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实用英语综合教程第一册-4

时间:2007-01-11 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:jimhe   字体: [ ]
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UNIT 4
Text A

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before you read the passage, choose the answers that may best suit you.

1. When you first meet someone, what usually makes you like or dislike that person?
A. The way they look.
B. The way they speak.
C. The way they treat you.
2. What is the most important thing that you think can make others be friendly to you when you first meet with them?
A. Being honest.
B. Being polite
C. Being kind.
3. What do you think of the first few minutes when you meet others?
A. Very important.
B. Not so important.
C. Not important at all.

Now compare your answers with those of your neighbours'.

The First Four Minutes

1. When do people decide whether or not they want to become friends? During their first four minutes together, according to a book by Dr. Leonard Zunin. In his book, Contact: The First Four Minutes, he offers this advice to anyone interested in starting new friendships: "Every time you meet someone in a social situation, give him your undivided attention for four minutes. A lot of people's whole lives would change if they did just that."
2. You may have noticed that the average person does not give his undivided attention to someone he has just met. He keeps looking over the other person's shoulder, as if hoping to find someone more interesting in another part of the room. If anyone has ever done this to you, you probably did not like him very much.
3. When we are introduced to new people, the author suggests, we should try to appear friendly and self-confident. In general, he says, "People like people who like themselves."
4. On the other hand, we should not make the other person think we are too sure of ourselves. It is important to appear interested and sympathetic1, realizing that the other person has his own needs, fears, and hopes.
5. Hearing such advice, one might say, "But I'm not a friendly, self-confident person. That's not my nature. It would be dishonest for me to act that way."
6. In reply, Dr. Zunin would claim that a little practice can help us feel comfortable about changing our social habits. We can become accustomed to any changes we choose to make in our personality. "It's like getting used to a new car. It may be unfamiliar2 at first, but it goes much better than the old one."
7. But isn't it dishonest to give the appearance of friendly self-confidence when we don't actually feel that way? Perhaps, but according to Dr. Zunin, "total honesty" is not always good for social relationships, especially during the first few minutes of contact. There is a time for everything, and a certain amount of playacting may be best for the first minutes of contact with a stranger. That is not the time to complain about one's health or to mention faults one finds in other people. It is not the time to tell the whole truth about one's opinions and impressions.
8. Much of what has been said about strangers also applies to relationships with family members and friends. For a husband and wife or a parent and child, problems often arise during their first four minutes together after they have been apart. Dr. Zunin suggests that these first few minutes together be treated with care. If there are unpleasant matters to be discussed, they should be dealt with later.
9. The author declares that interpersonal relations should be taught as a required course in every school, along with reading, writing, and mathematics. In his opinion, success in life depends mainly on how we get along with other people. That is at least as important as how much we know.

New Words

contact
n. 交际,交往

social
a. 1. 社交的
2. 社会的

undivided
a. 专心的,专一的

author
n. the writer of a book, newspaper article, play, etc. 作者

self-confident
a. 自信的

confident
a. 有信心的,自信的

sympathetic
a. 1. showing favour or approval4 赞同的
2. 同情的,有同情心的

claim
v. to declare to be true 声称,主张

accustomed
a. 1. 习惯的,适应了的
2. 惯常的

personality
n. the whole nature of a certain person 人格,品格

appearance
n. outward5 qualities; the way a person or thing looks to others; look 外表,样子

self-confidence
n. 自信心

confidence
n. 信心

play-acting
n. 装扮,假装

complain
v. 抱怨,诉苦

mention
v. to tell about in a few words, spoken or written 提及,说起

impression
n. 印象

arise
v. to come into being; happen 出现,呈现

interpersonal
a. 人与人之间的,人与人之间关系的

require
v. to demand; order 要求,命令

required
a. 必须的,规定的

Phrases and Expressions

according to
根据

(be) interested in
对...感兴趣

give one's attention to
注意

as if
好像,似乎

in general
总的来说

be sure of
对...有把握,确信

in reply
答复,回答

become / be accustomed to
习惯于,适应于

get / be / become used to
习惯于,适应于

at first
起先,开始时

complain about
抱怨

deal with
对付,处理

along with
和...一起,和...同时

in one's opinion
据...来看,按...的意见

get along with
和...相处

Proper Name

Leonard Zunin
伦纳德.祖宁(人名)


Text B

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, say if you agree with the statements.

1. Different countries have different table manners.
2. Using fingers while eating has been considered one of the worst table manners throughout history.
3. Table manners have changed with time.

Now read the passage to check your answers.

Table Manners and Customs

1. In Great Britain today good manners at table include eating with the mouth closed; not letting any of the food fall off the plate; using the knife only for cutting; and not trying to take food across the table. In other parts of the world there are also rules for people to follow when they are eating, but they are not the same as those of Britain. Indeed, what are considered good table manners in some other countries are what British people try hardest to avoid. In Arabia, for instance6, the people at a feast7 take pieces of food with their fingers and belch8 loudly to show that they have appreciated it.
2. The richer and more educated people in the East have, however, to a great extent9 taken up the table manners and customs of western people. Tables and chairs have replaced the cushions of the past, and the lady of the house presides11 at one end of the table in the same way that Western women do. Many Japanese, however, still feel it would be wrong to eat unless they were sitting on a cushion before a low table with a tray12 of food on it. In many parts of the world both traditional and Western styles of eating exist side by side.
3. In the West there are differences between table manners in various countries, although they are not so marked. In North America it is polite to cut up meat and then put the knife down, take the fork in the right hand and eat with it. Most European people, like the British, keep the fork in the left hand and the knife in the right all the time when they are eating food that has to be cut. In the British Isles13 and Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Iceland) special knives and forks are used for eating fish. In France, Belgium and Italy, however, it is correct to keep the same knife for every course, wiping it on a piece of bread.
4. Drinking customs at table also vary14 in different countries. In Europe, water, wine or beer is drunk15 with meals and coffee or tea is taken afterwards. In North America a beverage16 such as coffee, tea or milk is drunk with meals.
5. Table manners of course have changed with time. The earliest meals were also the simplest. They were eaten sitting on the ground round a fire, and everyone took his food from a pot on the fire or cut bits from the animal or bird that had been cooked. The women waited on the warriors18 and afterwards ate what they left.
6. Fingers were used to eat food throughout the middle ages. Food was eaten off wooden dishes with the noblemen sitting above a large salt cellar19 called simply "the salt". The ordinary people sat below the salt. In the reign20 of Henry VIII (1509-1547), people were still eating with their hands after cutting the food with a clasp21 knife which was always carried at the belt. Forks were not used in England until the 17th century.
7. Table manners did not always include quiet behavior. Quarrels often took place at table, and in the 17th century King Louis XIV of France ordered that all knives should have rounded ends to prevent people from stabbing23 each other while they were eating.

New Words

manner
n. 1. (pl.)礼貌,礼仪
2. 方式,方法

custom
n. 习惯,风俗

avoid
v. to miss or keep away from, esp. on purpose 避开,躲开

instance
n. an example 例子,实例

feast
n. 1. a specially3 good or grand meal 盛宴,筵席
2. 节日,节期

belch
v. 打嗝

appreciate
v. to understand and enjoy the good qualities of 欣赏,赏识

educated
a. 受过教育的

educate
v. 1. 教育
2. 培养,训练

extent
n. a stated degree 程度,限度

western
a. of the west part of the world or of a country 西方的,西部的

replace
v. 1. to take the place of 取代,以...代替
2. to put (sth.) back in the right place 把...放回(原处)

cushion
n. 垫子,坐垫

preside10
v. to be in charge; lead 主持

tray
n. 盘,碟

style
n. 风格,作风,方式

vary
v. 1. to be different 不同
2. to change 变化

beer
n. 啤酒

afterwards
ad. later; after that 以后,过后
beverage
n. 饮料(如汽水、茶、酒)

warrior17
n. 勇士,武士

nobleman
n. 贵族

cellar
n. 1. (=salt cellar)(餐桌上用的)盐瓶,盐碟
2. an underground room, usu. used for storing goods 地窖,地下室

reign
n. (君主)统治时期,(君主)在位时期

clasp
n. 扣子,钩子

belt
n. 腰带,带状物

behavior
n. way of behaving 举止,行为

stab22
v. 刺,刺伤

Phrases and Expressions

fall off
(从...)掉下

the same as
和...一样

for instance
例如

to a great extent
在很大程度上

take up
采取,开始采用

side by side
一起

cut up
切碎

wait on
侍候

Proper Names

Great Britain
大不列颠,英国(国名)

Arabia
阿拉伯半岛

France
法国(国名)

Italy
意大利(国名)

the British Isles
不列颠诸岛

Scandinavia
斯堪的纳维亚(北欧一地区)

Norway
挪威(国名)

Sweden
瑞典(国名)

Denmark
丹麦(国名)

Iceland
冰岛(国名)

Henry VII
亨利七世(1457-1509)

England
英格兰,英国

Louis XIV
路易十四(1638-1715)


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 sympathetic 6gxyt     
adj.有同情心的;表示好感或赞同的
参考例句:
  • He is a sympathetic person.他是一个有同情心的人。
  • They were quite sympathetic to our proposals.他们很赞同我们的建议。
2 unfamiliar uk6w4     
adj.陌生的,不熟悉的
参考例句:
  • I am unfamiliar with the place and the people here.我在这儿人地生疏。
  • The man seemed unfamiliar to me.这人很面生。
3 specially Hviwq     
adv.特定地;特殊地;明确地
参考例句:
  • They are specially packaged so that they stack easily.它们经过特别包装以便于堆放。
  • The machine was designed specially for demolishing old buildings.这种机器是专为拆毁旧楼房而设计的。
4 approval zNRyq     
n.赞成,同意;批准,认可
参考例句:
  • The audience has expressed its approval.观众已经认可。
  • The teacher signed his approval.老师做了手势表示同意。
5 outward jJWxN     
adj.向外的,表面的,外部的;adv.向外,在外,表面
参考例句:
  • The medicine is for outward application only.这药只供外用。
  • The door opens outward.这扇门向外开。
6 instance 66oxM     
n.例,例证,实例
参考例句:
  • Can you quote me a recent instance?你能给我举一个最近的例子吗?
  • He's a greedy boy,yesterday,for instance,he ate all our biscuits!他是个贪吃的孩子――比如,他昨天把我们的饼干都吃了!
7 feast tkixp     
n.盛宴,筵席,节日
参考例句:
  • After the feast she spent a week dieting to salve her conscience.大吃了一顿之后,她花了一周时间节食以安慰自己。
  • You shouldn't have troubled yourself to prepare such a feast!你不该准备这样丰盛的饭菜,这样太麻烦你了!
8 belch GuazY     
v.打嗝,喷出
参考例句:
  • Cucumber makes me belch.黃瓜吃得我打嗝。
  • Plant chimneys belch out dense smoke.工厂的烟囱冒出滚滚浓烟。
9 extent rmVxT     
n.程度,范围,限度;广度,宽度,大小
参考例句:
  • The new race track is nearly six miles in extent. 这条新跑道将近六英里长。
  • What's the extent of the damage? 损坏的程度如何?
10 preside r15zD     
vi.(at,over)主持,主管
参考例句:
  • Mr Smith will preside at the next meeting.史密斯先生将主持下一次会议。
  • The minister was asked to preside at the independence ceremonies of the small island state.那位部长被邀请去主持这个小岛国的独立仪式。
11 presides 5c02ddd20d675e0e7efcbe032802bd46     
主持,主管( preside的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • The manager presides over the business of this store. 经理管理这店业务。
  • He presides over the company. 他管理这家公司。
12 tray qmDwn     
n.盘,托盘,碟
参考例句:
  • There were two glasses of champagne on the tray.托盘里有两杯香槟酒。
  • A waitress came in,carrying tea on a tray.一名女侍者走进来,手端放着茶的托盘。
13 isles 4c841d3b2d643e7e26f4a3932a4a886a     
岛( isle的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • the geology of the British Isles 不列颠群岛的地质
  • The boat left for the isles. 小船驶向那些小岛。
14 vary yifw6     
vi.变化,有不同;vt.改变,使不同
参考例句:
  • Cherries vary in colour from almost black to yellow.樱桃的颜色由近乎黑到黄各不相同。
  • Old people don't like to vary their habits.老年人不喜欢改变他们的习惯。
15 drunk LuozL6     
adj.醉酒的;(喻)陶醉的;n.酗酒者,醉汉
参考例句:
  • People who drives when they are drunk should be heavily penalised.醉酒驾车的人应受重罚。
  • She found him drunk when she came home at night.她晚上回家时,经常发现他醉醺醺的。
16 beverage 0QgyN     
n.(水,酒等之外的)饮料
参考例句:
  • The beverage is often colored with caramel.这种饮料常用焦糖染色。
  • Beer is a beverage of the remotest time.啤酒是一种最古老的饮料。
17 warrior YgPww     
n.勇士,武士,斗士
参考例句:
  • The young man is a bold warrior.这个年轻人是个很英勇的武士。
  • A true warrior values glory and honor above life.一个真正的勇士珍视荣誉胜过生命。
18 warriors 3116036b00d464eee673b3a18dfe1155     
武士,勇士,战士( warrior的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • I like reading the stories ofancient warriors. 我喜欢读有关古代武士的故事。
  • The warriors speared the man to death. 武士们把那个男子戳死了。
19 cellar JXkzo     
n.地窖,地下室,酒窖
参考例句:
  • He took a bottle of wine from the cellar.他从酒窖里拿出一瓶酒。
  • The little girl hid away in the cellar.小姑娘藏在地下室里。
20 reign pBbzx     
n.统治时期,统治,支配,盛行;v.占优势
参考例句:
  • The reign of Queen Elizabeth lapped over into the seventeenth century.伊丽莎白王朝延至17世纪。
  • The reign of Zhu Yuanzhang lasted about 31 years.朱元璋统治了大约三十一年。
21 clasp XXBzE     
n.扣子,钩子,握手;v.扣住,钩住,紧握,紧抱
参考例句:
  • The clasp on his belt had broken.他的皮带上的钩子已经坏了。
  • My button hook won't clasp.我的钮扣钩怎么也扣不上。
22 stab rvmwY     
n.刺,戳,刺伤的伤口,剧痛,尝试;vt.刺伤,中伤;vi.刺,扎
参考例句:
  • I found a stab wound on his leg.我在他的腿上发现一处刺伤。
  • Can I stab at the meat with my knife to see if it is well cooked.为了看看肉是否煮熟,我可以在肉上戳个洞吗?
23 stabbing uhNzif     
n.用利器伤人
参考例句:
  • A few searchlights went stabbing through the dusk and then faded. 几盏探照灯戳穿夜幕,接着又熄了。 来自演讲部分
  • The red knife of light appeared stabbing the darkness through and through. 阳光象一柄红色利剑,刺透了一层层黑暗。
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TAG标签:   实用英语  综合教程
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