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21世纪大学英语读写教程第四册 Unit4

时间:2006-02-21 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:scholaryang   字体: [ ]
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Unit 4

Text A

Pre-reading Activities

1. As you listen to the passage, fill in as much information as you can about Annette's plans.
Friday evening:
During the coming month:
Next term:
In the fall:
Next spring:

2. How did you feel while you were listening to Annette? What was it like trying to keep up with her? How do students like Annette make you feel?

College Pressures

William Zinsser

I am master of Branford College at Yale. I live on the campus and know the students well. (We have 485 of them.) I listen to their hopes and fears — and also to their stereo music and their piercing cries in the dead of night ("Does anybody care?"). They come to me to ask how to get through the rest of their lives.
Mainly I try to remind them that the road ahead is a long one and that it will have more unexpected turns than they think. There will be plenty of time to change jobs, change careers, change whole attitudes and approaches. They don't want to hear such news. They want a map — right now — that they can follow directly to career security, financial security, social security and, presumably, a prepaid grave.
What I wish for all students is some release from the grim grip of the future. I wish them a chance to enjoy each segment of their education as an experience in itself and not as a tiresome1 requirement in preparation for the next step. I wish them the right to experiment, to trip and fall, to learn that defeat is as educational as victory and is not the end of the world.
My wish, of course, is naive2. One of the few rights that America does not proclaim is the right to fail. Achievement is the national god, worshipped in our media — the million-dollar athlete, the wealthy executive — and glorified3 in our praise of possessions. In the presence of such a potent4 state religion, the young are growing up old.
I see four kinds of pressure working on college students today: economic pressure, parental5 pressure, peer pressure, and self-induced pressure. It's easy to look around for bad guys — to blame the colleges for charging too much money, the professors for assigning too much work, the parents for pushing their children too far, the students for driving themselves too hard. But there are no bad guys, only victims.
Today it is not unusual for a student, even one who works part time at college and full time during the summer, to have accumulated $5,000 in loans after four years — loans that the student must start to repay within one year after graduation (and incidentally, not all these loans are low-interest, as many non-students believe). Encouraged at the commencement ceremony to go forth6 into the world, students are already behind as they go forth. How can they not feel under pressure throughout college to prepare for this day of reckoning? Women at Yale are under even more pressure than men to justify7 their expensive education to themselves, their parents, and society. For although they leave college superbly equipped to bring fresh leadership to traditionally male jobs, society hasn't yet caught up with this fact.
Along with economic pressure goes parental pressure. Inevitably8, the two are deeply intertwined. I see students taking premedical courses with joyless determination. They go off to their labs as if they were going to the dentist. It saddens me because I know them in other corners of their life as cheerful people.
"Do you want to go to medical school?" I ask them.
"I guess so," they say, without conviction, or, "Not really."
"Then why are you going?"
"My parents want me to be a doctor. They're paying all this money and..."
Peer pressure and self-induced pressure are also intertwined, and they begin from the very start of freshman9 year. "I had a freshman student I'll call Linda," one instructor10 told me, "who came in and said she was under terrible pressure because her roommate, Barbara, was much brighter and studied all the time. I couldn't tell her that Barbara had come in two hours earlier to say the same thing about Linda."
The story is almost funny — except that it's not. It's a symptom of all the pressures put together. When every student thinks every other student is working harder and doing better, the only solution is to study harder still. I see students going off to the library every night after dinner and coming back when it closes at midnight. I wish they could sometimes forget about their peers and go to a movie. I hear the rattling11 of typewriters in the hours before dawn. I see the tension in their eyes when exams are approaching and papers are due: "Will I get everything done?"
Probably they won't. They will get sick. They will sleep. They will oversleep. They will bug12 out.
I've painted too grim a portrait of today's students, making them seem too solemn. That's only half of their story; the other half is that these students are nice people, and easy to like. They're quick to laugh and to offer friendship. They're more considerate of one another than any student generation I've ever known. If I've described them primarily as driven creatures who largely ignore the joyful13 side of life, it's because that's where the problem is — not only at Yale but throughout American education. It's why I think we should all be worried about the values that are nurturing14 a generation so fearful of risk and so goal-obsessed at such an early age.
I tell students that there is no one "right" way to get ahead — that each of them is a different person, starting from a different point and bound for a different destination. I tell them that change is healthy and that people don't have to fit into pre-arranged slots. One of my ways of telling them is to invite men and women who have achieved success outside the academic world to come and talk informally with my students during the year. I invite heads of companies, editors of magazines, politicians, Broadway producers, artists, writers, economists16, photographers, scientists, historians — a mixed bag of achievers.
I ask them to say a few words about how they got started. The students always assume that they started in their present profession and knew all along that it was what they wanted to do. But in fact, most of them got where they are by a circuitous17 route, after many side trips. The students are startled. They can hardly conceive of a career that was not preplanned. They can hardly imagine allowing the hand of God or chance to lead them down some unforeseen trail.
(1069 words)

New Words

campus
n. the grounds of a university, college or school; a university 大学校园,学校校园;大学

piercing
a. (of voices, sounds, etc.) very sharp, esp. in an unpleasant way (声音等)尖厉的,刺耳的

pierce
vi. make a hole in or through (sth.) with a sharp point 刺穿,戳穿

presumably
ad. it may be supposed; probably 假定;可能

* presume
v. believe sth. to be true without direct proof but with some feeling of being certain; suppose (没有根据地)相信;推测

grave
n. the place where a dead person is buried 坟墓
a. serious or solemn in manner; (of a situation) serious and worrying 严肃的,庄严的;(形势)严重的

gravity
n. 1. 严肃,庄严;严重
2. 重力;地心引力

grip
n. a firm hold; control 紧握;控制
vt. 1. take a very tight hold (of) 握紧,紧握
2. take hold of the attention or feelings of 吸引;引起

* segment
n. a part of sth. 部分

preparation
n. arrangement for a future event 准备

wealthy
a. rich 富有的

glorify18
vt. praise highly 颂扬,赞颂

glory
n. great fame, honor, and admiration19 光荣;荣誉

potent
a. powerful, strong, forceful or effective 强有力的;有权势的;有效力的

self-induced
caused or brought about by oneself 自己导致的

* induce
vt. lead or cause (sb.) to do sth.; persuade or influence (sb.) to do sth. 导致;劝使,诱导

* incidentally
ad. by the way 顺便说一句

commencement
n. 1. (AmE) a ceremony at which university or college students are given their degrees or diplomas (美)毕业典礼;学位授予典礼
2. beginning of sth. 开始

commence
v. begin; start 开始;着手

ceremony
n. 典礼,仪式

commencement ceremony
(AmE) a college or university graduation ceremony (美)毕业典礼

reckoning
n. settlement of an account or a bill; (fig.) punishment 结帐;(喻)算帐,惩罚

reckon
vt. 1. calculate; add up (an amount, cost, etc.) 计算;算出(数量、费用等)
2. consider, regard 认为,把…看作

day of reckoning
(a Biblical reference) the time when one must eventually be punished for what one has done wrong (源自《圣经》)清算日,最后审判日

equip
vt. prepare (sb.) for dealing20 with a particular situation by providing necessary tools, education, etc.; suply (sb./ sth. with what is needed for a particular purpose) (智力、体力上)使有准备;配备,装备

inevitably
ad. 不可必免地;必然发生地

inevitable21
a. which cannot be avoided or prevented from happening; certain to happen 不可避免的;必然发生的

intertwined
a. joined tightly together; very closely connected 互相缠结的,缠绕在一起的

premedical
a. preparing for the study of medicine 医学预科的

* dentist
n. a doctor trained to take care of people's teeth 牙医

cheerful
a. in good spirit; causing a happy feeling 兴高采烈的;使人愉快的

conviction
n. a firm opinion or belief 深信,确信;把握

roommate
n. 住在同室的人,室友

typewriter
n. 打字机

* bug
vt. 1. (AmE) (infml) trouble (sb.) continually (美俚)烦扰,纠缠
2. (infml) fit with a secret listening apparatus22 (口)在…装窃听器
n. (AmE) a tiny insect, esp. one that causes damage; (infml) a fault or difficulty (美)虫子;(口)故障;毛病

considerate
a. careful not to hurt or trouble others; thoughtful 考虑周到的;替人着想的

fearful
a. afraid, anxious 惧怕的,忧虑的

goal-obsessed
a. extremely eager to realize one's goals 一心要实现目标的

pre-arranged
a. planned or prepared in advance 预先准备好的

arrange
vt. 1. plan in advance; prepare 安排,准备
2. set in good or pleasing order 整理;排列

* slot
n. 1. a place or position in a schedule, list or series (口)(在机构、名单、程序等中的)位置,职位
2. a narrow opening in a tool or machine 狭长孔;狭槽

informally
ad. 非正式地;不拘礼节地

economist15
n. an expert in economics 经济学家

a mixed bag
a group of people or things of different kinds and different qualities (人或物的)混合体;大杂烩

circuitous
a. indirect 迂回的,绕行的

circuit
n. 1. 环行;环行道
2. 电路;线路

circular
a. 1. 环行的,圆形的
2. 循环的

trail
n. a path, often through a forest or across rough ground (荒野中的)小径,小道

Phrases and Expressions

in the dead of night
in the quietest part of the night 夜深人静之时

get through
complete successfully; manage to live through (a difficult experience or period of time) 完成;消磨,度过(时间)

right now
immediately; at this moment 立刻,马上

in itself
considered as a complete thing or experience, without thinking of effects, consequences, etc. 本身,实质上

in the presence of sb.
in the place where sb. is; with sb. there 在某人面前,当着某人的面

work on
affect; influence 对…起作用;影响

go forth (into)
set out 出发

under pressure
influenced by need or necessity; suffering stress 被催逼;在压力下

put together
(used after a noun or nouns referring to a group of people or things) combined; in total 合在一起

bug out
(AmE sl.) become mentally unbalanced (美俚)烦恼,困惑

be considerate of/to/toward sb.
pay attention to sb. 's needs, wishes, or feelings 替某人着想,体贴某人

be fearful of
be afraid of 惧怕

be bound for
intending to go to; going to 准备到…去;开往

fit into
be the right size or shape for; be suitable for 与…相符,与…相适应

all along
all the time; from the beginning 一直,始终;从一开始就

conceive of
think of 构想出;设想

Proper Names

William Zinsser
威廉·津瑟(男子名)

Branford College
布兰福德学院(美国耶鲁大学寄宿制学院之一)

Yale
(美国)耶鲁大学

Linda
琳达(女子名)

Barbara
巴巴拉(女子名)

Broadway
百老汇大街(美国纽约市的一条大街,为戏院、夜总会等娱乐场所的集中地)


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 tiresome Kgty9     
adj.令人疲劳的,令人厌倦的
参考例句:
  • His doubts and hesitations were tiresome.他的疑惑和犹豫令人厌烦。
  • He was tiresome in contending for the value of his own labors.他老为他自己劳动的价值而争强斗胜,令人生厌。
2 naive yFVxO     
adj.幼稚的,轻信的;天真的
参考例句:
  • It's naive of you to believe he'll do what he says.相信他会言行一致,你未免太单纯了。
  • Don't be naive.The matter is not so simple.你别傻乎乎的。事情没有那么简单。
3 glorified 74d607c2a7eb7a7ef55bda91627eda5a     
美其名的,变荣耀的
参考例句:
  • The restaurant was no more than a glorified fast-food cafe. 这地方美其名曰餐馆,其实只不过是个快餐店而已。
  • The author glorified the life of the peasants. 那个作者赞美了农民的生活。
4 potent C1uzk     
adj.强有力的,有权势的;有效力的
参考例句:
  • The medicine had a potent effect on your disease.这药物对你的病疗效很大。
  • We must account of his potent influence.我们必须考虑他的强有力的影响。
5 parental FL2xv     
adj.父母的;父的;母的
参考例句:
  • He encourages parental involvement in the running of school.他鼓励学生家长参与学校的管理。
  • Children always revolt against parental disciplines.孩子们总是反抗父母的管束。
6 forth Hzdz2     
adv.向前;向外,往外
参考例句:
  • The wind moved the trees gently back and forth.风吹得树轻轻地来回摇晃。
  • He gave forth a series of works in rapid succession.他很快连续发表了一系列的作品。
7 justify j3DxR     
vt.证明…正当(或有理),为…辩护
参考例句:
  • He tried to justify his absence with lame excuses.他想用站不住脚的借口为自己的缺席辩解。
  • Can you justify your rude behavior to me?你能向我证明你的粗野行为是有道理的吗?
8 inevitably x7axc     
adv.不可避免地;必然发生地
参考例句:
  • In the way you go on,you are inevitably coming apart.照你们这样下去,毫无疑问是会散伙的。
  • Technological changes will inevitably lead to unemployment.技术变革必然会导致失业。
9 freshman 1siz9r     
n.大学一年级学生(可兼指男女)
参考例句:
  • Jack decided to live in during his freshman year at college.杰克决定大一时住校。
  • He is a freshman in the show business.他在演艺界是一名新手。
10 instructor D6GxY     
n.指导者,教员,教练
参考例句:
  • The college jumped him from instructor to full professor.大学突然把他从讲师提升为正教授。
  • The skiing instructor was a tall,sunburnt man.滑雪教练是一个高高个子晒得黑黑的男子。
11 rattling 7b0e25ab43c3cc912945aafbb80e7dfd     
adj. 格格作响的, 活泼的, 很好的 adv. 极其, 很, 非常 动词rattle的现在分词
参考例句:
  • This book is a rattling good read. 这是一本非常好的读物。
  • At that same instant,a deafening explosion set the windows rattling. 正在这时,一声震耳欲聋的爆炸突然袭来,把窗玻璃震得当当地响。
12 bug 5skzf     
n.虫子;故障;窃听器;vt.纠缠;装窃听器
参考例句:
  • There is a bug in the system.系统出了故障。
  • The bird caught a bug on the fly.那鸟在飞行中捉住了一只昆虫。
13 joyful N3Fx0     
adj.欢乐的,令人欢欣的
参考例句:
  • She was joyful of her good result of the scientific experiments.她为自己的科学实验取得好成果而高兴。
  • They were singing and dancing to celebrate this joyful occasion.他们唱着、跳着庆祝这令人欢乐的时刻。
14 nurturing d35e8f9c6b6b0f1c54ced7de730a6241     
养育( nurture的现在分词 ); 培育; 滋长; 助长
参考例句:
  • These delicate plants need careful nurturing. 这些幼嫩的植物需要精心培育。
  • The modern conservatory is not an environment for nurturing plants. 这个现代化温室的环境不适合培育植物。
15 economist AuhzVs     
n.经济学家,经济专家,节俭的人
参考例句:
  • He cast a professional economist's eyes on the problem.他以经济学行家的眼光审视这个问题。
  • He's an economist who thinks he knows all the answers.他是个经济学家,自以为什么都懂。
16 economists 2ba0a36f92d9c37ef31cc751bca1a748     
n.经济学家,经济专家( economist的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The sudden rise in share prices has confounded economists. 股价的突然上涨使经济学家大惑不解。
  • Foreign bankers and economists cautiously welcomed the minister's initiative. 外国银行家和经济学家对部长的倡议反应谨慎。 来自《简明英汉词典》
17 circuitous 5qzzs     
adj.迂回的路的,迂曲的,绕行的
参考例句:
  • They took a circuitous route to avoid reporters.他们绕道避开了记者。
  • The explanation was circuitous and puzzling.这个解释很迂曲,让人困惑不解。
18 glorify MeNzm     
vt.颂扬,赞美,使增光,美化
参考例句:
  • Politicians have complained that the media glorify drugs.政治家们抱怨媒体美化毒品。
  • We are all committed to serving the Lord and glorifying His name in the best way we know.我们全心全意敬奉上帝,竭尽所能颂扬他的美名。
19 admiration afpyA     
n.钦佩,赞美,羡慕
参考例句:
  • He was lost in admiration of the beauty of the scene.他对风景之美赞不绝口。
  • We have a great admiration for the gold medalists.我们对金牌获得者极为敬佩。
20 dealing NvjzWP     
n.经商方法,待人态度
参考例句:
  • This store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing.该商店因买卖公道而享有极高的声誉。
  • His fair dealing earned our confidence.他的诚实的行为获得我们的信任。
21 inevitable 5xcyq     
adj.不可避免的,必然发生的
参考例句:
  • Mary was wearing her inevitable large hat.玛丽戴着她总是戴的那顶大帽子。
  • The defeat had inevitable consequences for British policy.战败对英国政策不可避免地产生了影响。
22 apparatus ivTzx     
n.装置,器械;器具,设备
参考例句:
  • The school's audio apparatus includes films and records.学校的视听设备包括放映机和录音机。
  • They had a very refined apparatus.他们有一套非常精良的设备。
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