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21世纪大学英语读写教程第四册 Unit6

时间:2006-02-21 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:scholaryang   字体: [ ]

Unit 6

Text A

Pre-reading Activities

First Listening
Before listening to the tape, have a quick look at the following words.




Second Listening
Listen to the tape again. They choose the best answer to each of the following questions.

1. The listening passage says that Einstein was a genius in terms of _______.
A) Emotional Intelligence or "EQ"
B) Intellectual Intelligence or "IQ"
C) both EQ and IQ
D) neither EQ nor IQ
2. Which of the following is NOT an example of Emotional Intelligence?
A) Understanding your own feelings.
B) Understanding the feelings of others.
C) Being able to handle emotions effectively.
D) Being smarter than others in your class.
3. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between EQ and IQ?
A) People tend to have more of one than the other.
B) People tend to have the same amount of each.
C) They work together to make you successful.
D) They depend on such factors as social class and how lucky you are.
4. What is the main purpose of this passage?
A) To introduce a new concept, EQ, and explain its significance.
B) To explain why EQ is more important in life than IQ.
C) To discuss different definitions of success.
D) To criticize traditional notions of intelligence.

The EQ Factor

Nancy Gibbs

It turns out that a scientist can see the future by watching four-year-olds interact with a marshmallow. The researcher invites the children, one by one, into a plain room and begins the gentle torment1. You can have this marshmallow right now, he says. But if you wait while I run an errand, you can have two marshmallows when I get back. And then he leaves.
Some children grab for the treat the minute he's out the door. Some last a few minutes before they give in. But others are determined2 to wait. They cover their eyes; they put their heads down; they sing to themselves; they try to play games or even fall asleep. When the researcher returns, he gives these children their hard-earned marshmallows. And then, science waits for them to grow up.
By the time the children reach high school, something remarkable3 has happened. A survey of the children's parents and teachers found that those who as four-year-olds had enough self-control to hold out for the second marshmallow generally grew up to be better adjusted, more popular, adventurous4, confident and dependable teenagers. The children who gave in to temptation early on were more likely to be lonely, easily frustrated5 and stubborn. They could not endure stress and shied away from challenges. And when some of the students in the two groups took the Scholastic6 Aptitude7 Test, the kids who had held out longer scored an average of 210 points higher.
When we think of brilliance8 we see Einstein, deep-eyed, woolly haired, a thinking machine with skin and mismatched socks. High achievers, we imagine, were wired for greatness from birth. But then you have to wonder why, over time, natural talent seems to ignite in some people and dim in others. This is where the marshmallows come in. It seems that the ability to delay gratification is a master skill, a triumph of the reasoning brain over the impulsive9 one. It is a sign, in short, of emotional intelligence. And it doesn't show up on an IQ test.
For most of this century, scientists have worshipped the hardware of the brain and the software of the mind; the messy powers of the heart were left to the poets. But cognitive10 theory could simply not explain the questions we wonder about most: why some people just seem to have a gift for living well; why the smartest kid in the class will probably not end up the richest; why we like some people virtually on sight and distrust others; why some people remain upbeat in the face of troubles that would sink a less resilient soul. What qualities of the mind or spirit, in short, determine who succeeds?
The phrase "emotional intelligence" was coined by Yale psychologist Peter Salovey and the University of New Hampshire's John Mayer five years ago to describe qualities like understanding one's own feelings, empathy for the feelings of others and "the regulation of emotion in a way that enhances living." Their notion is about to bound into the national conversation, handily shortened to EQ, thanks to a new book, Emotional Intelligence by Daniel Goleman. Goleman, a Harvard psychology11 Ph.D. and a New York Times science writer with a gift for making even the most difficult scientific theories digestible to lay readers, has brought together a decade's worth of behavioral research into how the mind processes feelings. His goal, he announces on the cover, is to redefine what it means to be smart. His thesis: when it comes to predicting people's success, brainpower as measured by IQ and standardized13 achievement tests may actually matter less than the qualities of mind once thought of as "character" before the word began to sound old-fashioned.
At first glance, there would seem to be little that's new here to any close reader of fortune cookies. There may be no less original idea than the notion that our hearts hold dominion14 over our heads. "I was so angry," we say, "I couldn't think straight." Neither is it surprising that "people skills" are useful, which amounts to saying, it's good to be nice. "It's so true it's trivial," says Dr. Paul McHugh, director of psychiatry15 at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. But if it were that simple, the book would not be quite so interesting or its implications so controversial.
This is no abstract investigation16. Goleman is looking for antidotes18 to restore "civility to our streets and caring to our communal19 life." He sees practical applications everywhere for how companies should decide whom to hire, how couples can increase the odds20 that their marriages will last, how parents should raise their children and how schools should teach them. When street gangs substitute for families and schoolyard insults end in stabbings, when more than half of marriages end in divorce, when the majority of the children murdered in this country are killed by parents and stepparents, many of whom say they were trying to discipline the child for behavior like blocking the TV or crying too much, it suggests a demand for remedial emotional education.
And it is here the arguments will break out. Goleman's highly popularized conclusions, says McHugh, "will chill any veteran scholar of psychotherapy and any neuroscientist who worries about how his research may come to be applied21." While many researchers in this relatively22 new field are glad to see emotional issues finally taken seriously, they fear that a notion as handy as EQ invites misuse23. Goleman admits the danger of suggesting that you can assign a numerical value to a person's character as well as his intellect; Goleman never even uses the phrase EQ in his book. But he did somewhat reluctantly approve an "unscientific" EQ test in USA Today with choices like "I am aware of even subtle feelings as I have them," and "I can sense the pulse of a group or relationship and state unspoken feelings."
"You don't want to take an average of your emotional skill," argues Harvard psychology professor Jerome Kagan, a pioneer in child-development research. "That's what's wrong with the concept of intelligence for mental skills too. Some people handle anger well but can't handle fear. Some people can't take joy. So each emotion has to be viewed differently." EQ is not the opposite of IQ. Some people are blessed with a lot of both, some with little of either. What researchers have been trying to understand is how they complement24 each other; how one's ability to handle stress, for instance, affects the ability to concentrate and put intelligence to use. Among the ingredients for success, researchers now generally agree that IQ counts for about 20%; the rest depends on everything from class to luck to the neural25 pathways that have developed in the brain over millions of years of human evolution.
(1 047 words)

New Words

(abbr.)emotional quotient 情商

vi. (with) act or have an effect on each other 相互作用;相互影响

n. soft sweet made from sugar and gelatine 果汁软糖

n. severe physical or mental suffering (肉体或精神上的)折磨,痛苦
vt. cause severe suffering to 折磨;使痛苦

n. small job that requires a short journey, usu. for sb. else (短程的)差事,差使

a. gained with great difficulty or effort 辛苦挣来的

n. investigation 调查

a. eager for or fond of adventure 渴望冒险的,喜欢冒险的

a. that may be depended on 可信赖的,可靠的

a. of schools and education 学校的;教育的;学业的

n. natural ability or skill 天生的才能或技巧;天资

n. the quality of being brilliant 光辉,辉煌;壮丽;(卓越的)才华,才智

a. 羊毛(制)的;产羊毛的;像羊毛的

vt. match (people or things) wrongly or unsuitably 使错配,配合不当

n. short stocking covering the ankle and lower part of the leg 短袜

v. (cause to) catch fire, burn (使)着火,燃烧;发光

v. (cause to) become dim (使)变暗淡;(使)变模糊;(使)失去光泽

a. (of people and their behavior) marked by sudden action that is undertaken without careful thought (指人或人的行为)凭冲动的;易冲动的

a. in a state of disorder26; dirty: causing dirt or disorder 凌乱的;脏的;搞乱的;搞脏的

a. optimistic or cheerful 乐观的;快乐的

a. 1. 有弹性的,有回弹力的;能复原的
2. 有复原力的;富有活力的;适应性强的

n. ability to imagine and share another person's feelings, experience, etc. 同情;同感;共鸣

ad. 灵巧地,熟练地;轻易地;近便地

a. that can be digested; relatively easy to understand 可消化的;可吸收的;较易理解的

a. of behavior 行为的

n. 1. statement or theory put forward and supported by argument 论题,命题;论点
2. long written essay submitted by a candidate for a university degree; dissertation27 毕业论文;学位论文

vt. make(sth.)conform to a fixed28 standard, shape, quality, type, etc. 使(某事物)标准化;使合乎标准(或规格)

n. 1. large amount of money; wealth 大笔的钱;财
2. chance; luck 机会;运气
3. person's destiny or future; fate 命运;前途

n. biscuit 饼干

fortune cookie
(U.S.)thin biscuit, folded to hold a printed message (e.g.a proverb, prophecy or joke) served in Chinese restaurants (美)签语饼(中国餐馆的折叠形小饼,内有纸条,上写预测运气的格言或幽默套语)

n. (over) rule; powerful authority; effective control 统治;管辖;支配;控制

ad. clearly, logically 清晰地;有条理地

a. causing or likely to cause argument or disagreement 引起争论的;有争议的

a. existing in thought or as an idea but not having a physical or practical existence 抽象的

n. 解毒药;(喻)矫正方法,对抗手段

n. fact or act of showing politeness; act of being civilized29 礼貌,客气,谦恭

a. 1. of or referring to a commune or a community 公共的;社区的,集体的
2. for the use of all; shared 公用的;共有的

n. (pl.) probability or chance 可能性;机会

n. 校园;操场

vt. pierce(sth.) or wound (sb.) with a pointed30 tool or weapon; push (a knife, etc.) into sb./sth. 戳(某物);刺(某人);用(刀等)刺(或戳、捅)某人(或某物)

n. instance of stabbing or being stabbed 用利器伤人

n. 继父,后父;继母,后母

n. 药品;治疗(法);补救办法;纠正办法
vt. 医治;治疗;补救;纠正

a. 补救的;纠正的;补习的

vt. 1. make (sth.) generally liked 使(某事物)被大家喜欢,使受大家欢迎
2. make (sth.) known or available to the general public, esp. by presenting it in an easily understandable form 使(某事物)众所周知;使普及

vt. 1. make cold 使变冷;使冷却;使感到冷
2. discourage 使沮丧;使扫兴
n. 寒冷;风寒;冷淡;沮丧;扫兴

n. person who studies an academic subject deeply 学者

n. treatment of mental disorders31 by psychological methods 精神疗法;心理疗法

n. 神经系统科学家

a. (of an object, tool, machine, etc.) easy to use; useful for some purpose 便于使用的;有用的

a. of, expressed in or representing numbers 数字的;用数字表示的;代表数字的

vt. 1. have a positive opinion of 赞成;称许
2. accept, permit or officially agree to 批准;允许;对…表示认可

a. the nerves 神经的

n. way or track made for or by people walking 小路,小径(= path)

Phrases and Expressions

one by one
separately; individually in order 一个一个地;依次地

right now
immediately; at this moment 立即;此刻

run an errand
carry messages or perform similar minor32 tasks 跑腿,办事(如送信、买东西等)

hold out
refuse to give in 坚持;坚定不移;不屈服

early on
soon after the start of a past event 在初期;早先

shy away from
avoid or move away from out of shyness, fear, etc. (由于羞怯或恐惧等)躲开,避开;回避

over time
as time goes by 随着时间过去

come in
have a part to play in sth. 在某事中起作用

show up
1. become visible; become increasingly vivid or obvious 显现出来;变得更鲜明;变得更醒目
2. appear; arrive; be present; turn up 出现;来到;出席;露面

at/on sight
as soon as sb./sth. is seen 一见就

in the face of
1. in spite of 不顾
2. confronted by 面对;在…面前

when it comes to
1. when the subject is; on the subject of 谈到;涉及
2. when dealing33 with 在处理…时

amount to
1. add up to; reach the total of 合计;共计
2. be equal to; be the equivalent of 等于;相当于

substitute for
serve as a substitute for, replace 代替

end in
have as a result or conclusion 以…为结果;以…告终

break out
start suddenly 突然发生;爆发

put...to use
use...for a particular purpose 使用

count for
be worth 值;(在数量、比例方面)占

Proper Names

Nancy Gibbs

Scholastic Aptitude Test
(U.S.) a test prepared and supervised by the College Entrance Examination Board to test the general intelligence and academic aptitude of a prospective applicant to a college (美)学习能力倾向测验

Peter Salovey

John Mayer

Daniel Goleman

Paul McHugh

Johns Hopkins University

USA Today

Jerome Kagan


1 torment gJXzd     
  • He has never suffered the torment of rejection.他从未经受过遭人拒绝的痛苦。
  • Now nothing aggravates me more than when people torment each other.没有什么东西比人们的互相折磨更使我愤怒。
2 determined duszmP     
  • I have determined on going to Tibet after graduation.我已决定毕业后去西藏。
  • He determined to view the rooms behind the office.他决定查看一下办公室后面的房间。
3 remarkable 8Vbx6     
  • She has made remarkable headway in her writing skills.她在写作技巧方面有了长足进步。
  • These cars are remarkable for the quietness of their engines.这些汽车因发动机没有噪音而不同凡响。
4 adventurous LKryn     
  • I was filled with envy at their adventurous lifestyle.我很羨慕他们敢于冒险的生活方式。
  • He was predestined to lead an adventurous life.他注定要过冒险的生活。
5 frustrated ksWz5t     
adj.挫败的,失意的,泄气的v.使不成功( frustrate的过去式和过去分词 );挫败;使受挫折;令人沮丧
  • It's very easy to get frustrated in this job. 这个工作很容易令人懊恼。
  • The bad weather frustrated all our hopes of going out. 恶劣的天气破坏了我们出行的愿望。 来自《简明英汉词典》
6 scholastic 3DLzs     
  • There was a careful avoidance of the sensitive topic in the scholastic circles.学术界小心地避开那个敏感的话题。
  • This would do harm to students' scholastic performance in the long run.这将对学生未来的学习成绩有害。
7 aptitude 0vPzn     
  • That student has an aptitude for mathematics.那个学生有数学方面的天赋。
  • As a child,he showed an aptitude for the piano.在孩提时代,他显露出对于钢琴的天赋。
8 brilliance 1svzs     
  • I was totally amazed by the brilliance of her paintings.她的绘画才能令我惊歎不已。
  • The gorgeous costume added to the brilliance of the dance.华丽的服装使舞蹈更加光彩夺目。
9 impulsive M9zxc     
  • She is impulsive in her actions.她的行为常出于冲动。
  • He was neither an impulsive nor an emotional man,but a very honest and sincere one.他不是个一冲动就鲁莽行事的人,也不多愁善感.他为人十分正直、诚恳。
10 cognitive Uqwz0     
  • As children grow older,their cognitive processes become sharper.孩子们越长越大,他们的认知过程变得更为敏锐。
  • The cognitive psychologist is like the tinker who wants to know how a clock works.认知心理学者倒很像一个需要通晓钟表如何运转的钟表修理匠。
11 psychology U0Wze     
  • She has a background in child psychology.她受过儿童心理学的教育。
  • He studied philosophy and psychology at Cambridge.他在剑桥大学学习哲学和心理学。
12 standardize UuMwl     
  • We will extend and standardize legal services and provide effective legal aid.拓展和规范法律服务,积极开展法律援助。
  • There is a drive both to standardise components and to reduce the number of models on offer.正在为实现零部件标准化和减少推出的型号数量而努力。
13 standardized 8hHzgs     
  • We use standardized tests to measure scholastic achievement. 我们用标准化考试来衡量学生的学业成绩。
  • The parts of an automobile are standardized. 汽车零件是标准化了的。
14 dominion FmQy1     
  • Alexander held dominion over a vast area.亚历山大曾统治过辽阔的地域。
  • In the affluent society,the authorities are hardly forced to justify their dominion.在富裕社会里,当局几乎无需证明其统治之合理。
15 psychiatry g0Jze     
  • The study appeared in the Amercian science Journal of Psychiatry.这个研究发表在美国精神病学的杂志上。
  • A physician is someone who specializes in psychiatry.精神病专家是专门从事精神病治疗的人。
16 investigation MRKzq     
  • In an investigation,a new fact became known, which told against him.在调查中新发现了一件对他不利的事实。
  • He drew the conclusion by building on his own investigation.他根据自己的调查研究作出结论。
17 antidote 4MZyg     
  • There is no known antidote for this poison.这种毒药没有解药。
  • Chinese physicians used it as an antidote for snake poison.中医师用它来解蛇毒。
18 antidotes b41113c68d2d3073f3a03516447b4675     
解药( antidote的名词复数 ); 解毒剂; 对抗手段; 除害物
  • Treatment involves giving antidotes that Bind the lead in the tissues. 治疗办法有用解毒剂,它会与组织中的铅结合而把它驱逐出去。
  • With Spleen Qi, heat antidotes, such as cough Runfei effectiveness. 具有补脾益气、清热解毒、润肺止咳等功效。
19 communal VbcyU     
  • There was a communal toilet on the landing for the four flats.在楼梯平台上有一处公共卫生间供4套公寓使用。
  • The toilets and other communal facilities were in a shocking state.厕所及其他公共设施的状况极其糟糕。
20 odds n5czT     
  • The odds are 5 to 1 that she will win.她获胜的机会是五比一。
  • Do you know the odds of winning the lottery once?你知道赢得一次彩票的几率多大吗?
21 applied Tz2zXA     
  • She plans to take a course in applied linguistics.她打算学习应用语言学课程。
  • This cream is best applied to the face at night.这种乳霜最好晚上擦脸用。
22 relatively bkqzS3     
  • The rabbit is a relatively recent introduction in Australia.兔子是相对较新引入澳大利亚的物种。
  • The operation was relatively painless.手术相对来说不痛。
23 misuse XEfxx     
  • It disturbs me profoundly that you so misuse your talents.你如此滥用自己的才能,使我深感不安。
  • He was sacked for computer misuse.他因滥用计算机而被解雇了。
24 complement ZbTyZ     
  • The two suggestions complement each other.这两条建议相互补充。
  • They oppose each other also complement each other.它们相辅相成。
25 neural DnXzFt     
  • The neural network can preferably solve the non- linear problem.利用神经网络建模可以较好地解决非线性问题。
  • The information transmission in neural system depends on neurotransmitters.信息传递的神经途径有赖于神经递质。
26 disorder Et1x4     
  • When returning back,he discovered the room to be in disorder.回家后,他发现屋子里乱七八糟。
  • It contained a vast number of letters in great disorder.里面七零八落地装着许多信件。
27 dissertation PlezS     
  • He is currently writing a dissertation on the Somali civil war.他目前正在写一篇关于索马里内战的论文。
  • He was involved in writing his doctoral dissertation.他在聚精会神地写他的博士论文。
28 fixed JsKzzj     
  • Have you two fixed on a date for the wedding yet?你们俩选定婚期了吗?
  • Once the aim is fixed,we should not change it arbitrarily.目标一旦确定,我们就不应该随意改变。
29 civilized UwRzDg     
  • Racism is abhorrent to a civilized society. 文明社会憎恶种族主义。
  • rising crime in our so-called civilized societies 在我们所谓文明社会中日益增多的犯罪行为
30 pointed Il8zB4     
  • He gave me a very sharp pointed pencil.他给我一支削得非常尖的铅笔。
  • She wished to show Mrs.John Dashwood by this pointed invitation to her brother.她想通过对达茨伍德夫人提出直截了当的邀请向她的哥哥表示出来。
31 disorders 6e49dcafe3638183c823d3aa5b12b010     
n.混乱( disorder的名词复数 );凌乱;骚乱;(身心、机能)失调
  • Reports of anorexia and other eating disorders are on the increase. 据报告,厌食症和其他饮食方面的功能紊乱发生率正在不断增长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The announcement led to violent civil disorders. 这项宣布引起剧烈的骚乱。 来自《简明英汉词典》
32 minor e7fzR     
  • The young actor was given a minor part in the new play.年轻的男演员在这出新戏里被分派担任一个小角色。
  • I gave him a minor share of my wealth.我把小部分财产给了他。
33 dealing NvjzWP     
  • This store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing.该商店因买卖公道而享有极高的声誉。
  • His fair dealing earned our confidence.他的诚实的行为获得我们的信任。
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