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21世纪大学英语读写教程第三册 Unit10

时间:2006-02-21 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:scholaryang   字体: [ ]
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Unit 10

Text A

Pre-reading Activities

1. Before you listen to the passage, quickly note down your responses to the questions below. Don't think too much before you respond — your first ideas are the best ones.
A) On a scale of one to ten, where ten is the most nervous you've ever felt in your life, how nervous do you feel right now?
B) On a scale of one to ten, where ten is the most exhausted1 you've ever felt in your life, how tired do you feel right now?
C) What are the three biggest problems that are worrying you today? Write down one-word "titles" for each of these three problems.

Now listen to the passage, and go on to the next questions afterwards.
2. After hearing the passage, do you feel more or less nervous than you did before? More or less tired? More or less worried about your problems?

3. How do you usually behave when you're worried or nervous about something?

Plain Talk About Handling Stress

Louis E. Kopolow, M.D.

You need stress in your life! Does that surprise you? Perhaps so, but it is quite true. Without stress, life would be dull and unexciting. Stress adds flavor, challenge, and opportunity to life. Too much stress, however, can seriously affect your physical and mental well-being2. A major challenge in the stress-filled world of today is to learn how to cope with stress so that it doesn't become overwhelming.
What kinds of things can cause too much stress in our lives? We often think of major crises such as natural disasters, war, and death as main sources of stress. These are, of course, stressful events. However, according to psychologist Wayne Weiten, on a day-to-day basis, it's the small things that cause stress: waiting in line, having car trouble, getting stuck in a traffic jam, having too many things to do in a limited time.
Interestingly, stress is unique and personal to each of us. So personal, in fact, that what may be relaxing to one person may be stressful to another. For example, if you're an executive who likes to keep busy all the time, "taking it easy" at the beach on a beautiful day may feel extremely frustrating3, non-productive, and upsetting. You may be emotionally distressed5 from "doing nothing".
Hans Selye, M.D., a recognized expert in the field, has defined stress as a "non-specific response of the body to a demand." For the busy executive, the demand that causes stress might be to relax. For most of us, it's a demand to act that causes stress. If we feel overwhelmed by pressure to do too much, we may not be able to function at all. In this case, the stress that can be good for us becomes distress4, or bad stress. When stress becomes prolonged or particularly frustrating, it can become harmful, causing physical illness.

Reacting To Stress
The body responds to stressful events by going through three stages: (1) alarm, (2) resistance and (3) exhaustion6. Let's take the example of a typical commuter7 in rush-hour traffic. If a car suddenly pulls out in front of him, his initial alarm reaction may include fear of an accident, anger at the driver who committed the action, and general frustration8. His body may respond in the alarm stage by releasing chemicals into the bloodstream which cause his face to flush, perspiration9 to form, his stomach to have a sinking feeling, and his arms and legs to tighten10. The next stage is resistance, in which the body repairs damage caused by the stress. If the stress of driving continues with repeated close calls or traffic jams, however, his body doesn't have time to make repairs. He may become so conditioned to expect potential problems when he drives that he tightens11 up at the beginning of each commuting12 day. The third stage, exhaustion, occurs if the stress continues over a long period of time, and the body depletes14 its resources for fighting stress. The result may be illness: insomnia15, headaches, backaches, ulcers16, high blood pressure — even heart disease.
While you can't live completely free of stress and distress, you can prevent some distress as well as minimize its impact. By recognizing the early signs of distress and then doing something about them, you can improve the quality of your life and perhaps even live longer.

Helping17 Yourself
When stress does occur, it's important to recognize and deal with it. Here are some suggestions for handling stress. As you begin to understand more about how stress affects you as an individual, you'll come up with your own ways to ease the tension.
Try physical activity. When you're nervous, angry or upset, release the pressure through exercise or physical activity. Running, walking, playing tennis or working in your garden are just some of the activities you might try. Physical exercise will relieve the tension, relax you and turn the frowns into smiles. Remember, your body and your mind work together.
Share your stress. It helps to talk to someone about your concerns and worries. Perhaps a friend, family member, teacher or counselor18 can help you see your problem in a different light. If you feel your problem is serious, you might seek professional help from a psychologist, psychiatrist19, social worker or mental health counselor. Knowing when to ask for help may help you avoid more serious problems later.
Know your limits. If a problem is beyond your control and can't be changed at the moment, don't fight the situation. Learn to accept what is — for now — until a time when you can change it.
Take care of yourself. You're special. Get enough rest and eat well. If you're irritable20 and tense from lack of sleep or if you aren't eating correctly, you'll have less ability to deal with stressful situations. If stress repeatedly keeps you from sleeping, you should ask your doctor for help.
Make time for fun. Schedule time for both work and recreation. Play can be just as important to your well-being as work; you need a break from your daily routine to just relax and have fun.
Be a participant. One way to keep from getting bored, sad, and lonely is to go somewhere where things are happening. Sitting alone can make you feel frustrated21. Instead of feeling sorry for yourself, get involved and become a participant. Offer your services in volunteer organizations. Help yourself by helping other people. Get involved in the world and the people around you, and you'll find they'll be attracted to you. You'll be on your way to making new friends and enjoying new activities.
Check off your tasks. Trying to take care of everything at once can seem overwhelming, and, as a result, you may not accomplish anything. Instead, make a list of what tasks you have to do, then do one at a time, check them off as they're completed. Give priority to the most important ones and do those first.
Must you always be right? Do other people upset you — particularly when they don't do things your way? Try cooperation instead of confrontation22; it's better than fighting and always being "right." A little give and take on both sides will reduce the strain and make you both feel more comfortable.
It's OK to cry. A good cry can be a healthy way to bring relief to your anxiety, and it might even prevent a headache or other physical consequences. Take some deep breaths; they also release tension.
Create a quiet scene. You can't always run away, but you can "dream the impossible dream." A quiet country scene painted mentally (or on canvas!) can let you escape from a stressful situation. Change the scene by reading a good book or playing beautiful music to create a sense of peace.
Avoid self-medication. Although you can use prescription23 or over-the-counter medications to relieve stress temporarily, they don't eliminate the conditions that caused the stress in the first place. Medications, in fact, may be habit-forming and can also reduce your efficiency, thus creating more stress than they take away. They should be taken only on the advice of your doctor.

The Art of Relaxation24
The best strategy for avoiding stress is to learn how to relax. Unfortunately many people try to relax at the same pace that they lead the rest of their lives. For a while, tune25 out your worries about time, productivity, and "doing right". You'll find satisfaction in just being, without striving. Find activities that give you pleasure and that are good for your mental and physical well-being. Forget about always winning. Focus on relaxation, enjoyment26, and health. Whatever method works for you, be good to yourself. If you don't let stress get out of hand, you can actually make it work for you instead of against you.
(1296 words)

New Words

stress
n. force or pressure caused by difficulties in life 压力;紧张

well-being
n. the state of being healthy, happy, or prosperous 安康;安乐;幸福

* overwhelming
a. irresistible27 by force of numbers, influence, amount, etc. 压倒的,势不可挡的;无法抵抗的

stressful
a. 紧张的;压力重的

distress
vt. subject to pressure, stress, or strain; make unhappy 使紧张;使苦恼;使痛苦
n. (精神上的)痛苦;苦恼

* prolong
vt. make longer; extend 延长;延伸

resistance
n. an act of resisting; desire to oppose sth. 抵抗;反抗;抵制;抗拒

resistant28
a. having or showing resistance 抵抗的;反抗的

rush-hour
a. 交通高峰时间的

initial
a. occurring at the beginning; first or earliest 开头的;最初的

bloodstream
n. the blood as it flows through the body (体内的)血流

* flush
vi. turn red because of a rush of blood to the skin; blush (因皮肤充血而)变红;脸红

close call
n. a narrow escape from danger or an accident 侥幸脱险,死里逃生

condition
vt. accustom29; train 使习惯;训练

deplete13
vt. use up or exhaust 用光;耗尽

insomnia
n. inability to sleep; sleeplessness30 失眠症;失眠

relieve
vt. ease or reduce (pain, anxiety or trouble) 解除或减轻(痛苦等)

social worker
n. a person who does work directed toward the betterment of social conditions in a community 社会福利工作者

irritable
a. easily made angry; impatient 易怒的;急躁的

* irritate
vt. make impatient or angry 使急躁;激怒

tense
a. nervous, anxious and unable to relax (心理或神经)紧张的,不安的

repeatedly
ad. again and again 一再,再三;反复地

volunteer
n. a person who enters any service of his own choice; a person who serves without pay 志愿者
a. of or made up of volunteers 志愿(者)的

confrontation
n. an open or direct clash; angry opposition31 冲突;对抗

give and take
n. willingness to be mutually tolerant and forgiving within a relationship 互谅互让

anxiety
n. uneasy thoughts or fears about what may happen; troubled, worried, or uneasy feeling 焦虑;忧虑

self-medication
n. the act of taking medicines without the advice of a doctor 自我药疗

over-the-counter
a. (of medicine) that can be sold and bought without a doctor's prescription (药)无医生处方也可合法出售的

habit-forming
a. (esp. of medicine, a drug, etc.) that can become impossible to stop taking because one's body begins to need it (尤指药物、毒品等)易使人上瘾的

efficiency
n. the ability to do things without waste of time or energy 效率

relaxation
n. 1. 松驰,放松
2. 休息;消遣;娱乐

* relax
v. 1. make or become less active or worried 放松,(使)轻松
2. make (effort or control) less severe 使…松懈;放宽

* strive
vi. try hard; make efforts 努力;奋斗

Phrases and Expressions

take it easy
refrain from hard work; relax 不过于劳累;放松

go through
undergo; experience 经历;经受

pull out
(of a vehicle) move out from the side of the road, or from its normal position to overtake (车辆)为超车而驶离路边或正常位置

tighten up
become tight or tighter 绷紧

for now
for this time; until a later time 目前;暂时

make time
find or gain time 腾出时间;争取时间

have fun
enjoy oneself 玩得开心

check off
mark, especially on a list, as finished or requiring no further attention 核对后打勾;勾销

in the first place
at the beginning of the discussion of a matter; to start with 最初;原先

on sb.'s advice/on the advice of sb.
according to the advice given by sb. 按照某人的劝告

tune out
ignore; stop paying attention to 不理会

(get) out of hand
(get) out of control 失去控制

Proper Names

Louis E. Kopolow
路易斯·E·科珀洛(男子名)

Wayne Weiten
韦恩·魏滕(男子名)

Hans Selye
汉斯·泽利厄(男子名)


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 exhausted 7taz4r     
adj.极其疲惫的,精疲力尽的
参考例句:
  • It was a long haul home and we arrived exhausted.搬运回家的这段路程特别长,到家时我们已筋疲力尽。
  • Jenny was exhausted by the hustle of city life.珍妮被城市生活的忙乱弄得筋疲力尽。
2 well-being Fe3zbn     
n.安康,安乐,幸福
参考例句:
  • He always has the well-being of the masses at heart.他总是把群众的疾苦挂在心上。
  • My concern for their well-being was misunderstood as interference.我关心他们的幸福,却被误解为多管闲事。
3 frustrating is9z54     
adj.产生挫折的,使人沮丧的,令人泄气的v.使不成功( frustrate的现在分词 );挫败;使受挫折;令人沮丧
参考例句:
  • It's frustrating to have to wait so long. 要等这么长时间,真令人懊恼。
  • It was a demeaning and ultimately frustrating experience. 那是一次有失颜面并且令人沮丧至极的经历。 来自《简明英汉词典》
4 distress 3llzX     
n.苦恼,痛苦,不舒适;不幸;vt.使悲痛
参考例句:
  • Nothing could alleviate his distress.什么都不能减轻他的痛苦。
  • Please don't distress yourself.请你不要忧愁了。
5 distressed du1z3y     
痛苦的
参考例句:
  • He was too distressed and confused to answer their questions. 他非常苦恼而困惑,无法回答他们的问题。
  • The news of his death distressed us greatly. 他逝世的消息使我们极为悲痛。
6 exhaustion OPezL     
n.耗尽枯竭,疲惫,筋疲力尽,竭尽,详尽无遗的论述
参考例句:
  • She slept the sleep of exhaustion.她因疲劳而酣睡。
  • His exhaustion was obvious when he fell asleep standing.他站着睡着了,显然是太累了。
7 commuter ZXCyi     
n.(尤指市郊之间)乘公交车辆上下班者
参考例句:
  • Police cordoned off the road and diverted commuter traffic. 警察封锁了道路并分流交通。
  • She accidentally stepped on his foot on a crowded commuter train. 她在拥挤的通勤列车上不小心踩到了他的脚。
8 frustration 4hTxj     
n.挫折,失败,失效,落空
参考例句:
  • He had to fight back tears of frustration.他不得不强忍住失意的泪水。
  • He beat his hands on the steering wheel in frustration.他沮丧地用手打了几下方向盘。
9 perspiration c3UzD     
n.汗水;出汗
参考例句:
  • It is so hot that my clothes are wet with perspiration.天太热了,我的衣服被汗水湿透了。
  • The perspiration was running down my back.汗从我背上淌下来。
10 tighten 9oYwI     
v.(使)变紧;(使)绷紧
参考例句:
  • Turn the screw to the right to tighten it.向右转动螺钉把它拧紧。
  • Some countries tighten monetary policy to avoid inflation.一些国家实行紧缩银根的货币政策,以避免通货膨胀。
11 tightens e55beaf60804ecfbd7ab248151f7a970     
收紧( tighten的第三人称单数 ); (使)变紧; (使)绷紧; 加紧
参考例句:
  • One set of provisions tightens emission standards. 一套使排放标准更加严格的规定。 来自英汉非文学 - 环境法 - 环境法
  • Requires no special tools or fittings; hand tightens to relief valve outlet. 不需要专用工具或管件;用手将其紧固到安全阀上即可。
12 commuting d2c3874ec246fb1858841223ffe4992e     
交换(的)
参考例句:
  • I used the commuting time to read and answer my mail. 我利用上下班在汽车中的时间来阅读和答复给我的函电。
  • Noncommuting objects are as real to the mathematicians as commuting objects. 对于数学家来说,不可交换的对象与可交换的对象是一样真实的。
13 deplete Bm2z3     
v.弄空,排除,减轻,减少...体液,放去...的血
参考例句:
  • Most native mammal species have been severely depleted.大多数本地哺乳动物的数量都已经大大减少了。
  • Elastic collisions deplete very little of the electron's energy.弹性碰撞中电子减少的能量非常少。
14 depletes 03e466afb0610e2f83b6d28a055c56aa     
使大大的减少,使空虚( deplete的第三人称单数 ); 耗尽,使枯竭
参考例句:
  • Stress depletes both energy and motivation. 压力不仅消耗体力而且让你丧失动力。
  • Scientists refute a longstanding theory of how HIV slowly depletes the body's capacity to fight infection. 科学家驳倒一个爱滋病毒如何慢慢地耗尽身体容量对抗感染的长时间理论。
15 insomnia EbFzK     
n.失眠,失眠症
参考例句:
  • Worries and tenseness can lead to insomnia.忧虑和紧张会导致失眠。
  • He is suffering from insomnia.他患失眠症。
16 ulcers CfBzhM     
n.溃疡( ulcer的名词复数 );腐烂物;道德败坏;腐败
参考例句:
  • Detachment of the dead cells produces erosions and ulcers. 死亡细胞的脱落,产生糜烂和溃疡。 来自辞典例句
  • 75% of postbulbar ulcers occur proximal to the duodenal papilla. 75%的球后溃疡发生在十二指肠乳头近侧。 来自辞典例句
17 helping 2rGzDc     
n.食物的一份&adj.帮助人的,辅助的
参考例句:
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
18 counselor czlxd     
n.顾问,法律顾问
参考例句:
  • The counselor gave us some disinterested advice.顾问给了我们一些无私的忠告。
  • Chinese commercial counselor's office in foreign countries.中国驻国外商务参赞处。
19 psychiatrist F0qzf     
n.精神病专家;精神病医师
参考例句:
  • He went to a psychiatrist about his compulsive gambling.他去看精神科医生治疗不能自拔的赌瘾。
  • The psychiatrist corrected him gently.精神病医师彬彬有礼地纠正他。
20 irritable LRuzn     
adj.急躁的;过敏的;易怒的
参考例句:
  • He gets irritable when he's got toothache.他牙一疼就很容易发脾气。
  • Our teacher is an irritable old lady.She gets angry easily.我们的老师是位脾气急躁的老太太。她很容易生气。
21 frustrated ksWz5t     
adj.挫败的,失意的,泄气的v.使不成功( frustrate的过去式和过去分词 );挫败;使受挫折;令人沮丧
参考例句:
  • It's very easy to get frustrated in this job. 这个工作很容易令人懊恼。
  • The bad weather frustrated all our hopes of going out. 恶劣的天气破坏了我们出行的愿望。 来自《简明英汉词典》
22 confrontation xYHy7     
n.对抗,对峙,冲突
参考例句:
  • We can't risk another confrontation with the union.我们不能冒再次同工会对抗的危险。
  • After years of confrontation,they finally have achieved a modus vivendi.在对抗很长时间后,他们最后达成安宁生存的非正式协议。
23 prescription u1vzA     
n.处方,开药;指示,规定
参考例句:
  • The physician made a prescription against sea- sickness for him.医生给他开了个治晕船的药方。
  • The drug is available on prescription only.这种药只能凭处方购买。
24 relaxation MVmxj     
n.松弛,放松;休息;消遣;娱乐
参考例句:
  • The minister has consistently opposed any relaxation in the law.部长一向反对法律上的任何放宽。
  • She listens to classical music for relaxation.她听古典音乐放松。
25 tune NmnwW     
n.调子;和谐,协调;v.调音,调节,调整
参考例句:
  • He'd written a tune,and played it to us on the piano.他写了一段曲子,并在钢琴上弹给我们听。
  • The boy beat out a tune on a tin can.那男孩在易拉罐上敲出一首曲子。
26 enjoyment opaxV     
n.乐趣;享有;享用
参考例句:
  • Your company adds to the enjoyment of our visit. 有您的陪同,我们这次访问更加愉快了。
  • After each joke the old man cackled his enjoyment.每逢讲完一个笑话,这老人就呵呵笑着表示他的高兴。
27 irresistible n4CxX     
adj.非常诱人的,无法拒绝的,无法抗拒的
参考例句:
  • The wheel of history rolls forward with an irresistible force.历史车轮滚滚向前,势不可挡。
  • She saw an irresistible skirt in the store window.她看见商店的橱窗里有一条叫人着迷的裙子。
28 resistant 7Wvxh     
adj.(to)抵抗的,有抵抗力的
参考例句:
  • Many pests are resistant to the insecticide.许多害虫对这种杀虫剂有抵抗力。
  • They imposed their government by force on the resistant population.他们以武力把自己的统治强加在持反抗态度的人民头上。
29 accustom sJSyd     
vt.使适应,使习惯
参考例句:
  • It took him a while to accustom himself to the idea.他过了一段时间才习惯这个想法。
  • It'shouldn't take long to accustom your students to working in groups.你的学生应该很快就会习惯分组学习的。
30 sleeplessness niXzGe     
n.失眠,警觉
参考例句:
  • Modern pharmacy has solved the problem of sleeplessness. 现代制药学已经解决了失眠问题。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The doctors were puzzled by this strange continuous sleeplessness. 医生们对他的奇异的不眠感到疑惑。 来自英语晨读30分(高三)
31 opposition eIUxU     
n.反对,敌对
参考例句:
  • The party leader is facing opposition in his own backyard.该党领袖在自己的党內遇到了反对。
  • The police tried to break down the prisoner's opposition.警察设法制住了那个囚犯的反抗。
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TAG标签:   大学英语  读写教程  第三册  unit
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