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21世纪大学英语读写教程第三册 Unit5

时间:2006-02-21 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:yxdzgd5   字体: [ ]
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Unit 5

Text A

Pre-reading Activities

1. As you listen to the passage, write down the idioms and expressions that match each definition below. Warning: One of the definitions fits two expressions that you'll hear.
______ a) a child who learns to survive by observing life on city streets
______ b) competitive strategies used in business
______ c) 100% American
______ d) unhealthy food
______ e) a popular American dessert
______ f) an activity, decision, problem, etc., that concerns only family members

2. How would you answer Li's last question?

The ABCs of the U.S.A.: America Seen with European Eyes

Michael Dobbs

America can be a strange experience for a foreigner. My wife and I arrived in the United States in January after seven years overseas — four in France, three in Poland. From the jumble1 of first impressions, we compiled an A-to-Z explanation of why America can be such a foreign country to those who arrive here from Europe.
I should explain at the outset that I am from Britain, but my Florida-born wife Lisa is as American as apple pie. In our list, however, A doesn't stand for apple pie. It stands for:
Ambition. In the Old World, people are taught to hide it. Here it's quite proper to announce that you're after the boss's job or want to make a million dollars by the age of 30.
Breakfast. The American habit of conducting business at breakfast has reached Europe, but I doubt it will ever really catch on. In France and Britain, breakfast is a family affair. Here, it's become part of the power game.
Credit Cards. You really can't leave home without them. It's interesting, and somewhat frustrating2, to discover that bad credit is better than no credit at all: I was refused a VISA card on the grounds that I didn't have a credit profile.
Dreams. The American Dream is still very much alive. Dreaming great dreams is what keeps American society going — from the waitress who wants to become a car dealer3 to the street kid who wants to become a basketball star. Europeans dream dreams too, but don't seem to believe in them so much.
Exercise. A couple of years ago I came to Washington with some French journalists. As our bus passed a health club on the way to the hotel, the French visitors cheered at the sight of body-conscious Americans bending, stretching and leaping around. America's obsession4 with physical fitness really amuses — and puzzles — Europeans.
First names. In Europe, people progress in a natural and orderly way from the use of last names to the use of first names. Here, it's first names at first sight. This can cause confusion for Europeans. With everyone on a first-name basis, how can you tell your acquaintances from your friends?
Gadgets6. These can be addictive7. It's difficult to imagine now how we survived for so long without automatic ice machines and microwave ovens.
Hardware Stores. If I were in charge of arranging the programs of visiting delegations9 from lessdeveloped countries, I'd include a compulsory10 visit to a hardware store. These temples of American capitalism11 reveal a whole range of American values, from the do-it-yourself pioneer spirit through a love of comfort that absolutely astonishes most foreigners.
Insurance. Americans have policies to cover every possible risk, no matter how remote. So far, we've refused supplementary12 insurance for our car radio, death insurance for our mortgage and accident insurance for our cat. It gives us a feeling of living dangerously.
Junk food. Anyone who wants to understand why Americans suffer from higher rates of cancer and heart disease only has to look at what they eat.
Ketchup13. I had to come to America to discover that it can be eaten with anything — from French fries to French cheese.
Lines. American lines — beginning with the yellow line at immigration control — are the most orderly in the world. The British queue, once internationally renowned14, has begun to decay in recent years. The French queue was never very impressive, and the Italian line is simply a mob.
Money. In Europe, everybody likes money, but no one shows it off. Unless it's been in the family for several generations, there's often an assumption that it was acquired dishonestly. In America, no one cares how you got it.
No smoking. No longer just a polite request in America, this phrase has become the law. Nobody would dare ask a Frenchman to put out his Galoise in a restaurant.
Oliver North. What other major Western democracy lets army officers take over foreign policy? A hero for some, a traitor15 for others, Ollie (see First Names) is an example of an American recklessness that awes16 and alarms Europeans.
Patriots18. They exist everywhere, of course, but the American version is louder and more self-conscious than the European. In Britain, it's taken for granted that politicians love their country. Here, they're expected to prove it.
Quiet. American cities are quieter than European cities — thanks to noise controls on automobiles19 and to recent environmental legislation. This was a major surprise for someone brought up to assume that America was a noisy place.
Religion. The idea of putting preachers on TV is alarming to Europeans. It's even more alarming to see them in action.
Sales. Ever since arriving in Washington, we've been hurrying to take advantage of this week's unrepeatable offer, only to discover that it's usually repeated next week. We're just catching20 on that there's always an excuse for a sale.
Television. That grown-ups can watch game shows and sitcoms22 at 11 AM amazes me — but the national habit, day or night, is contagious23. I recently found myself nodding in agreement with a professor who was saying that American kids watch too much television. Then I realized that I was watching him say this on television.
Ulcers25. See Work.
Visas. Americans don't need visas to visit Britain (or most European countries, for that matter). To enter the United States, I had to sign a document promising26 that I would not overthrow27 the government by force and had no criminal record. One wonders if many terrorists and criminals answer "yes" on these questionnaires.
Work. People in less developed countries often imagine that they can become rich simply by emigrating to America. But America became a wealthy society through work, work and more work. It's still true.
X-rated movies. We have them in Europe too, but not on motel-room TVs.
Yuppies. The European counterpart remains28 a pale shadow of the all-American original. The animal seems more ambitious, and more common, on this side of the Atlantic.
Zillion. What other nation would invent a number that's infinitely29 more than a billion? America may not always be the best, but it certainly thinks big.
(1,030 words)

New Words

jumble
n. a confused or untidy group of things 杂乱的一堆

* compile
vt. produce by putting together many pieces (e.g., of information) 汇编;编制

outset
n. beginning 开始;起始

ambition
n. strong desire for success, power, money, etc. 对(成功、权力、金钱等的)强烈欲望,野心;雄心

profile
n. 1. a short article or programme which describes a person's life and character 传略,人物简介
2. a side view, esp. of sb.'s head; a shape of sth. seen against a background 侧面,侧影;轮廓
vt. 1. 写…的传略
2. 给…画侧面像;描…的轮廓

* dealer
n. a person whose business involves buying and selling 商人;证券经纪人

journalist
n. a person who works on a newspaper or magazine and writes articles for it 新闻记者;报纸撰稿人

journal
n. 1. a magazine for people with a particular interest 杂志,期刊
2. an account which one writes of one's daily activities 日志;日记

leap (leapt or leaped)
vi. jump high in the air or jump a long distance 跳跃
n. a sudden jump or movement; a sudden increase in number, amount, etc. 跳跃;激增

* obsession
n. a fixed30 idea from which the mind cannot be freed 着迷;困扰

physical fitness
healthy body conditions 身体健康

amuse
vt. make (sb.) laugh; cause to spend time in a pleasant way 逗乐;给…提供娱乐或消遣

amusing
a. (of sth.) that makes people laugh 有趣的;逗笑的

orderly
a. well arranged or organized 有条理的;整齐的

confusion
n. 1. the state of being mixed up, more difficult to understand 辨别不清;混淆
2. disorder31 骚乱;混乱

confuse
vt. make more difficult to understand; cause to be mistaken; mix up 使模糊不清;混淆;使混乱

acquaintance
n. 1. a person you know, but who is not a close friend 相识的人;熟人
2. knowledge of or familiarity with sb./sth. 了解;认识

gadget5
n. (infml) a small machine or device 小巧的机械;精巧的装置

addictive
a. (使人)入迷的;(使人)上瘾的

microwave
n. 微波;微波炉

oven
n. 烤炉,烤箱

microwave oven
n. 微波炉

delegation8
n. 代表团

delegate
n. 代表;会议代表
vt. 1. appoint as one's representative 委派…为代表
2. entrust32 (duties, rights, etc. to sb.) 授权;把…委托给(某人)

* capitalism
n. 资本主义(制度)

do-it-yourself
n. & a. (the activity of) making or repairing things oneself 自己动手(的),自行维修(的)

* supplementary
a. additional 补充的,增补的

* mortgage
n. 抵押;抵押贷款
vt. use (one's land or house) as a guarantee to the lending institution in order to borrow money from it 抵押

ketchup
n. (= catchup) 调味番茄酱

fry
n. (see French fry)
v. cook (food) in hot fat or oil 油煎,油炸

French fries
(美)法式炸薯条

immigration
n. the coming of people into a country in order to work or settle there 移居;移民

queue
n. a line of people waiting (for a bus, to be served, to enter a place, etc.) (排队等候的)一队人
vi. form or join a line 排队(等候)

* renowned
a. famous; well-known 有名的;享有声誉的

impressive
a. 给人以深刻印象的;感人的

* mob
n. (often derog.) a large, disorganized and often violent crowd of people [贬]人群;乌合之众

assumption
n. 1. sth. that is taken as true without proof 假定;臆断
2. the taking (of power or responsibility) 夺取;篡夺

democracy
n. a country or a system of government in which the people choose their government or make important decisions by voting 民主;民主国家;民主政治

traitor
n. a person who is disloyal, esp. to his country 卖国贼,叛徒

recklessness
n. 不顾后果,鲁莽

* reckless
a. (of a person or one's behaviour) not caring about danger or the result of one's actions 不顾后果的,鲁莽的

* patriot17
n. a person who shows love for and loyalty33 to his or her country 爱国者

patriotic34
a. having or expressing the quality of a patriot 爱国的;有爱国心的

legislation
n. l. laws 法律,法规
2. the act of making laws 立法,法律的制定

preacher
n. 传道士,牧师

* preach
v. 1. make known (a particular religion) by speaking in public 布道
2. advise or urge others to accept (a thing or course of behaviour) 竭力劝说;说教

grown-up
n. 成年人

sitcom21
n. (infml) situation comedy 情景喜剧

contagious
a. 1. (of a feeling or attitude) spreading quickly from person to person (情绪等)感染性的
2. (of a disease) that can spread from person to person (疾病)传染的

ulcer24
n. 溃疡

* visa
n. 签证

document
n. a paper that gives information, proof or support of sth. 文件
vt. 1. 为…提供文件(或证据等)
2. (在影片、小说中)纪实性地描述

* overthrow
vt. defeat; remove from official power 推翻;打倒

criminal
a. of or related to crime 犯罪的;犯法的
n. a person who is guilty of a crime 罪犯

* questionnaire
n. a written list of questions to be answered by a number of people in order to get information for a survey, etc. 调查表,问题单

* emigrate
vi. leave one's own country to live in another one 移居国外

X-rated
a. (电影等)X级的,禁止(十六岁以下)儿童观看的

* motel
n. hotel specially35 built for people traveling by car 汽车旅馆

yuppie
n. 雅皮士(Young Urban Professional的缩写,即城市职业阶层中的年轻人士)

* ambitious
a. having a strong desire for success, power, riches, etc. 有野心的,有抱负的

zillion
n. (sl.) 无限大的数目,无法计算的大数目

Phrases and Expressions

the ABCs
the most basic facts about a subject (学科等的)基本知识;入门

at the outset
at the beginning 首先,一开始

stand for
represent; mean 代表;意味着

be after sth.
in search of sth.; with a desire for sth. 追求

catch on
1. become popular 流行起来
2. understand 懂得,理解

on (the) ground(s) that
because 根据,以…为理由

at the sight of
as soon as seeing (sth. or sb.) 一见之下;立即

leap around
jump about 跳来跳去

at first sight
when seen or examined for the first time 乍一看,一见之下

be on a first-name basis [with sb.]
call (sb.) by his or her first name (因关系亲密而)相互直呼其名

tell A from B
distinguish A from B 辨别,分辨

be in charge of sth.
be responsible for 管理,负责

so far
up to the present 迄今为止

put out
cause (sth.) to stop burning 熄灭

bring up
nurture and educate (a child) 养育;教育

take advantage of
make use of; profit from 利用

in agreement with
赞同,同意

by force
by fierce or violent means 用武力或强迫手段

think big
have ambitious ideas 野心勃勃,好高骛远

Proper Names

Michael Dobbs
迈克尔·多布斯(男子名)

Poland
波兰(欧洲中部国家)

Lisa
莉萨(女子名)

VISA
威世信用卡(美国的一种购物信用卡)

Galoise
高卢牌香烟

Oliver North
奥利弗·诺斯(男子名)

Ollie
奥利(奥利弗的昵称)


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 jumble I3lyi     
vt.使混乱,混杂;n.混乱;杂乱的一堆
参考例句:
  • Even the furniture remained the same jumble that it had always been.甚至家具还是象过去一样杂乱无章。
  • The things in the drawer were all in a jumble.抽屉里的东西很杂乱。
2 frustrating is9z54     
adj.产生挫折的,使人沮丧的,令人泄气的v.使不成功( frustrate的现在分词 );挫败;使受挫折;令人沮丧
参考例句:
  • It's frustrating to have to wait so long. 要等这么长时间,真令人懊恼。
  • It was a demeaning and ultimately frustrating experience. 那是一次有失颜面并且令人沮丧至极的经历。 来自《简明英汉词典》
3 dealer GyNxT     
n.商人,贩子
参考例句:
  • The dealer spent hours bargaining for the painting.那个商人为购买那幅画花了几个小时讨价还价。
  • The dealer reduced the price for cash down.这家商店对付现金的人减价优惠。
4 obsession eIdxt     
n.困扰,无法摆脱的思想(或情感)
参考例句:
  • I was suffering from obsession that my career would be ended.那时的我陷入了我的事业有可能就此终止的困扰当中。
  • She would try to forget her obsession with Christopher.她会努力忘记对克里斯托弗的迷恋。
5 gadget Hffz0     
n.小巧的机械,精巧的装置,小玩意儿
参考例句:
  • This gadget isn't much good.这小机械没什么用处。
  • She has invented a nifty little gadget for undoing stubborn nuts and bolts.她发明了一种灵巧的小工具用来松开紧固的螺母和螺栓。
6 gadgets 7239f3f3f78d7b7d8bbb906e62f300b4     
n.小机械,小器具( gadget的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Certainly. The idea is not to have a house full of gadgets. 当然。设想是房屋不再充满小配件。 来自超越目标英语 第4册
  • This meant more gadgets and more experiments. 这意味着要设计出更多的装置,做更多的实验。 来自英汉非文学 - 科学史
7 addictive hJbyL     
adj.(吸毒等)使成瘾的,成为习惯的
参考例句:
  • The problem with video game is that they're addictive.电子游戏机的问题在于它们会使人上瘾。
  • Cigarettes are highly addictive.香烟很容易使人上瘾。
8 delegation NxvxQ     
n.代表团;派遣
参考例句:
  • The statement of our delegation was singularly appropriate to the occasion.我们代表团的声明非常适合时宜。
  • We shall inform you of the date of the delegation's arrival.我们将把代表团到达的日期通知你。
9 delegations 13b3ac30d07119fea7fff02c12a37362     
n.代表团( delegation的名词复数 );委托,委派
参考例句:
  • In the past 15 years, China has sent 280 women delegations abroad. 十五年来,中国共派280批妇女代表团出访。 来自汉英非文学 - 白皮书
  • The Sun Ray decision follows the federal pattern of tolerating broad delegations but insisting on safeguards. “阳光”案的判决仿效联邦容许广泛授权的做法,但又坚持保护措施。 来自英汉非文学 - 行政法
10 compulsory 5pVzu     
n.强制的,必修的;规定的,义务的
参考例句:
  • Is English a compulsory subject?英语是必修课吗?
  • Compulsory schooling ends at sixteen.义务教育至16岁为止。
11 capitalism er4zy     
n.资本主义
参考例句:
  • The essence of his argument is that capitalism cannot succeed.他的论点的核心是资本主义不能成功。
  • Capitalism began to develop in Russia in the 19th century.十九世纪资本主义在俄国开始发展。
12 supplementary 0r6ws     
adj.补充的,附加的
参考例句:
  • There is a supplementary water supply in case the rain supply fails.万一主水源断了,我们另外有供水的地方。
  • A supplementary volume has been published containing the index.附有索引的增补卷已经出版。
13 ketchup B3DxX     
n.蕃茄酱,蕃茄沙司
参考例句:
  • There's a spot of ketchup on the tablecloth.桌布上有一点番茄酱的渍斑。
  • Could I have some ketchup and napkins,please?请给我一些番茄酱和纸手巾?
14 renowned okSzVe     
adj.著名的,有名望的,声誉鹊起的
参考例句:
  • He is one of the world's renowned writers.他是世界上知名的作家之一。
  • She is renowned for her advocacy of human rights.她以提倡人权而闻名。
15 traitor GqByW     
n.叛徒,卖国贼
参考例句:
  • The traitor was finally found out and put in prison.那个卖国贼终于被人发现并被监禁了起来。
  • He was sold out by a traitor and arrested.他被叛徒出卖而被捕了。
16 awes a799425d3cd4f2feefefa83b0354022d     
n.敬畏,惊惧( awe的名词复数 )v.使敬畏,使惊惧( awe的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • The American scene awes the viewer with both its variety and size. 来美国观光的人无不赞叹这块土地幅员广阔、多姿多彩。 来自互联网
  • AWES adjust the smoothing factor continuously according to anterior prediction errors. 此方法是根据跟踪信号不断调整加权系数,以此提高预测精度。 来自互联网
17 patriot a3kzu     
n.爱国者,爱国主义者
参考例句:
  • He avowed himself a patriot.他自称自己是爱国者。
  • He is a patriot who has won the admiration of the French already.他是一个已经赢得法国人敬仰的爱国者。
18 patriots cf0387291504d78a6ac7a13147d2f229     
爱国者,爱国主义者( patriot的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Abraham Lincoln was a fine type of the American patriots. 亚伯拉罕·林肯是美国爱国者的优秀典型。
  • These patriots would fight to death before they surrendered. 这些爱国者宁愿战斗到死,也不愿投降。
19 automobiles 760a1b7b6ea4a07c12e5f64cc766962b     
n.汽车( automobile的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • When automobiles become popular,the use of the horse and buggy passed away. 汽车普及后,就不再使用马和马车了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Automobiles speed in an endless stream along the boulevard. 宽阔的林荫道上,汽车川流不息。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
20 catching cwVztY     
adj.易传染的,有魅力的,迷人的,接住
参考例句:
  • There are those who think eczema is catching.有人就是认为湿疹会传染。
  • Enthusiasm is very catching.热情非常富有感染力。
21 sitcom 9iMzBQ     
n.情景喜剧,(广播、电视的)系列幽默剧
参考例句:
  • This sitcom is produced in cooperation with Hong Kong TV.这部连续剧是同香港电视台联合制作的。
  • I heard that a new sitcom is coming out next season.我听说下一季会推出一个新的情境喜剧。
22 sitcoms e9efe427c2759f3f06d1cd5efe314cd3     
n.情景喜剧( sitcom的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • This is the stuff most stadard TV sitcoms are made of. 这是大多数标注的电视幽默剧所采用的题材。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • In most countries, prime-time Monday night television is dominated by sitcoms. 在大多数国家,周一晚上的电视黄金时段都由连续剧所占据。 来自互联网
23 contagious TZ0yl     
adj.传染性的,有感染力的
参考例句:
  • It's a highly contagious infection.这种病极易传染。
  • He's got a contagious laugh.他的笑富有感染力。
24 ulcer AHmyp     
n.溃疡,腐坏物
参考例句:
  • She had an ulcer in her mouth.她口腔出现溃疡。
  • A bacterium is identified as the cause for his duodenal ulcer.一种细菌被断定为造成他十二指肠溃疡的根源。
25 ulcers CfBzhM     
n.溃疡( ulcer的名词复数 );腐烂物;道德败坏;腐败
参考例句:
  • Detachment of the dead cells produces erosions and ulcers. 死亡细胞的脱落,产生糜烂和溃疡。 来自辞典例句
  • 75% of postbulbar ulcers occur proximal to the duodenal papilla. 75%的球后溃疡发生在十二指肠乳头近侧。 来自辞典例句
26 promising BkQzsk     
adj.有希望的,有前途的
参考例句:
  • The results of the experiments are very promising.实验的结果充满了希望。
  • We're trying to bring along one or two promising young swimmers.我们正设法培养出一两名有前途的年轻游泳选手。
27 overthrow PKDxo     
v.推翻,打倒,颠覆;n.推翻,瓦解,颠覆
参考例句:
  • After the overthrow of the government,the country was in chaos.政府被推翻后,这个国家处于混乱中。
  • The overthrow of his plans left him much discouraged.他的计划的失败使得他很气馁。
28 remains 1kMzTy     
n.剩余物,残留物;遗体,遗迹
参考例句:
  • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
  • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.残羹剩饭喂狗了。
29 infinitely 0qhz2I     
adv.无限地,无穷地
参考例句:
  • There is an infinitely bright future ahead of us.我们有无限光明的前途。
  • The universe is infinitely large.宇宙是无限大的。
30 fixed JsKzzj     
adj.固定的,不变的,准备好的;(计算机)固定的
参考例句:
  • Have you two fixed on a date for the wedding yet?你们俩选定婚期了吗?
  • Once the aim is fixed,we should not change it arbitrarily.目标一旦确定,我们就不应该随意改变。
31 disorder Et1x4     
n.紊乱,混乱;骚动,骚乱;疾病,失调
参考例句:
  • When returning back,he discovered the room to be in disorder.回家后,他发现屋子里乱七八糟。
  • It contained a vast number of letters in great disorder.里面七零八落地装着许多信件。
32 entrust JoLxh     
v.信赖,信托,交托
参考例句:
  • I couldn't entrust my children to strangers.我不能把孩子交给陌生人照看。
  • They can be entrusted to solve major national problems.可以委托他们解决重大国家问题。
33 loyalty gA9xu     
n.忠诚,忠心
参考例句:
  • She told him the truth from a sense of loyalty.她告诉他真相是出于忠诚。
  • His loyalty to his friends was never in doubt.他对朋友的一片忠心从来没受到怀疑。
34 patriotic T3Izu     
adj.爱国的,有爱国心的
参考例句:
  • His speech was full of patriotic sentiments.他的演说充满了爱国之情。
  • The old man is a patriotic overseas Chinese.这位老人是一位爱国华侨。
35 specially Hviwq     
adv.特定地;特殊地;明确地
参考例句:
  • They are specially packaged so that they stack easily.它们经过特别包装以便于堆放。
  • The machine was designed specially for demolishing old buildings.这种机器是专为拆毁旧楼房而设计的。
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TAG标签:   大学英语  读写教程  第三册  unit
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