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21世纪大学英语读写教程第一册 Unit10

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Unit 10

Text A

Listening

First Listening
Before listening to the tape, have a quick look at the following words and phrases.

overseas
向海外

fantasy
幻想

cell
细胞

gene1
基因

identical twins
同卵双生胎

Second Listening
Listen to the tape again. Then, choose the best answer to each of the following questions.

1. The main purpose of this listening passage is _________.
A) to give information about a new scientific discovery
B) to discuss political problems in the United States
C) to argue for cloning
D) to argue against cloning
2. Which of the following is the best definition of the verb "to clone"?
A) to be re-elected president for a second term
B) to photocopy2 an entire book
C) to make a genetic3 copy of an animal or a person
D) to transplant an organ from an animal to a human
3. According to the listening, cloning humans is _________.
A) not yet possible
B) highly controversial
C) illegal in the United States
D) both A) and B)
4. The listening concludes that most questions about cloning _________.
A) will be decided4 by the courts
B) are up to each individual concerned
C) have not yet been answered
D) do not really matter

Cloning:
good Science or Baaaad Jdea

Chana Freimans Stiefel

Just before President Clinton heads to the hospital for knee surgery, he asks another Bill Clinton to meet Russian President Boris Yeltsin at an overseas meeting. Meanwhile, a third Bill Clinton is out playing golf, while a fourth is helping5 daughter Chelsea with a science project.
Sound far-fetched? That day may come. Scientists in Scotland recently announced that, for the first time, they have cloned an exact copy of an adult sheep. The cloned baby lamb, named Dolly, has the exact same genes6 as the adult sheep from which she was cloned. In other words, the two are identical twins; only Dolly is six years younger. The goal of embryologist lan Wilmut, the lead scientist, is to develop a way to raise identical sheep that produce medications for humans.
A week after Wilmut's announcement, scientists in Oregon disclosed that they had used a different technique to clone monkeys, close cousins of humans. Faster than you can say "Frankenstein," these accomplishments9 triggered a worldwide debate: Should scientists be allowed to clone animals? Will humans be next? Is cloning unethical and dangerous—or is it a valuable research tool?
All attempts at cloning were largely unsuccessful until 1984. That's when a scientist in Denmark separated cells from a sheep's embryo7. An embryo is an early stage of development in which cells are busy dividing and "transforming" into specialized10 cells like skin, eye, or muscle cells.
Unlike a skin cell, an embryo is on its way to becoming a complete living thing. The Danish scientist combined an embryo cell with an egg cell from another sheep. He implanted the fused cell - then a newly growing embryo - into a grown female sheep. To much surprise, the embryo grew into a baby lamb. Since then, other scientists have used embryos12 to clone cattle, pigs, goats, rabbits - and, now, even monkeys.
So what makes Wilmut's sheep unique? Instead of using early-stage embryo cells, Wilmut used cells from the udder of an adult sheep. In theory, that's like using one of your skin cells to clone a new you!
Wilmut knew that each cell of the body contains a full set of genetic instructions—a blueprint13 to grow a complete individual. (The only exceptions are egg and sperm14 cells, each of which contains half the genes to grow a new individual.) Once cells have specialized, on their way to becoming skin or eye or udder cells, most of the genetic instructions to make a full being are turned off. Until now, scientists believed that specialized cells could not be used to form a complete organism.
Wilmut proved them wrong. He found a way to "reprogram" an udder cell and make it grow into a new cloned lamb. An amazing fact: Dolly has no biological father.
Wilmut's success didn't come easily. He has been studying reproductive science for more than two decades. Last year, he used embryos to successfully clone two sheep. Then he forged ahead to clone an adult sheep. But, of 277 udder cells he fused with egg cells, only 30 began to develop into embryos. He implanted 29 of those into female sheep. Only one adult gave birth to a lamb.
Other scientists have jumped in to repeat Wilmut's experiment with other animals, including cows. And that's what has scientists, animal-rights activists16, politicians—even President Clinton — up in arms. How far, they wonder, will cloning go?
Wilmut maintains that cloning animals has tremendous potential for helping people. Cloned sheep, he says, could be used as living drug factories. Scientists could "engineer" sheep that produce drugs in their milk. And by altering the proteins on the surfaces of animal organs to make them more like human organs, scientists believe they may be able to create a plentiful17 source of organ donors19 for people.
Why not clone humans as organ donors? Theoretically, Wilmut says, there is no reason his techniques couldn't someday be used to clone people. Think about the possibilities: a whole team of Michael Jordans, a scientific panel of Albert Einsteins, a movie starring and co-starring Brad Pitt.
On a more serious note, some fertility specialists argue that couples who have difficulty conceiving a baby could make copies of themselves. And parents whose child has a fatal disease like cancer might be able to clone the child, creating a twin who is an exact match for bone-marrow20 donation.
But even lan Wilmut draws the line at cloning humans. "All of us would find that offensive," he says. Several countries, including Britain, Denmark, Germany, and Australia, have outlawed22 all scientific work on cloning humans. The U.S. has no such law, but President Clinton has set up a panel of scientists and ethicists to study the issue. In the meantime, Clinton has imposed a ban on using Federal money to clone humans.
Humans are more than the sum of their genes, argues Mark Hanson, an ethicist23 at an ethics24 research institute in Briarcliff Manor25, New York. Though they look exactly the same, clones are not necessarily carbon copies. The younger twin might grow up with different influences—say, unusual friends or special teachers. A cloned Albert Einstein might flunk26 physics. A cloned Madonna might sing off-key.
Say you were cloned. Would your twin live a shorter life because he or she started out with teenage genes? Scientists aren't sure. And how could you prevent someone from taking a sample of your hair and making a clone of you? Again, no solutions.
Some opponents of cloning also object to the use of animals as research tools. "Next, they'll be cloning minks28 and foxes to make more fur coats," says Cleveland Amory, president and founder29 of the Fund for Animals, an animal rights group.
What do you think? Should scientists be allowed to clone animals? How about humans?
(969 words)

New Words

cloning
n. 克隆,无性繁殖

surgery
n. 手术;外科

overseas
a. existing somewhere across the sea; foreign (在)海外的;外国的
ad. to, at, or in somewhere across the sea 向海外;在海外

meanwhile
ad. during the same period of time 同时

golf
n. 高尔夫球

far-fetched
a. improbable; not naturally connected 不大可能的;牵强的

lamb
n. a young sheep; the meat of a young sheep 羔羊;羔羊肉

gene
n. 基因

identical
a. 1. (with, to) exactly alike 一模一样的a.
2. the same 同一的
3. 同卵的

twin
n. 孪生儿之一;[复数] 双胞胎
a. 孪生的;成双的

identical twins
[复数] 同卵双生胎;全等双生胎

embryologist
n. 胚胎学家

*medication
n. 1. medicine used to cure illness 药物
2. 药物治疗

*disclose
vt. 1. make known 透露;使公开
2. show by uncovering 使显露

*clone
vt. 克隆,(无性繁殖)复制

accomplishment8
n. a remarkable30 achievement 成就;造诣

*trigger
vt. (off) start (a chain of events) 触发;激起
n. 板机;引爆器

unethical
a. morally wrong 不道德的

attempt
n. an effort made to do sth. 企图,尝试
vt. make an effort at; try 试图做

cell
n. 细胞

embryo
n. 胚胎

transform
vt. change completely in form, appearance or nature 彻底改变;将…转化

specialized, -ised
a. 1. fit for one particular purpose 专门的
2. 专化的;特化的

specialize, -ise
v. 1. 专化,特化
2.(in)专攻;专门研究

muscle
n. 肌肉

implant11
vt. (in, into) fix deeply in the body or mind 植入;灌输

fuse
vt. 1. cause to melt in great heat 熔化
2. cause to join by melting 熔合

female
a. 女性的;雌的
n. 女子;雌性动物

rabbit
n. 野兔;兔肉

udder
n. (母牛、母山羊的)乳房;乳腺

contain
vt. hold, have within itself 包含,容纳

*genetica. 遗传的;基因的

blueprint
n. a photographic copy in white or blue paper 蓝图;计划

exception
n. 例外

sperm
n. 精液;精子

organism
n. 1. a living being 生物,有机体
2. a whole made of special parts 有机组织

reprogram
vt. l. 改编…的编码指令序列
2. 为…重新编程

reproductive
a. concerned with producing young or copying 生殖的;复制的

*forge
vi. (ahead) move steadily31 and purposely forward 稳步前进

activist15
n. a person who takes or supports vigorous action, esp. for a political cause 激进分子,积极分子

tremendous
a. very great in size, amount or degree 巨大的,极大的

alter
v. (cause to) become different 改变,(使)变样

protein
n. 蛋白质

organ
n. 1. a part of the body with a particular function 器官n.
2. 风琴;管风琴

plentiful
a. existing in large amounts or numbers 充足的,丰富的

donor18
n. l.(组织、器官等的)供体,供者
2. a person who gives or presents 赠送人;捐赠者

theoretically
ad. according to theory 理论上

panel
n. 1. a small group of people chosen to do sth. 专门小组
2. 镶板;嵌板

co-star
vt. 使联袂主演

fertility
n. 繁殖力;肥沃

specialist
n. expert 专家

*conceive
vt. 1. become pregnant (with a child) 怀(孕);受(孕)
2. think of, imagine 构想;设想

fatal
a. 1. causing death 致命的
2. very dangerous and unfortunate 毁灭性的;不幸的

marrow
n. 髓,骨髓

bonemarrow
n. 骨髓

donation
n. the act of donating or sth. donated 捐赠;捐赠物

offensive
a. causing offense33; unpleasant 冒犯的;使人难受的

outlaw21
vt. declare unlawful 宣布…为非法
n. criminal 歹徒;逃犯

ethicist
n. 伦理学家

meantime
n. the time between two events 其间,其时

impose
vt. (on, upon) 1. force the acceptance of 把…强加于
2. establish (an additional payment) officially 征(税)

ban
n. (on) an order to forbid sth. 禁令;禁止
vt. forbid by law 禁止;取缔

federal
a. l. [F-](美国)联邦政府的
2. 联盟的;联邦的

*ethics
n. 伦理学;道德学

flunk
vt. fail (an examination or course) 通不过(考试等)

off-key
a. 走调的,不和谐的

opponent
n. a person who acts against sb. or sth. or who takes the opposite side 反对者;对手;敌手

mink27
n. 水貂;水貂毛皮

Phrases and Expressions

for the first time
第一次,破天荒

in other words
expressing the same meaning in another way 换句话说

on one's way to
moving towards 接近,将要

to much surprise
令人大为惊异的是

in theory
理论上

give birth to
produce 产(仔);生(孩子)

jump in
join in with vigor32 or eagerness (踊跃或热切地)加入

up in arms
angry (about sth.) and protesting strongly 极力反对

draw the line at
refuse to do or accept 拒绝做;拒绝接受

set up
found or establish 设立,建立

in the meantime
in the period of time between two events 在此期间,与此同时

start out
begin 开始

object to
be against 反对

Proper Names

Chana Freiman Stiefel
查纳·弗赖曼·施蒂费尔(人名)

Bill Clinton
比尔·克林顿(1946 —,美国第四十二任总统)

Boris Yeltsin
鲍里斯·叶利钦(1931 —,俄罗斯联邦第一任总统)

Chelsea
切尔西(女子名)

Scotland
苏格兰(英国的一部分,在大不列颠岛北部)

Dolly
多利(世界上第一只克隆羊)

lan Wilmut
伊恩·威尔莫特(人名)

Oregon
俄勒冈州(美国州名)

Frankenstein
弗兰肯斯坦(英国女作家 Mary W.Shelley 所著同名小说中的主角,一个创造怪物而自己被它毁灭的医学研究者)

Denmark
丹麦(北欧国家)

Danish
丹麦的

Brad Pitt
布拉德·皮特(美国影星)

Mark Hanson
马克·汉森(人名)

Briarcliff Manor
布里尔克利夫·马纳(地名)

Cleveland Amory
克利夫兰·艾默里(人名)

the Fund for Animals
动物基金会


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 gene WgKxx     
n.遗传因子,基因
参考例句:
  • A single gene may have many effects.单一基因可能具有很多种效应。
  • The targeting of gene therapy has been paid close attention.其中基因治疗的靶向性是值得密切关注的问题之一。
2 photocopy XlFzlM     
n.影印本;v.影印
参考例句:
  • The original reproduces clearly in a photocopy.原件复印得十分清晰。
  • What's wrong with the photocopy machine?复印机出了什么问题?
3 genetic PgIxp     
adj.遗传的,遗传学的
参考例句:
  • It's very difficult to treat genetic diseases.遗传性疾病治疗起来很困难。
  • Each daughter cell can receive a full complement of the genetic information.每个子细胞可以收到遗传信息的一个完全补偿物。
4 decided lvqzZd     
adj.决定了的,坚决的;明显的,明确的
参考例句:
  • This gave them a decided advantage over their opponents.这使他们比对手具有明显的优势。
  • There is a decided difference between British and Chinese way of greeting.英国人和中国人打招呼的方式有很明显的区别。
5 helping 2rGzDc     
n.食物的一份&adj.帮助人的,辅助的
参考例句:
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
6 genes 01914f8eac35d7e14afa065217edd8c0     
n.基因( gene的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • You have good genes from your parents, so you should live a long time. 你从父母那儿获得优良的基因,所以能够活得很长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Differences will help to reveal the functions of the genes. 它们间的差异将会帮助我们揭开基因多种功能。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 生物技术的世纪
7 embryo upAxt     
n.胚胎,萌芽的事物
参考例句:
  • They are engaging in an embryo research.他们正在进行一项胚胎研究。
  • The project was barely in embryo.该计划只是个雏形。
8 accomplishment 2Jkyo     
n.完成,成就,(pl.)造诣,技能
参考例句:
  • The series of paintings is quite an accomplishment.这一系列的绘画真是了不起的成就。
  • Money will be crucial to the accomplishment of our objectives.要实现我们的目标,钱是至关重要的。
9 accomplishments 1c15077db46e4d6425b6f78720939d54     
n.造诣;完成( accomplishment的名词复数 );技能;成绩;成就
参考例句:
  • It was one of the President's greatest accomplishments. 那是总统最伟大的成就之一。
  • Among her accomplishments were sewing,cooking,playing the piano and dancing. 她的才能包括缝纫、烹调、弹钢琴和跳舞。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
10 specialized Chuzwe     
adj.专门的,专业化的
参考例句:
  • There are many specialized agencies in the United Nations.联合国有许多专门机构。
  • These tools are very specialized.这些是专用工具。
11 implant YaBxT     
vt.注入,植入,灌输
参考例句:
  • A good teacher should implant high ideals in children.好教师应该把高尚理想灌输给孩子们。
  • The operation to implant the artificial heart took two hours.人工心脏植入手术花费了两小时。
12 embryos 0e62a67414ef42288b74539e591aa30a     
n.晶胚;胚,胚胎( embryo的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Somatic cells of angiosperms enter a regenerative phase and behave like embryos. 被子植物体细胞进入一个生殖阶段,而且其行为象胚。 来自辞典例句
  • Evolution can explain why human embryos look like gilled fishes. 进化论能够解释为什么人类的胚胎看起来象除去了内脏的鱼一样。 来自辞典例句
13 blueprint 6Rky6     
n.蓝图,设计图,计划;vt.制成蓝图,计划
参考例句:
  • All the machine parts on a blueprint must answer each other.设计图上所有的机器部件都应互相配合。
  • The documents contain a blueprint for a nuclear device.文件内附有一张核装置的设计蓝图。
14 sperm jFOzO     
n.精子,精液
参考例句:
  • Only one sperm fertilises an egg.只有一个精子使卵子受精。
  • In human reproduction,one female egg is usually fertilized by one sperm.在人体生殖过程中,一个精子使一个卵子受精。
15 activist gyAzO     
n.活动分子,积极分子
参考例句:
  • He's been a trade union activist for many years.多年来他一直是工会的积极分子。
  • He is a social activist in our factory.他是我厂的社会活动积极分子。
16 activists 90fd83cc3f53a40df93866d9c91bcca4     
n.(政治活动的)积极分子,活动家( activist的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • His research work was attacked by animal rights activists . 他的研究受到了动物权益维护者的抨击。
  • Party activists with lower middle class pedigrees are numerous. 党的激进分子中有很多出身于中产阶级下层。 来自《简明英汉词典》
17 plentiful r2izH     
adj.富裕的,丰富的
参考例句:
  • Their family has a plentiful harvest this year.他们家今年又丰收了。
  • Rainfall is plentiful in the area.这个地区雨量充足。
18 donor dstxI     
n.捐献者;赠送人;(组织、器官等的)供体
参考例句:
  • In these cases,the recipient usually takes care of the donor afterwards.在这类情况下,接受捐献者以后通常会照顾捐赠者。
  • The Doctor transplanted the donor's heart to Mike's chest cavity.医生将捐赠者的心脏移植进麦克的胸腔。
19 donors 89b49c2bd44d6d6906d17dca7315044b     
n.捐赠者( donor的名词复数 );献血者;捐血者;器官捐献者
参考例句:
  • Please email us to be removed from our active list of blood donors. 假如你想把自己的名字从献血联系人名单中删去,请给我们发电子邮件。
  • About half this amount comes from individual donors and bequests. 这笔钱大约有一半来自个人捐赠及遗赠。 来自《简明英汉词典》
20 marrow M2myE     
n.骨髓;精华;活力
参考例句:
  • It was so cold that he felt frozen to the marrow. 天气太冷了,他感到寒冷刺骨。
  • He was tired to the marrow of his bones.他真是累得筋疲力尽了。
21 outlaw 1J0xG     
n.歹徒,亡命之徒;vt.宣布…为不合法
参考例句:
  • The outlaw hid out in the hills for several months.逃犯在山里隐藏了几个月。
  • The outlaw has been caught.歹徒已被抓住了。
22 outlawed e2d1385a121c74347f32d0eb4aa15b54     
宣布…为不合法(outlaw的过去式与过去分词形式)
参考例句:
  • Most states have outlawed the use of marijuana. 大多数州都宣布使用大麻为非法行为。
  • I hope the sale of tobacco will be outlawed someday. 我希望有朝一日烟草制品会禁止销售。
23 ethicist Ki8z4     
n.伦理学家,道德学家
参考例句:
  • They are used to resolving conflicting principles, says Dick Willems, a Dutch doctor and ethicist. 荷兰的医生,伦理学家DickWillems说,他们惯于解决相冲突的原则。
  • They are used to resolving conflicting principles, says Dick Willems gold, a Dutch doctor and ethicist. 一个荷兰医生与道德家,认为他们习惯了解决有冲突的原则。
24 ethics Dt3zbI     
n.伦理学;伦理观,道德标准
参考例句:
  • The ethics of his profession don't permit him to do that.他的职业道德不允许他那样做。
  • Personal ethics and professional ethics sometimes conflict.个人道德和职业道德有时会相互抵触。
25 manor d2Gy4     
n.庄园,领地
参考例句:
  • The builder of the manor house is a direct ancestor of the present owner.建造这幢庄园的人就是它现在主人的一个直系祖先。
  • I am not lord of the manor,but its lady.我并非此地的领主,而是这儿的女主人。
26 flunk uzFy3     
v.(考试)不及格(=fail)
参考例句:
  • I will flunk him if my student doesn't learn the material in the course.如果我的学生没有掌握课程的内容,我就会让他不及格。
  • If you flunk finals,you don't get the chance to do them again.如果你没通过期末考试,就没有机会再考一次了。
27 mink ZoXzYR     
n.貂,貂皮
参考例句:
  • She was wearing a blue dress and a mink coat.她穿着一身蓝色的套装和一件貂皮大衣。
  • He started a mink ranch and made a fortune in five years. 他开了个水貂养殖场,五年之内就赚了不少钱。
28 minks f9730ded2a679b4c54bcdc64b15a2252     
n.水貂( mink的名词复数 );水貂皮
参考例句:
  • Fuck like minks, forget the rug rats, and live happily ever after. 我们象水貂一样作爱,忘掉小水貂吧,然后一起幸福生活。 来自互联网
  • They fuck like minks, raise rug rats, and live happily ever after. 他们象水貂一样做爱,再养一堆小水貂,然后一起幸福的生活。 来自互联网
29 Founder wigxF     
n.创始者,缔造者
参考例句:
  • He was extolled as the founder of their Florentine school.他被称颂为佛罗伦萨画派的鼻祖。
  • According to the old tradition,Romulus was the founder of Rome.按照古老的传说,罗穆卢斯是古罗马的建国者。
30 remarkable 8Vbx6     
adj.显著的,异常的,非凡的,值得注意的
参考例句:
  • She has made remarkable headway in her writing skills.她在写作技巧方面有了长足进步。
  • These cars are remarkable for the quietness of their engines.这些汽车因发动机没有噪音而不同凡响。
31 steadily Qukw6     
adv.稳定地;不变地;持续地
参考例句:
  • The scope of man's use of natural resources will steadily grow.人类利用自然资源的广度将日益扩大。
  • Our educational reform was steadily led onto the correct path.我们的教学改革慢慢上轨道了。
32 vigor yLHz0     
n.活力,精力,元气
参考例句:
  • The choir sang the words out with great vigor.合唱团以极大的热情唱出了歌词。
  • She didn't want to be reminded of her beauty or her former vigor.现在,她不愿人们提起她昔日的美丽和以前的精力充沛。
33 offense HIvxd     
n.犯规,违法行为;冒犯,得罪
参考例句:
  • I hope you will not take any offense at my words. 对我讲的话请别见怪。
  • His words gave great offense to everybody present.他的发言冲犯了在场的所有人。
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TAG标签:   大学英语  读写教程  第一册  unit
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