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21世纪大学英语读写教程第四册 Unit2

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Unit 2

Text A

Pre-reading Activities

First Listening
Before listening to the tape, have a quick look at the following words.

fare
乘客

buck1
(俚)(一)元

trace
找到

glare
盯视

gratitude2
感激

gracefully4
得体地

Second Listening
Listen to the tape again and choose the best answer to each of the following questions.

1. How did the man who had lost his wallet react to it being returned?
A) He acted hostile towards the cabdriver.
B) He took it without a word, but smiled his thanks.
C) He gave the driver some money, but no thanks.
D) He thanked the driver, but gave him no reward.
2. What does the story of the cabdriver show?
A) Cabdrivers are usually honest people.
B) People need to be shown gratitude.
C) You should always give a tip for good service.
D) It's not worthwhile to help other people.
3. Which of the following is NOT an example of expressing gratitude?
A) returning a wallet someone has left behind
B) gracefully receiving an act of kindness from another person
C) thanking and praising coworkers, family, and friends
D) making a small gesture of appreciation5
4. Why does the author consider gratitude so important?
A) It keeps people from getting angry.
B) It helps you to get what you want.
C) It makes others like you more.
D) It makes the world a more pleasant place to live.

The Gratitude We Need

A.J. Cronin

On a fine afternoon in New York, I got into a taxi. From the driver's expression and the way he slammed in his gears, I could tell that he was upset. I asked him what was the trouble. "I've got good reason to be sore," he growled7. "One of my fares left a wallet in my cab this morning. Nearly three hundred bucks8 in it. I spent more than an hour trying to trace the guy. Finally I found him at his hotel. He took the wallet without a word and glared at me as though I'd meant to steal it."
"He didn't give you a reward?" I exclaimed.
"Not a cent. But it wasn't the dough9 I wanted..." he fumbled11, then exploded, "If the guy had only said something..."
Because his helpful, honest act had not been appreciated, that cabdriver's day was poisoned, and I knew he would think twice before rendering12 a similar service. The need for gratitude is something we all feel, and denial of it can do much to harm the spirit of kindness and cooperation.
During World War II a mother in Cincinnati received a letter from her son in the army in which he spoke13 of a woman in a village in Normandy who had taken him into her home when he was wounded and hungry, and hidden him from the Germans. Later on, unhappily, the boy was killed in the Ardennes offensive. Yet the mother was moved by an irresistible14 intention. She saved up for two years, crossed the Atlantic and located the village referred to by her son. After many inquiries15, she found the woman who had sheltered her son—the wife of an impoverished16 farmer—and pressed a package into her hand. It was the gold wristwatch her son had received on his graduation, the only object of real value the boy had ever possessed17. The mother's act of gratitude so touched people's hearts that it has become something of a legend in and around the village. It has done more than fine speeches to foster good feeling toward Americans.
Gratitude is the art of receiving gracefully, of showing appreciation for every kindness, great and small. Most of us do not fail to show our pleasure when we receive hospitality, gifts and obvious benefits, but even here we can perfect our manner of showing gratitude by making it as personal and sincere as possible. Recently, when touring in southern Italy with my wife, I sent to a friend in Connecticut several bottles of a local wine which had taken our fancy. It was a trifling18 gift, yet to our surprise, instead of the conventional letter of thanks, we receive a phonograph record. When we played it, we heard our friend's voice speaking after dinner, describing how he and his guests had enjoyed the wine and thanking us for our thoughtfulness. It was pleasant to have this unusual proof that our gift had been appreciated.
Gratitude is sometimes more than a personal affair. My son, studying medicine at McGill University, told me of a patient brought into hospital in Montreal whose life was saved by a blood transfusion19. When he was well again he asked: "Isn't there any way I can discover the name of the donor20 and thank him?" He was told that names of donors21 are never revealed. A few weeks after his discharge he came back to give a pint22 of his own blood. Since then he has returned again and again for the same purpose. When a surgeon commented on this splendid record of anonymous23 service, he answered simply: "Someone I never knew did it for me. I'm just saying 'thanks'".
It is a comforting thought that gratitude can be not merely a passing sentiment but a renewal24 which can, in some instances, persist for a lifetime. A husband who recalls appreciatively some generous or unselfish act on his wife's part, or a wife who never forgets the gifts her husband has given her, does much to keep the domestic wheels spinning smoothly25. W.H. Hudson, British author and naturalist26, has written: "One evening I brought home a friend to share our usual evening meal. Afterward27 he said to me:‘You are fortunate to have a wife who, despite ill health and children to look after, cooks such excellent meals.' That tribute opened my eyes and taught me to show gratitude for my wife's day-to-day heroism28, which I had hitherto taken for granted."
It is, above all, in the little things that the grace of gratitude should be most employed. The boy who delivers our paper, the milkman, the mailman, the barber, the waitress at a restaurant, the elevator operator—all oblige us in one way or another. By showing our gratitude we make routine relationships human and render monotonous29 tasks more agreeable.
A patient of mine in London who worked as a bus conductor once confided31 to me, "I get fed up with my job sometimes. People grumble32, bother you, haven't got the right change for their tickets. But there's one lady on my bus morning and evening, and she always thanks me in a particularly friendly way when I take her ticket. I like to think she's speaking for all the passengers. It helps me to keep smiling."
Arnold Bennett had a publisher who boasted about the extraordinary efficiency of his secretary. One day Bennett said to her, "Your employer claims that you are extremely efficient. What is your secret?" "It's not my secret," the secretary replied. "It's his." Each time she performed a service, no matter how small, he never failed to acknowledge it. Because of that she took infinite pains with her work.
Some persons refrain from expressing their gratitude because they feel it will not be welcome. A patient of mine, a few weeks after his discharge from the hospital, came back to thank his nurse. "I didn't come back sooner," he explained, "because I imagined you must be bored to death with people thanking you."
"On the contrary," she replied, "I am delighted you came. Few realize how much we need encouragement and how much we are helped by those who give it."
Gratitude is something of which none of us can give too much. For on the smiles, the thanks we give, our little gestures of appreciation, our neighbors build up their philosophy of life.
(1 069 words)

New Words

gratitude
n. being thankful; readiness to show appreciation for and to return kindness 感激;感谢的心情

slam
vt. shut loudly and with force; push, move, etc., hurriedly and with great force 猛然关上;猛力推移

sore
a. painful or aching; angry, esp. from feeling unjustly treated 疼痛的;恼怒的

growl6
v. make a deep, angry sound; complain angrily 咆哮;怒冲冲地抱怨

fare
n. a paying passenger (esp. in a taxi) (尤指出租车)乘客

trace
vt. find or discover 查出,找到

glare
vi. look fiercely or fixedly33 瞪着眼看

dough
n. (sl.) money (俚语)钱

fumble10
v. speak in a clumsy and unclear way支支吾吾地说,笨嘴拙舌地说

render
vt. 1. give (esp. help) 给予;提供(帮助等)
2. cause to be 使得;使成为

denial
n. the act of denying 否认;否定;拒绝

offensive
n. a planned military attack involving large forces over a long period 军事进攻;攻势

intention
n. sth. one proposes or plans to do 意图;目的;打算

inquiry34
n. the act of inquiring; an investigation35 or examination 查询;调查

wristwatch
n. a small watch worn on a strap36 around the wrist 手表

foster
vt. help the growth and development of; encourage or promote 培养,促进;鼓励,助长

gracefully
ad. in a graceful3 way 优雅地;优美地;得体地

appreciation
n. gratefulness; gratitude 感激;感谢

hospitality
n. friendly reception; generous treatment of guests or strangers 款待;好客

sincere
a. free from pretense37 or deceit; genuine 真诚的;真挚的

trifling
a. of slight importance; of little value 微不足道的;没什么价值的

conventional
a. of the usual type; commonly used or seen 惯常的;通常的

phonograph
n. an instrument that reproduces the sounds from records 留声机;电唱机

thoughtfulness
n. the quality of being careful or considerate of others 关心;体贴

proof
n. 1. (piece of) evidence that shows that something is true or is a fact 证据; 证物
2. testing of whether something is true or a fact; demonstration38 or proving 验证;证明;证实

transfusion
n. the transfer of blood from one person or animal to another 输血

discharge
n. act of giving somebody permission to leave the army, hospital, etc. 允许离开;退伍;出院

pint
n. a measure for liquids (and some dry goods) equal to about 0.57 of a litre 品脱

surgeon
n. a doctor who performs operations 外科医生

sentiment
n. a mixture of thought and feeling 感情;情绪

renewal
n. the act of renewing or fact of being renewed 更新;恢复;重新开始;(中断后的)继续

appreciatively
ad. gratefully; thankfully 感激地

generous
a. showing readiness to give money, help, kindness, etc. 慷慨的,大方的

unselfish
a. not selfish; caring for others 无私的;为他人着想的

naturalist
n. a person who studies plants or animals, esp. outdoors 博物学家

tribute
n. a thing said or done or given as a mark of respect or affection, etc. 表示尊敬或赞美的言辞或举止;称赞;礼物

hitherto
ad. until this/that time 迄今;至今

barber
n. a person whose work is cutting men's hair and shaving them 理发师

elevator
n. a moving platform or cage to carry people and things; up and down in a building, mine, or the like 电梯

elevate
vt. lift up; raise to a higher place or rank; improve (the mind, morals, etc.) 举起,提高;提升…的职位;提高(思想修养、道德品质等)

operator
n. a person who works a machine, apparatus39, etc. 操作人员

monotonous
a. lacking in variety; boring through sameness 单调的;乏味的

agreeable
a. giving pleasure, pleasant 愉悦的;愉快的

confide30
vt. tell (a secret) to sb. 吐露(秘密)

boast
vi. talk too proudly 吹牛,自夸

employer
n. a person or firm that employs others 雇主

Phrases and Expressions

think twice
think carefully; reconsider; hesitate 仔细考虑;重新考虑;踌躇,犹豫

save up
put aside (money) for future use 储蓄;存(钱)

refer to
mention 提及

something of a
rather a; to some degree 有点儿;有几分;可以说是一个

take /catch sb.'s fancy
attract or please sb. 吸引住某人;令某人喜欢

on sb.'s part/on the part of sb.
made or done by sb. 某人所做的;某人有责任的

in one way or another
by some means or method 以某种方式(或方法)

be /get fed up with /about
be(come) tired or bored; be(come) unhappy or depressed40 厌倦;厌烦;沮丧

boast about /of
talk too proudly about /of 自吹;夸耀

take pains with
make an effort to do 努力;下功夫

refrain from
hold oneself back from; avoid 克制;避免

Proper Names

A. J. Cronin
克罗宁(1896—1981,英国医生和小说家)

Cincinnati
辛辛那提(美国俄亥俄州西南部城市)

Normandy
诺曼底(法国西北部一地区)

Ardennes
阿登高地(欧洲西部一高原森林区)

Connecticut
(美国东北部)康涅狄格州

McGill University
(加拿大蒙特利尔)麦吉尔大学

Montreal
蒙特利尔(加拿大东南部港市)

W. H. Hudson
赫德森(1841—1922,英国作家、博物学家)

Arnold Bennett
阿诺德·本涅特(1867—1931,英国小说家)


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 buck ESky8     
n.雄鹿,雄兔;v.马离地跳跃
参考例句:
  • The boy bent curiously to the skeleton of the buck.这个男孩好奇地弯下身去看鹿的骸骨。
  • The female deer attracts the buck with high-pitched sounds.雌鹿以尖声吸引雄鹿。
2 gratitude p6wyS     
adj.感激,感谢
参考例句:
  • I have expressed the depth of my gratitude to him.我向他表示了深切的谢意。
  • She could not help her tears of gratitude rolling down her face.她感激的泪珠禁不住沿着面颊流了下来。
3 graceful deHza     
adj.优美的,优雅的;得体的
参考例句:
  • His movements on the parallel bars were very graceful.他的双杠动作可帅了!
  • The ballet dancer is so graceful.芭蕾舞演员的姿态是如此的优美。
4 gracefully KfYxd     
ad.大大方方地;优美地
参考例句:
  • She sank gracefully down onto a cushion at his feet. 她优雅地坐到他脚旁的垫子上。
  • The new coats blouse gracefully above the hip line. 新外套在臀围线上优美地打着褶皱。
5 appreciation Pv9zs     
n.评价;欣赏;感谢;领会,理解;价格上涨
参考例句:
  • I would like to express my appreciation and thanks to you all.我想对你们所有人表达我的感激和谢意。
  • I'll be sending them a donation in appreciation of their help.我将送给他们一笔捐款以感谢他们的帮助。
6 growl VeHzE     
v.(狗等)嗥叫,(炮等)轰鸣;n.嗥叫,轰鸣
参考例句:
  • The dog was biting,growling and wagging its tail.那条狗在一边撕咬一边低声吼叫,尾巴也跟着摇摆。
  • The car growls along rutted streets.汽车在车辙纵横的街上一路轰鸣。
7 growled 65a0c9cac661e85023a63631d6dab8a3     
v.(动物)发狺狺声, (雷)作隆隆声( growl的过去式和过去分词 );低声咆哮着说
参考例句:
  • \"They ought to be birched, \" growled the old man. 老人咆哮道:“他们应受到鞭打。” 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He growled out an answer. 他低声威胁着回答。 来自《简明英汉词典》
8 bucks a391832ce78ebbcfc3ed483cc6d17634     
n.雄鹿( buck的名词复数 );钱;(英国十九世纪初的)花花公子;(用于某些表达方式)责任v.(马等)猛然弓背跃起( buck的第三人称单数 );抵制;猛然震荡;马等尥起后蹄跳跃
参考例句:
  • They cost ten bucks. 这些值十元钱。
  • They are hunting for bucks. 他们正在猎雄兔。 来自《简明英汉词典》
9 dough hkbzg     
n.生面团;钱,现款
参考例句:
  • She formed the dough into squares.她把生面团捏成四方块。
  • The baker is kneading dough.那位面包师在揉面。
10 fumble P6byh     
vi.笨拙地用手摸、弄、接等,摸索
参考例句:
  • His awkwardness made him fumble with the key.由于尴尬不安,他拿钥匙开锁时显得笨手笨脚。
  • He fumbled his one-handed attempt to light his cigarette.他笨拙地想用一只手点燃香烟。
11 fumbled 78441379bedbe3ea49c53fb90c34475f     
(笨拙地)摸索或处理(某事物)( fumble的过去式和过去分词 ); 乱摸,笨拙地弄; 使落下
参考例句:
  • She fumbled in her pocket for a handkerchief. 她在她口袋里胡乱摸找手帕。
  • He fumbled about in his pockets for the ticket. 他(瞎)摸着衣兜找票。
12 rendering oV5xD     
n.表现,描写
参考例句:
  • She gave a splendid rendering of Beethoven's piano sonata.她精彩地演奏了贝多芬的钢琴奏鸣曲。
  • His narrative is a super rendering of dialect speech and idiom.他的叙述是方言和土语最成功的运用。
13 spoke XryyC     
n.(车轮的)辐条;轮辐;破坏某人的计划;阻挠某人的行动 v.讲,谈(speak的过去式);说;演说;从某种观点来说
参考例句:
  • They sourced the spoke nuts from our company.他们的轮辐螺帽是从我们公司获得的。
  • The spokes of a wheel are the bars that connect the outer ring to the centre.辐条是轮子上连接外圈与中心的条棒。
14 irresistible n4CxX     
adj.非常诱人的,无法拒绝的,无法抗拒的
参考例句:
  • The wheel of history rolls forward with an irresistible force.历史车轮滚滚向前,势不可挡。
  • She saw an irresistible skirt in the store window.她看见商店的橱窗里有一条叫人着迷的裙子。
15 inquiries 86a54c7f2b27c02acf9fcb16a31c4b57     
n.调查( inquiry的名词复数 );疑问;探究;打听
参考例句:
  • He was released on bail pending further inquiries. 他获得保释,等候进一步调查。
  • I have failed to reach them by postal inquiries. 我未能通过邮政查询与他们取得联系。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
16 impoverished 1qnzcL     
adj.穷困的,无力的,用尽了的v.使(某人)贫穷( impoverish的过去式和过去分词 );使(某物)贫瘠或恶化
参考例句:
  • the impoverished areas of the city 这个城市的贫民区
  • They were impoverished by a prolonged spell of unemployment. 他们因长期失业而一贫如洗。 来自《简明英汉词典》
17 possessed xuyyQ     
adj.疯狂的;拥有的,占有的
参考例句:
  • He flew out of the room like a man possessed.他像着了魔似地猛然冲出房门。
  • He behaved like someone possessed.他行为举止像是魔怔了。
18 trifling SJwzX     
adj.微不足道的;没什么价值的
参考例句:
  • They quarreled over a trifling matter.他们为这种微不足道的事情争吵。
  • So far Europe has no doubt, gained a real conveniency,though surely a very trifling one.直到现在为止,欧洲无疑地已经获得了实在的便利,不过那确是一种微不足道的便利。
19 transfusion wnbwQ     
n.输血,输液
参考例句:
  • She soon came to her senses after a blood transfusion.输血后不久她就苏醒了。
  • The doctor kept him alive by a blood transfusion.医生靠输血使他仍然活着。
20 donor dstxI     
n.捐献者;赠送人;(组织、器官等的)供体
参考例句:
  • In these cases,the recipient usually takes care of the donor afterwards.在这类情况下,接受捐献者以后通常会照顾捐赠者。
  • The Doctor transplanted the donor's heart to Mike's chest cavity.医生将捐赠者的心脏移植进麦克的胸腔。
21 donors 89b49c2bd44d6d6906d17dca7315044b     
n.捐赠者( donor的名词复数 );献血者;捐血者;器官捐献者
参考例句:
  • Please email us to be removed from our active list of blood donors. 假如你想把自己的名字从献血联系人名单中删去,请给我们发电子邮件。
  • About half this amount comes from individual donors and bequests. 这笔钱大约有一半来自个人捐赠及遗赠。 来自《简明英汉词典》
22 pint 1NNxL     
n.品脱
参考例句:
  • I'll have a pint of beer and a packet of crisps, please.我要一品脱啤酒和一袋炸马铃薯片。
  • In the old days you could get a pint of beer for a shilling.从前,花一先令就可以买到一品脱啤酒。
23 anonymous lM2yp     
adj.无名的;匿名的;无特色的
参考例句:
  • Sending anonymous letters is a cowardly act.寄匿名信是懦夫的行为。
  • The author wishes to remain anonymous.作者希望姓名不公开。
24 renewal UtZyW     
adj.(契约)延期,续订,更新,复活,重来
参考例句:
  • Her contract is coming up for renewal in the autumn.她的合同秋天就应该续签了。
  • Easter eggs symbolize the renewal of life.复活蛋象征新生。
25 smoothly iiUzLG     
adv.平滑地,顺利地,流利地,流畅地
参考例句:
  • The workmen are very cooperative,so the work goes on smoothly.工人们十分合作,所以工作进展顺利。
  • Just change one or two words and the sentence will read smoothly.这句话只要动一两个字就顺了。
26 naturalist QFKxZ     
n.博物学家(尤指直接观察动植物者)
参考例句:
  • He was a printer by trade and naturalist by avocation.他从事印刷业,同时是个博物学爱好者。
  • The naturalist told us many stories about birds.博物学家给我们讲述了许多有关鸟儿的故事。
27 afterward fK6y3     
adv.后来;以后
参考例句:
  • Let's go to the theatre first and eat afterward. 让我们先去看戏,然后吃饭。
  • Afterward,the boy became a very famous artist.后来,这男孩成为一个很有名的艺术家。
28 heroism 5dyx0     
n.大无畏精神,英勇
参考例句:
  • He received a medal for his heroism.他由于英勇而获得一枚奖章。
  • Stories of his heroism resounded through the country.他的英雄故事传遍全国。
29 monotonous FwQyJ     
adj.单调的,一成不变的,使人厌倦的
参考例句:
  • She thought life in the small town was monotonous.她觉得小镇上的生活单调而乏味。
  • His articles are fixed in form and monotonous in content.他的文章千篇一律,一个调调儿。
30 confide WYbyd     
v.向某人吐露秘密
参考例句:
  • I would never readily confide in anybody.我从不轻易向人吐露秘密。
  • He is going to confide the secrets of his heart to us.他将向我们吐露他心里的秘密。
31 confided 724f3f12e93e38bec4dda1e47c06c3b1     
v.吐露(秘密,心事等)( confide的过去式和过去分词 );(向某人)吐露(隐私、秘密等)
参考例句:
  • She confided all her secrets to her best friend. 她向她最要好的朋友倾吐了自己所有的秘密。
  • He confided to me that he had spent five years in prison. 他私下向我透露,他蹲过五年监狱。 来自《简明英汉词典》
32 grumble 6emzH     
vi.抱怨;咕哝;n.抱怨,牢骚;咕哝,隆隆声
参考例句:
  • I don't want to hear another grumble from you.我不愿再听到你的抱怨。
  • He could do nothing but grumble over the situation.他除了埋怨局势之外别无他法。
33 fixedly 71be829f2724164d2521d0b5bee4e2cc     
adv.固定地;不屈地,坚定不移地
参考例句:
  • He stared fixedly at the woman in white. 他一直凝视着那穿白衣裳的女人。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The great majority were silent and still, looking fixedly at the ground. 绝大部分的人都不闹不动,呆呆地望着地面。 来自英汉文学 - 双城记
34 inquiry nbgzF     
n.打听,询问,调查,查问
参考例句:
  • Many parents have been pressing for an inquiry into the problem.许多家长迫切要求调查这个问题。
  • The field of inquiry has narrowed down to five persons.调查的范围已经缩小到只剩5个人了。
35 investigation MRKzq     
n.调查,调查研究
参考例句:
  • In an investigation,a new fact became known, which told against him.在调查中新发现了一件对他不利的事实。
  • He drew the conclusion by building on his own investigation.他根据自己的调查研究作出结论。
36 strap 5GhzK     
n.皮带,带子;v.用带扣住,束牢;用绷带包扎
参考例句:
  • She held onto a strap to steady herself.她抓住拉手吊带以便站稳。
  • The nurse will strap up your wound.护士会绑扎你的伤口。
37 pretense yQYxi     
n.矫饰,做作,借口
参考例句:
  • You can't keep up the pretense any longer.你无法继续伪装下去了。
  • Pretense invariably impresses only the pretender.弄虚作假欺骗不了真正的行家。
38 demonstration 9waxo     
n.表明,示范,论证,示威
参考例句:
  • His new book is a demonstration of his patriotism.他写的新书是他的爱国精神的证明。
  • He gave a demonstration of the new technique then and there.他当场表演了这种新的操作方法。
39 apparatus ivTzx     
n.装置,器械;器具,设备
参考例句:
  • The school's audio apparatus includes films and records.学校的视听设备包括放映机和录音机。
  • They had a very refined apparatus.他们有一套非常精良的设备。
40 depressed xu8zp9     
adj.沮丧的,抑郁的,不景气的,萧条的
参考例句:
  • When he was depressed,he felt utterly divorced from reality.他心情沮丧时就感到完全脱离了现实。
  • His mother was depressed by the sad news.这个坏消息使他的母亲意志消沉。
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TAG标签:   大学英语  读写教程  第四册  unit
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