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21世纪大学英语读写教程第一册 Unit8

时间:2006-02-21 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:yxdzgd5   字体: [ ]
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Unit 8

Text A

Listening

First Listening
Before listening to the tape, have a quick look at the following words.

description
描述

communicate
交流

potential
潜力

creative
创造性的

Second Lister
Listen to the tape again. Then, choose the best answer to each of the following questions.

1. What is the main topic of the listening passage?
A) The history of the computer.
B) The future of the information highway.
C) Practical uses of the Internet.
D) How the Internet was invented.
2. How did Bill Gates learn about the first personal computer?
A) He invented it.
B) He read about it in a magazine.
C) One of his professors at Harvard University told him about it.
D) One of his friends told him about it.
3. Who does Gates feel should make decisions about the information highway?
A) Elected officials.
B) International political organizations.
C) Computer programmers.
D) Everyday people as well as experts.
4. What does Gates say his purpose in writing this book is?
A) To make more money.
B) To publicize the Internet.
C) To encourage people to discuss the new technologies.
D) To warn people about the dangers of new technologies.

Pre-reading Questions

1. What do you know about Bill Gates and his company Microsoft? What is Gates most famous for?
2. What do you consider to be the most important technological1 achievements of the last 20 years? Why is each important?
3. What kind of technological innovations might we see in the next 20 years?
4. Skim the text to get the answers to the following questions:
a) What sort of "revolution" does Gates believe is currently occurring?
b) What stage of the revolution are we in now?
c) How long does Gates expect it to go on?

Foreword

Bill Gates

The past twenty years have been an incredible adventure for me. It started on a day when, as a college sophomore2, l stood in Harvard Square with my friend Paul Allen and pored over the description of a kit3 computer in Popular Electronics magazine. As we read excitedly about the first truly personal computer, Paul and I didn't know exactly how it would be used, but we were sure it would change us and the world of computing4. We were right. The personal computer revolution happened and it has affected5 millions of lives. It has led us to places we had barely imagined.
We are all beginning another great journey. We aren't sure where this one will lead us either, but again I am certain this revolution will touch even more lives and take us all farther. The major changes coming will be in the way people communicate with each other. The benefits and problems arising from this upcoming communications revolution will be much greater than those brought about by the PC revolution.
There is never a reliable map for unexplored territory, but we can learn important lessons from the creation and evolution of the $120-billion personal-computer industry. The PC — its evolving hardware, business applications, on-line systems. Internet connections, electronic mail, multimedia6 titles, authoring tools, and games — is the foundation for the next revolution.
During the PC industry's infancy7, the mass media paid little attention to what was going on in the brand-new business. Those of us who were attracted by computers and the possibilities they promised were unnoticed outside our own circles.
But this next journey, to the so-called information highway, is the topic of endless newspaper and magazine articles, television and radio broadcasts, conferences, and widespread speculation8. There has been an unbelievable amount of interest in this subject during the last few years, both inside and outside the computer industry. The interest is not confined only to developed countries, and it goes well beyond the large numbers of personal-computer users.
Thousands of informed and uninformed people are now speculating publicly about the information highway. The amount of misunderstanding about the technology and its possible dangers surprises me. Some people think the highway is simply today's Internet or the delivery of 500 simultaneous channels of television. Others hope or fear it will create computers as smart as human beings. Those developments will come, but they are not the highway.
The revolution in communications is just beginning. It will take place over several decades, and will be driven by new "applications" — new tools, often meeting currently unforeseen needs. During the next few years, major decisions will have to be made. It is crucial that a broad set of people — not just technologists or those who happen to be in the computer industry — participate in the debate about how this technology should be shaped. If that can be done, the highway will serve the purposes users want. Then it will gain broad acceptance and become a reality.
I'm writing this book The Road Ahead as part of my contribution to the debate and, although it's a tall order, I hope it can serve as a travel guide for the forthcoming journey. I do this with some misgivings10. We've all smiled at predictions from the past that look silly today. History is full of now ironic11 examples — the Oxford12 professor who in 1878 dismissed the electric light as a gimmick13; the commissioner14 of U.S. patents who in 1899 asked that his office be abolished because "everything that can be invented has been invented." This is meant to be a serious book, although ten years from now it may not appear that way. What I've said that turned out to be right will be considered obvious and what was wrong will be humorous.
Anyone expecting an autobiography15 or a treatise16 on what it's like to have been as lucky as I have been will be disappointed. Perhaps when I've retired17 I will get around to writing that book. This book looks primarily to the future.
Anyone hoping for a technological treatise will be disappointed, too. Everyone will be touched by the information highway, and everyone ought to be able to understand its implications. That's why my goal from the very beginning was to write a book that as many people as possible could understand.
The process of thinking about and writing the present book took longer than I expected. Indeed, estimating the time it would take proved to be as difficult as projecting the development schedule of a major software project. The only part that was easy was the cover photo which we finished well ahead of schedule. I enjoy writing speeches and had thought writing a book would be like writing them. I imagined writing a chapter would be the equivalent of writing a speech. The error in my thinking was similar to the one software developers often run into — a program ten times as long is about one hundred times more complicated to write. I should have known better.
And here it is. I hope it stimulates19 understanding, debate, and creative ideas about how we can take advantage of all that's sure to be happening in the decade ahead.
(866 words)

New Words

foreword
n. a short introduction at the beginning of a book 序言,前言

incredible
a. unbelievable; extraordinary 难以置信的;了不起的

sophomore
n. a student in the second year of college or high school(中学、大学)二年级学生

pore
vi. (over) study with close attention 专心阅读;钻研

description
n. saying in words what sb. or sth. is like 描写,描述

kit
n. a set of all the parts needed to assemble sth. 配套元件

*compute
v. calculate ( a result, answer, sum, etc.) esp. with a computer(尤指用计算机)计算

barely
ad. only just; hardly 仅仅;几乎不

upcoming
a. about to happen 即将来临的

PC (abbr.)
personal computer 个人计算机

reliable
a. that can be relied on; dependable 可靠的; 确实的

territory
n. (an area of) land, esp. ruled by one government 领土

*creation
n. the act or process of creating sth. 创造; 创作

evolution
n. 1. the gradual change and development 演变,发展
2. (the theory of) the development of the various types of plants, animals, etc., from earlier and simpler forms 进化(论)

evolve
vt. 演化,发展,逐步形成;进化

application
n. 1. (an instance of) putting to practical use 应用,运用
2. a computer software program 应用软件程序

on-line
a. 联机的,联线的

Internet
n. 因特网,国际互联网

connection
n. 连接,连结;联系,关系

electronic
a. 电子的

multimedia
n.& a. 多媒体(的)

title
n. (多媒体)题标;标题;题目

author
vt. 写作;创造
n. 作者

foundation
n. 基础

infancy
n. 婴儿期;幼儿期;初期

attract
vt. cause to like, admire, notice, or turn towards; arouse (interest, etc.); prompt 引起…的注意(或兴趣等),吸引;引起(兴趣等);激起

possibility
n. 1. (often pi.) power of developing, growing, or being used or useful in the future [常用复数] 发展前途,潜在价值
2. the state of being possible; likelihood 可能;可能性

so-called
a. called or named thus but perhaps wrongly or doubtfully 所谓的,号称的

endless
a. without end, or seeming to be without end(似乎)无穷尽的;没完没了的

conference
n. a meeting for discussion 会议,讨论会

confine
vt. (to) restrict or keep within certain limits 限制,使局限

speculate
vi. 猜测;投机

amount
n. 量,数量;总数,总额

misunderstanding
n. 误解,曲解

misunderstand
v. 误解,误会

delivery
n. 传送;投递;运载

*simultaneous
a. happening or being done at the same time 同时发生的,同时进行的

channel
n. 频道;水道;海峡

create
vt. cause (sth. new) to exist; produce (sth. new) 创造;创作

unforeseen
a. not known in advance; unexpected 未预见到的;意料之外的

crucial
a. (to, for) of deciding importance 决定性的;至关重要的

technologist
n. an expert in technology 技术专家

contribution
n. 捐款;捐献;贡献

debate
n. a formal argument or discussion(就…)进行辩论
v. have a debate about; take part in a debate 辩论;讨论

purpose
n. that which one means to do, get, be, etc.; intention 目的;意图

acceptance
n. 接受

*forthcoming
a. happening or appearing in the near future 即将到来的,即将出现的

misgiving9
n. [复数] 疑虑,担忧

prediction
n. sth. that is said or described in advance 预言

gimmick
n. (骗人的)玩意儿

*commissioner
n. (政府厅、局、处等部门的)长官;委员;专员

*patent
n. 专利;专利权

*abolish
vt. put an end to, do away with 取消,废除

humorous
a. funny and amusing; having or showing a sense of humour 幽默的;滑稽的;富有幽默感的

autobiography
n. a book written by oneself about one's own life 自传

treatise
n. 专著;(专题)论文

retire
vi. stop working at one's job, profession, etc., usu. because of age 退休,退职

primarily
ad. mainly; chiefly 主要地;首要地

technological
a. of or related to technology 技术的;工艺(学)的

implication
n. 含意,暗示

process
n. 过程;进程

estimate
vt. 估计,估量
n. 估计

project
vt. make plans for 设计,规划
n. 规划,计划;(工程)项目

chapter
n. (书的)章,回

equivalent
n. sth. that is equal in meaning, amount, value 相等物;等值物;等量物
a. 相等的;等值的;等量的

complicated
a. very difficult to understand 复杂的;难解的;难懂的

stimulate18
vt. excite (the body or mind), encourage 刺激;激发;促使

advantage
n. 有利条件,优势;好处;利益

Phrases and Expressions

communicate with
share or exchange opinions, news, information, etc. with 与…交流

arise from
result from 由 … 产生,由 … 引起

bring about
cause to happen 带来,造成

go on
take place or happen 发生

go beyond
exceed 超过;越过

tall order
a task difficult to perform 难以完成的任务,过高要求

get around to /get round to
find time for (sth. or doing sth.) 抽出时间去做

look to
give one's attention to 展望

ahead of schedule
before the planned or expected time 提前

run into
1. meet (difficulties, etc.) 遭遇(困难等)
2. meet by chance 偶然碰见,撞见

take advantage of
make use of 利用

Proper Names

Bill Gates
比尔·盖茨(人名)

Harvard Square
哈佛(大学)广场

Paul Allen
保罗·艾伦(人名)

Popular Electronics
《大众电子学》(杂志名)

The Road Ahead
《未来之路》(书名)

Oxford
牛津(英格兰中南部城市,牛津大学所在地);牛津大学


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 technological gqiwY     
adj.技术的;工艺的
参考例句:
  • A successful company must keep up with the pace of technological change.一家成功的公司必须得跟上技术变革的步伐。
  • Today,the pace of life is increasing with technological advancements.当今, 随着科技进步,生活节奏不断增快。
2 sophomore PFCz6     
n.大学二年级生;adj.第二年的
参考例句:
  • He is in his sophomore year.他在读二年级。
  • I'm a college sophomore majoring in English.我是一名英语专业的大二学生。
3 kit D2Rxp     
n.用具包,成套工具;随身携带物
参考例句:
  • The kit consisted of about twenty cosmetic items.整套工具包括大约20种化妆用品。
  • The captain wants to inspect your kit.船长想检查你的行装。
4 computing tvBzxs     
n.计算
参考例句:
  • to work in computing 从事信息处理
  • Back in the dark ages of computing, in about 1980, they started a software company. 早在计算机尚未普及的时代(约1980年),他们就创办了软件公司。
5 affected TzUzg0     
adj.不自然的,假装的
参考例句:
  • She showed an affected interest in our subject.她假装对我们的课题感到兴趣。
  • His manners are affected.他的态度不自然。
6 multimedia BnSzdj     
adj.多种手段的,多媒体的;n.多媒体
参考例句:
  • Multimedia is the combination of computer and video technology.多媒体是计算机和视频技术的结合。
  • Adam raised the issue of multimedia applications and much useful discussion ensued.亚当提出了多媒体应用的问题,从而引发了许多有益的讨论。
7 infancy F4Ey0     
n.婴儿期;幼年期;初期
参考例句:
  • He came to England in his infancy.他幼年时期来到英国。
  • Their research is only in its infancy.他们的研究处于初级阶段。
8 speculation 9vGwe     
n.思索,沉思;猜测;投机
参考例句:
  • Her mind is occupied with speculation.她的头脑忙于思考。
  • There is widespread speculation that he is going to resign.人们普遍推测他要辞职。
9 misgiving tDbxN     
n.疑虑,担忧,害怕
参考例句:
  • She had some misgivings about what she was about to do.她对自己即将要做的事情存有一些顾虑。
  • The first words of the text filled us with misgiving.正文开头的文字让我们颇为担心。
10 misgivings 0nIzyS     
n.疑虑,担忧,害怕;疑虑,担心,恐惧( misgiving的名词复数 );疑惧
参考例句:
  • I had grave misgivings about making the trip. 对于这次旅行我有过极大的顾虑。
  • Don't be overtaken by misgivings and fear. Just go full stream ahead! 不要瞻前顾后, 畏首畏尾。甩开膀子干吧! 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
11 ironic 1atzm     
adj.讽刺的,有讽刺意味的,出乎意料的
参考例句:
  • That is a summary and ironic end.那是一个具有概括性和讽刺意味的结局。
  • People used to call me Mr Popularity at high school,but they were being ironic.人们中学时常把我称作“万人迷先生”,但他们是在挖苦我。
12 Oxford Wmmz0a     
n.牛津(英国城市)
参考例句:
  • At present he has become a Professor of Chemistry at Oxford.他现在已是牛津大学的化学教授了。
  • This is where the road to Oxford joins the road to London.这是去牛津的路与去伦敦的路的汇合处。
13 gimmick Iefzy     
n.(为引人注意而搞的)小革新,小发明
参考例句:
  • He dismissed the event as just a publicity gimmick.他不理会这件事,只当它是一种宣传手法。
  • It is just a public relations gimmick.这只不过是一种公关伎俩。
14 commissioner gq3zX     
n.(政府厅、局、处等部门)专员,长官,委员
参考例句:
  • The commissioner has issued a warrant for her arrest.专员发出了对她的逮捕令。
  • He was tapped for police commissioner.他被任命为警务处长。
15 autobiography ZOOyX     
n.自传
参考例句:
  • He published his autobiography last autumn.他去年秋天出版了自己的自传。
  • His life story is recounted in two fascinating volumes of autobiography.这两卷引人入胜的自传小说详述了他的生平。
16 treatise rpWyx     
n.专著;(专题)论文
参考例句:
  • The doctor wrote a treatise on alcoholism.那位医生写了一篇关于酗酒问题的论文。
  • This is not a treatise on statistical theory.这不是一篇有关统计理论的论文。
17 retired Njhzyv     
adj.隐退的,退休的,退役的
参考例句:
  • The old man retired to the country for rest.这位老人下乡休息去了。
  • Many retired people take up gardening as a hobby.许多退休的人都以从事园艺为嗜好。
18 stimulate wuSwL     
vt.刺激,使兴奋;激励,使…振奋
参考例句:
  • Your encouragement will stimulate me to further efforts.你的鼓励会激发我进一步努力。
  • Success will stimulate the people for fresh efforts.成功能鼓舞人们去作新的努力。
19 stimulates 7384b1562fa5973e17b0984305c09f3e     
v.刺激( stimulate的第三人称单数 );激励;使兴奋;起兴奋作用,起刺激作用,起促进作用
参考例句:
  • Exercise stimulates the body. 运动促进身体健康。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Alcohol stimulates the action of the heart. 酒刺激心脏的活动。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
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TAG标签:   大学英语  读写教程  第一册  unit
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