (1882 — 1945, 美国第三十二任总统)

Thomas Jefferson
托马斯·杰斐逊 (1743 — 1826, 美国第三任总统,《独立宣言》主要起草人)

Woodrow Wilson
伍德罗·威尔逊 (1856 — 1924, 美国第二十八任总统)

Warren G. Harding
沃伦·G·哈定 (1865 — 1923, 美国第二十九任总统)

Johannes Kepler
开普勒 (1571 — 1630, 德国天文学家和占星家)

Emily Dickinson
艾米莉·迪金森 (1830 — 1886, 美国女诗人,美国现代诗先驱者之一)

James Joyce
詹姆斯·乔伊斯 (1882 — 1941, 爱尔兰小说家,多用“意识流”手法,代表作《尤利西斯》)

Finnegans Wake
《为芬尼根守灵》(乔伊斯于 1939 年出版的最后一部小说)

Brandeis
布兰代斯大学 (马萨诸塞州)

Teresa Amabile
特蕾莎·阿玛贝尔


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 psychiatry g0Jze     
n.精神病学,精神病疗法
参考例句:
  • The study appeared in the Amercian science Journal of Psychiatry.这个研究发表在美国精神病学的杂志上。
  • A physician is someone who specializes in psychiatry.精神病专家是专门从事精神病治疗的人。
2 persistent BSUzg     
adj.坚持不懈的,执意的;持续的
参考例句:
  • Albert had a persistent headache that lasted for three days.艾伯特连续头痛了三天。
  • She felt embarrassed by his persistent attentions.他不时地向她大献殷勤,使她很难为情。
3 artillery 5vmzA     
n.(军)火炮,大炮;炮兵(部队)
参考例句:
  • This is a heavy artillery piece.这是一门重炮。
  • The artillery has more firepower than the infantry.炮兵火力比步兵大。
4 lieutenants dc8c445866371477a093185d360992d9     
n.陆军中尉( lieutenant的名词复数 );副职官员;空军;仅低于…官阶的官员
参考例句:
  • In the army, lieutenants are subordinate to captains. 在陆军中,中尉是上尉的下级。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • Lieutenants now cap at 1.5 from 1. Recon at 1. 中尉现在由1人口增加的1.5人口。侦查小组成员为1人口。 来自互联网
5 timing rgUzGC     
n.时间安排,时间选择
参考例句:
  • The timing of the meeting is not convenient.会议的时间安排不合适。
  • The timing of our statement is very opportune.我们发表声明选择的时机很恰当。
6 criteria vafyC     
n.标准
参考例句:
  • The main criterion is value for money.主要的标准是钱要用得划算。
  • There are strict criteria for inclusion in the competition.参赛的标准很严格。
7 lasting IpCz02     
adj.永久的,永恒的;vbl.持续,维持
参考例句:
  • The lasting war debased the value of the dollar.持久的战争使美元贬值。
  • We hope for a lasting settlement of all these troubles.我们希望这些纠纷能获得永久的解决。
8 psychology U0Wze     
n.心理,心理学,心理状态
参考例句:
  • She has a background in child psychology.她受过儿童心理学的教育。
  • He studied philosophy and psychology at Cambridge.他在剑桥大学学习哲学和心理学。
9 influential l7oxK     
adj.有影响的,有权势的
参考例句:
  • He always tries to get in with the most influential people.他总是试图巴结最有影响的人物。
  • He is a very influential man in the government.他在政府中是个很有影响的人物。
10 morale z6Ez8     
n.道德准则,士气,斗志
参考例句:
  • The morale of the enemy troops is sinking lower every day.敌军的士气日益低落。
  • He tried to bolster up their morale.他尽力鼓舞他们的士气。
11 allied iLtys     
adj.协约国的;同盟国的
参考例句:
  • Britain was allied with the United States many times in history.历史上英国曾多次与美国结盟。
  • Allied forces sustained heavy losses in the first few weeks of the campaign.同盟国在最初几周内遭受了巨大的损失。
12 innate xbxzC     
adj.天生的,固有的,天赋的
参考例句:
  • You obviously have an innate talent for music.你显然有天生的音乐才能。
  • Correct ideas are not innate in the mind.人的正确思想不是自己头脑中固有的。
13 landslide XxyyG     
n.(竞选中)压倒多数的选票;一面倒的胜利
参考例句:
  • Our candidate is predicated to win by a landslide.我们的候选人被预言将以绝对优势取胜。
  • An electoral landslide put the Labour Party into power in 1945.1945年工党以压倒多数的胜利当选执政。
14 landslides 5a0c95bd1e490515d70aff3ba74490cb     
山崩( landslide的名词复数 ); (山坡、悬崖等的)崩塌; 滑坡; (竞选中)一方选票占压倒性多数
参考例句:
  • Landslides have cut off many villages in remote areas. 滑坡使边远地区的许多村庄与外界隔绝。
  • The storm caused landslides and flooding in Savona. 风暴致使萨沃纳发生塌方和洪灾。
15 pointed Il8zB4     
adj.尖的,直截了当的
参考例句:
  • He gave me a very sharp pointed pencil.他给我一支削得非常尖的铅笔。
  • She wished to show Mrs.John Dashwood by this pointed invitation to her brother.她想通过对达茨伍德夫人提出直截了当的邀请向她的哥哥表示出来。
16 drawn MuXzIi     
v.拖,拉,拔出;adj.憔悴的,紧张的
参考例句:
  • All the characters in the story are drawn from life.故事中的所有人物都取材于生活。
  • Her gaze was drawn irresistibly to the scene outside.她的目光禁不住被外面的风景所吸引。
17 obsessed 66a4be1417f7cf074208a6d81c8f3384     
adj.心神不宁的,鬼迷心窍的,沉迷的
参考例句:
  • He's obsessed by computers. 他迷上了电脑。
  • The fear of death obsessed him throughout his old life. 他晚年一直受着死亡恐惧的困扰。
18 frustrations 7d9e374b9e145ebadbaa8704f2c615e5     
挫折( frustration的名词复数 ); 失败; 挫败; 失意
参考例句:
  • The temptation would grow to take out our frustrations on Saigon. 由于我们遭到挫折而要同西贡算帐的引诱力会增加。
  • Aspirations will be raised, but so will frustrations. 人们会产生种种憧憬,但是种种挫折也会随之而来。
19 obsession eIdxt     
n.困扰,无法摆脱的思想(或情感)
参考例句:
  • I was suffering from obsession that my career would be ended.那时的我陷入了我的事业有可能就此终止的困扰当中。
  • She would try to forget her obsession with Christopher.她会努力忘记对克里斯托弗的迷恋。
20 remains 1kMzTy     
n.剩余物,残留物;遗体,遗迹
参考例句:
  • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
  • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.残羹剩饭喂狗了。
21 randomly cktzBM     
adv.随便地,未加计划地
参考例句:
  • Within the hot gas chamber, molecules are moving randomly in all directions. 在灼热的气体燃烧室内,分子在各个方向上作无规运动。 来自辞典例句
  • Transformed cells are loosely attached, rounded and randomly oriented. 转化细胞则不大贴壁、圆缩并呈杂乱分布。 来自辞典例句
22 anonymously czgzOU     
ad.用匿名的方式
参考例句:
  • The manuscripts were submitted anonymously. 原稿是匿名送交的。
  • Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to survey 536 teachers anonymously. 方法采用自编“中小学教师职业压力问卷”对536名中小学教师进行无记名调查。
23 evaluation onFxd     
n.估价,评价;赋值
参考例句:
  • I attempted an honest evaluation of my own life.我试图如实地评价我自己的一生。
  • The new scheme is still under evaluation.新方案还在评估阶段。
24 evacuate ai1zL     
v.遣送;搬空;抽出;排泄;大(小)便
参考例句:
  • We must evacuate those soldiers at once!我们必须立即撤出这些士兵!
  • They were planning to evacuate the seventy American officials still in the country.他们正计划转移仍滞留在该国的70名美国官员。
25 possessed xuyyQ     
adj.疯狂的;拥有的,占有的
参考例句:
  • He flew out of the room like a man possessed.他像着了魔似地猛然冲出房门。
  • He behaved like someone possessed.他行为举止像是魔怔了。
26 specified ZhezwZ     
adj.特定的
参考例句:
  • The architect specified oak for the wood trim. 那位建筑师指定用橡木做木饰条。
  • It is generated by some specified means. 这是由某些未加说明的方法产生的。
本文本内容来源于互联网抓取和网友提交,仅供参考,部分栏目没有内容,如果您有更合适的内容,欢迎点击提交分享给大家。
------分隔线----------------------------
TAG标签:   大学英语  读写教程  第四册  unit
顶一下
(29)
93.5%
踩一下
(2)
6.5%
最新评论 查看所有评论
发表评论 查看所有评论
请自觉遵守互联网相关的政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
验证码:
听力搜索
推荐频道
论坛新贴