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21世纪大学英语读写教程第四册 Unit3

时间:2006-02-21 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:scholaryang   字体: [ ]
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Unit 3

Text A

Pre-reading Activities

First Listening
Before Listening to the tape, have a quick look at the following words.

smallpox1
天花

stuck
被难住了

cowpox
牛痘

lateral2 thinking
横向思维

vertical3
纵向的;垂直的

Second Listening
Listen to the tape again and then choose tne best answer to each of the following questions.

1. How did Dr. Jenner solve the problem of smallpox?
A) By studying many, many sick people.
B) By studying people who didn't get sick.
C) By studying lateral thinking.
D) With help from Dr. de Bono.
2. The key to lateral thinking is _________.
A) never giving up
B) getting help from others
C) moving sideways
D) changing you point of view
3. The saying, "When the going gets tough, the tough get going" expresses ________.
A) the aggressive attitude of vertical thinking
B) traditionally western lateral thinking
C) a way to change your point of view
D) how Edward de Bono likes to solve problems
4. The main purpose of this passage is ________.
A) to discuss a major medical breakthrough
B) to introduce a new concept of problem solving
C) to talk about the life of Edward de Bono
D) to contrast Eastern and Western ways of thinking

How to Change Your Point of View

Caroline Seebohm

Dr. Edward Jenner was busy trying to solve the problem of smallpox. After studying case after case, he still found no possible cure. He had reached an impasse4 in his thinking. At this point, he changed his tactics. Instead of focusing on people who had smallpox, he switched his attention to people who did not have smallpox. It turned out that dairymaids apparently5 never got the disease. From the discovery that harmless cowpox gave protection against deadly smallpox came vaccination6 and the end of smallpox as a scourge7 in the western world.
We often reach an impasse in our thinking. We are looking at a problem and trying to solve it and it seems there is a dead end. It is on these occasions that we become tense, we feel pressured, overwhelmed, in a state of stress. We struggle vainly, fighting to solve the problem.
Dr. Jenner, however, did something about this situation. He stopped fighting the problem and simply changed his point of view—from his patients to dairy maids. Picture the process going something like this: Suppose the brain is a computer. This computer has absorbed into its memory bank all your history, your experiences, your training, your information received through life; and it is programmed according to all this data. To change your point of view, you must reprogramme your computer, thus freeing yourself to take in new ideas and develop new ways of looking at things. Dr. Jenner, in effect, by reprogramming his computer, erased9 the old way of looking at his smallpox problem and was free to receive new alternatives.
That's all very well, you may say, but how do we actually do that?
Doctor and philosopher Edward de Bono has come up with a technique for changing our point of view, and he calls it Lateral Thinking.
The normal Western approach to a problem is to fight it. The saying, "When the going gets tough, the tough get going," is typical of this aggressive attitude toward problem-solving. No matter what the problem is, or the techniques available for solving it, the framework produced by our Western way of thinking is fight. Dr. de Bono calls this vertical thinking; the traditional, sequential, Aristotelian thinking of logic10, moving firmly from one step to the next, like toy blocks being built one on top of the other. The flaw is, of course, that if at any point one of the steps is not reached, or one of the toy blocks is incorrectly placed, then the whole structure collapses11. Impasse is reached, and frustration12, tension, feelings of fight take over.
Lateral thinking, Dr. de Bono says, is a new technique of thinking about things—a technique that avoids this fight altogether, and solves the problem in an entirely13 unexpected fashion.
In one of Sherlock Holmes's cases, his assistant, Dr. Watson, pointed14 out that a certain dog was of no importance to the case because it did not appear to have done anything. Sherlock Holmes took the opposite point of view and maintained that the fact the dog had done nothing was of the utmost significance, for it should have been expected to do something, and on this basic he solved the case.
Lateral thinking sounds simple. And it is. Once you have solved a problem laterally15, you wonder how you could ever have been hung up on it. The key is making that vital shift in emphasis, that sidestepping of the problem, instead of attacking it head-on.
Dr. A. A. Bridger, psychiatrist16 at Columbia University and in private practice in New York, explains how lateral thinking works with his patients. "Many people come to me wanting to stop smoking, for instance," he says. "Most people fail when they are trying to stop smoking because they wind up telling themselves, 'No, I will not smoke; no, 1 shall not smoke; no, I will not; no, I cannot...' It's a fight and what happens is you end up smoking more."
"So instead of looking at the problem from the old ways of no, and fighting it, I show them a whole new point of view—that you are your body's keeper, and your body is something through which you experience life. If you stop to think about it, there's really something helpless about your body. It can do nothing for itself. It has no choice, it is like a baby's body. You begin then a whole new way of looking at it—‘I am now going to take care of myself, and give myself some respect and protection, by not smoking.'
“There is a Japanese parable17 about a donkey tied to a pole by a rope. The rope rubs tight against his neck. The more the donkey fights and pulls on the rope, the tighter and tighter it gets around his throat—until he winds up dead. On the other hand, as soon as he stops fighting, he finds that the rope gets slack, he can walk around, maybe find some grass to eat...That's the same principle: The more you fight something the more anxious you become—the more you're involved in a bad pattern, the more difficult it is to escape pain.
"Lateral thinking," Dr. Bridger goes on, "is simply approaching a problem with what I would call an Eastern flanking maneuver18. You know, when a zen archer19 wants to hit the target with a bow and arrow, he doesn't concentrate on the target, he concentrates rather on what he has in his hands, so when he lets the arrow go, his focus is on the arrow, rather than the target. This is what an Eastern flanking maneuver implies—instead of approaching the target directly, you approach it from a sideways point of view—or laterally instead of vertically20."
"I think the answer lies in that direction," affirms Dr. Bridger. "Take the situation where someone is in a crisis. The Chinese word for crisis is divided into two characters, one meaning danger and the other meaning opportunity. We in the Western world focus only upon the ‘danger' aspect of crisis. Crisis in Western civilization has come to mean danger, period. And yet the word can also mean opportunity. Let us now suggest to the person in crisis that he cease concentrating so upon the dangers involved and the difficulties, and concentrate instead upon the opportunity—for there is always opportunity in crisis. Looking at a crisis from an opportunity point of view is a lateral thought."
(1 100 words)

New Words

smallpox
n. a highly contagious21 disease causing spots which leave marks on the skin 天花

impasse
n. a position from which progress is impossible; deadlock22 僵局;死胡同

tactics
n. a method or process of carrying out a scheme or achieving some end 战术;策略

dairymaid
n. a girl or woman who works in a dairy 牛奶场女工

dairy
n. 1. place where milk is kept and milk products are made 牛奶场;奶品场
2. shop where milk, butter, etc. are sold 乳品店

cowpox
n. a disease of cows, of which the virus was formerly23 used in vaccination against smallpox 牛痘

vaccination
n. 接种疫苗

scourge
n. thing or person that causes great trouble or misfortune 苦难的根源;灾难;祸害

dead end
n. a point beyond which progress or achievement is impossible; a street or passage closed at one end 僵局;死巷,死胡同

vainly
ad. uselessly; in vain 枉然地;徒劳地

vain
a. 1. having too high an opinion of one's looks, abilities, etc.; conceited24 自视甚高的;自负的
2. useless or futile25 无用的,无益的,无效的;徒劳的

erase8
vt. rub out; remove all traces of 擦掉;抹去

lateral
a. of, at, towards, or from the side or sides 横向的;侧面的;向侧面的

laterally
ad. in a lateral direction, sideways 横向地;侧面地;旁边地

lateral thinking
横向思维,水平思考

going
n. 1. the condition of the ground for walking, driving or riding 地面状况
2. condition of progress 进行情况;进展

framework
n. 1. set of principles or ideas used as a basis for one's judgement, decisions, etc. 参照标准;准则;观点
2. structure giving shape and support 框架,结构

vertical
a. straight up and down; at right angles to a horizontal plane 纵向的;垂直的

vertically
ad. in a vertical direction 垂直地

sequential
a. of, forming, or following in (a) sequence 相继的;连续的

flaw
n. a defect; fault; error 瑕疵;缺点

structure
n. sth. built; anything composed of parts arranged together; way in which sth. is put together, organized, built, etc. 结构;建筑物;构造物

utmost
a. greatest; highest 极度的;极高的

significance
n. importance; meaning 重要性;意义,含义

sidestep
v. step aside; avoid by stepping aside 横跨一步避开;回避

head-on
ad. in a direct manner; with the head or front first 正面地;迎头向前地

parable
n. a brief story used to teach some moral lesson or truth 寓言

donkey
n. 驴

slack
a. not tight or firm; loose 不紧的;松弛的

flank
v. be located at the side (of); attack the side (of) 位于侧面;攻击侧面

man(o)euver
n. a planned movement of troops or warships26; a skillful move or clever trick 部队等的调遣;巧计;策略

flanking maneuve
n. 侧攻策略

zen
n. a japanese form of Buddhism27, emphasizing the value of meditation28 and intuition 禅;禅宗

archer
n. a person who shoots with a bow and arrows 弓箭手

bow
n. 弓

imply
vt. express indirectly29; suggest 暗示;意味着

sideways
a. to or from a side 旁边的;向侧面的

affirm
vt. declare to be true; say firmly 断言;肯定

period
int.(美口)(常用于叙述事实或看法后表示强调)就是这话;就是这么回事

cease
vt. put an end to; stop 终止;停止

Phrases and EXpressions

take in
receive; absorb 接受;接纳;吸收

in effect
in reality 实际上

take over
take control in place of sth. else 取而代之;取得主导地位

be hung up on/about
be thinking or worrying too much about 因…而烦心;因…而心神不宁

wind up
(infml.) bring or come to an end; end in a specified30 state or circumstance (口)(使)结束;以…告终

end up
wind up; come out 结束;结果是

pull on
draw (one end of sth. long) continuously and with force 用力拉(某长形物之一端)

Proper Names

Caroline Seebohm
卡罗琳·西博姆

Edward Jenner
爱德华·詹纳(1749 — 1823,英国医生,发现牛痘对天花有免疫力,1796年试验牛痘接种成功)

Edward de Bono
爱德华·德·博诺(1933 —,美国哲学家)

Aristotelian
(古希腊哲学家和科学家)亚里士多德(式)的

Sherlock Holmes
歇洛克·福尔摩斯(英国作家 A. Conan Doyle 所著系列侦探小说中的虚构主人公,一位推理能力极强的私家大侦探)

Watson
华生(福尔摩斯的助手)

A.A.Bridger
A·A·布里杰


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 smallpox 9iNzJw     
n.天花
参考例句:
  • In 1742 he suffered a fatal attack of smallpox.1742年,他染上了致命的天花。
  • Were you vaccinated against smallpox as a child?你小时候打过天花疫苗吗?
2 lateral 83ey7     
adj.侧面的,旁边的
参考例句:
  • An airfoil that controls lateral motion.能够控制横向飞行的机翼。
  • Mr.Dawson walked into the court from a lateral door.道森先生从一个侧面的门走进法庭。
3 vertical ZiywU     
adj.垂直的,顶点的,纵向的;n.垂直物,垂直的位置
参考例句:
  • The northern side of the mountain is almost vertical.这座山的北坡几乎是垂直的。
  • Vertical air motions are not measured by this system.垂直气流的运动不用这种系统来测量。
4 impasse xcJz1     
n.僵局;死路
参考例句:
  • The government had reached an impasse.政府陷入绝境。
  • Negotiations seemed to have reached an impasse.谈判似乎已经陷入僵局。
5 apparently tMmyQ     
adv.显然地;表面上,似乎
参考例句:
  • An apparently blind alley leads suddenly into an open space.山穷水尽,豁然开朗。
  • He was apparently much surprised at the news.他对那个消息显然感到十分惊异。
6 vaccination bKGzM     
n.接种疫苗,种痘
参考例句:
  • Vaccination is a preventive against smallpox.种痘是预防天花的方法。
  • Doctors suggest getting a tetanus vaccination every ten years.医生建议每十年注射一次破伤风疫苗。
7 scourge FD2zj     
n.灾难,祸害;v.蹂躏
参考例句:
  • Smallpox was once the scourge of the world.天花曾是世界的大患。
  • The new boss was the scourge of the inefficient.新老板来了以后,不称职的人就遭殃了。
8 erase woMxN     
v.擦掉;消除某事物的痕迹
参考例句:
  • He tried to erase the idea from his mind.他试图从头脑中抹掉这个想法。
  • Please erase my name from the list.请把我的名字从名单上擦去。
9 erased f4adee3fff79c6ddad5b2e45f730006a     
v.擦掉( erase的过去式和过去分词 );抹去;清除
参考例句:
  • He erased the wrong answer and wrote in the right one. 他擦去了错误答案,写上了正确答案。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He removed the dogmatism from politics; he erased the party line. 他根除了政治中的教条主义,消除了政党界限。 来自《简明英汉词典》
10 logic j0HxI     
n.逻辑(学);逻辑性
参考例句:
  • What sort of logic is that?这是什么逻辑?
  • I don't follow the logic of your argument.我不明白你的论点逻辑性何在。
11 collapses 9efa410d233b4045491e3d6f683e12ed     
折叠( collapse的第三人称单数 ); 倒塌; 崩溃; (尤指工作劳累后)坐下
参考例句:
  • This bridge table collapses. 这张桥牌桌子能折叠。
  • Once Russia collapses, the last chance to stop Hitler will be gone. 一旦俄国垮台,抑止希特勒的最后机会就没有了。
12 frustration 4hTxj     
n.挫折,失败,失效,落空
参考例句:
  • He had to fight back tears of frustration.他不得不强忍住失意的泪水。
  • He beat his hands on the steering wheel in frustration.他沮丧地用手打了几下方向盘。
13 entirely entirely     
ad.全部地,完整地;完全地,彻底地
参考例句:
  • The fire was entirely caused by their neglect of duty. 那场火灾完全是由于他们失职而引起的。
  • His life was entirely given up to the educational work. 他的一生统统献给了教育工作。
14 pointed Il8zB4     
adj.尖的,直截了当的
参考例句:
  • He gave me a very sharp pointed pencil.他给我一支削得非常尖的铅笔。
  • She wished to show Mrs.John Dashwood by this pointed invitation to her brother.她想通过对达茨伍德夫人提出直截了当的邀请向她的哥哥表示出来。
15 laterally opIzAf     
ad.横向地;侧面地;旁边地
参考例句:
  • Shafts were sunk, with tunnels dug laterally. 竖井已经打下,并且挖有横向矿道。
  • When the plate becomes unstable, it buckles laterally. 当板失去稳定时,就发生横向屈曲。
16 psychiatrist F0qzf     
n.精神病专家;精神病医师
参考例句:
  • He went to a psychiatrist about his compulsive gambling.他去看精神科医生治疗不能自拔的赌瘾。
  • The psychiatrist corrected him gently.精神病医师彬彬有礼地纠正他。
17 parable R4hzI     
n.寓言,比喻
参考例句:
  • This is an ancient parable.这是一个古老的寓言。
  • The minister preached a sermon on the parable of the lost sheep.牧师讲道时用了亡羊的比喻。
18 maneuver Q7szu     
n.策略[pl.]演习;v.(巧妙)控制;用策略
参考例句:
  • All the fighters landed safely on the airport after the military maneuver.在军事演习后,所有战斗机都安全降落在机场上。
  • I did get her attention with this maneuver.我用这个策略确实引起了她的注意。
19 archer KVxzP     
n.射手,弓箭手
参考例句:
  • The archer strung his bow and aimed an arrow at the target.弓箭手拉紧弓弦将箭瞄准靶子。
  • The archer's shot was a perfect bull's-eye.射手的那一箭正中靶心。
20 vertically SfmzYG     
adv.垂直地
参考例句:
  • Line the pages for the graph both horizontally and vertically.在这几页上同时画上横线和竖线,以便制作图表。
  • The human brain is divided vertically down the middle into two hemispheres.人脑从中央垂直地分为两半球。
21 contagious TZ0yl     
adj.传染性的,有感染力的
参考例句:
  • It's a highly contagious infection.这种病极易传染。
  • He's got a contagious laugh.他的笑富有感染力。
22 deadlock mOIzU     
n.僵局,僵持
参考例句:
  • The negotiations reached a deadlock after two hours.两小时后,谈判陷入了僵局。
  • The employers and strikers are at a deadlock over the wage.雇主和罢工者在工资问题上相持不下。
23 formerly ni3x9     
adv.从前,以前
参考例句:
  • We now enjoy these comforts of which formerly we had only heard.我们现在享受到了过去只是听说过的那些舒适条件。
  • This boat was formerly used on the rivers of China.这船从前航行在中国内河里。
24 conceited Cv0zxi     
adj.自负的,骄傲自满的
参考例句:
  • He could not bear that they should be so conceited.他们这样自高自大他受不了。
  • I'm not as conceited as so many people seem to think.我不像很多人认为的那么自负。
25 futile vfTz2     
adj.无效的,无用的,无希望的
参考例句:
  • They were killed,to the last man,in a futile attack.因为进攻失败,他们全部被杀,无一幸免。
  • Their efforts to revive him were futile.他们对他抢救无效。
26 warships 9d82ffe40b694c1e8a0fdc6d39c11ad8     
军舰,战舰( warship的名词复数 ); 舰只
参考例句:
  • The enemy warships were disengaged from the battle after suffering heavy casualties. 在遭受惨重伤亡后,敌舰退出了海战。
  • The government fitted out warships and sailors for them. 政府给他们配备了战舰和水手。
27 Buddhism 8SZy6     
n.佛教(教义)
参考例句:
  • Buddhism was introduced into China about 67 AD.佛教是在公元67年左右传入中国的。
  • Many people willingly converted to Buddhism.很多人情愿皈依佛教。
28 meditation yjXyr     
n.熟虑,(尤指宗教的)默想,沉思,(pl.)冥想录
参考例句:
  • This peaceful garden lends itself to meditation.这个恬静的花园适于冥想。
  • I'm sorry to interrupt your meditation.很抱歉,我打断了你的沉思。
29 indirectly a8UxR     
adv.间接地,不直接了当地
参考例句:
  • I heard the news indirectly.这消息我是间接听来的。
  • They were approached indirectly through an intermediary.通过一位中间人,他们进行了间接接触。
30 specified ZhezwZ     
adj.特定的
参考例句:
  • The architect specified oak for the wood trim. 那位建筑师指定用橡木做木饰条。
  • It is generated by some specified means. 这是由某些未加说明的方法产生的。
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