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实用英语综合教程第一册-5

时间:2007-01-11 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:jimhe   字体: [ ]
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UNIT 5
Text A

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, answer the questions.

1. Are most people today ready to help others when they are in trouble?
2. Is it necessary for our society to form an organization to give help to those who need it?
3. Are you sure you can always get help from others when you need it?

Now compare your answers with those of your neighbours'.

Community Service

1. The idea of helping1 people comes naturally to most of us. If we see a blind person getting off a bus, we watch to make sure that he is in no danger of falling. Members of a family help one another, with particular care for the very young and the elderly.
2. There are many people who have nobody near to see their need for help and often nobody to give it even when the need is known. The old, the handicapped2, the homeless and friendless -- these are the people for whom help may not come, because nobody sees. It may not have occurred to you that you are in a position to help. Community service means helping the people around you. Organizations exist which try to make sure that someone sees when help is needed and does something about it. These organizations depend on voluntary help to carry out a wide variety of tasks, volunteers giving up a little of their spare time to lend a hand.
3. If you wish to take part in this worthwhile activity, what sort of things would you do? Think of the people most in need of help and the ways in which help can be given. Much of the work of community service is concerned with the care of the elderly and the handicapped. Old people cannot always redecorate their homes. Household repairs, cleaning, preparing food or taking care of the garden may all prove difficult. Elderly people with failing eyesight are delighted if a friend comes in to read or to write letters for them. A helping hand and a friendly face can mean a great deal to a lonely elderly person.
4. Handicapped people may be young or old. People confined to wheelchairs cannot go out unless somebody takes them. Blind children may love swimming but they need a sighted swimmer to go with them. Some handicapped people may be unable to go out at all and a visitor is then more than welcome. Voluntary help is needed in hospitals. There are library and shop trolleys4 to be taken round the wards6 and at Christmas time decorations to be put up and parties and concerts to be organized. Some volunteers help to run playgrounds for young children during school holidays and also look after children in pre-school play groups.
5. What do you do if you want to help? Your school may have contact with an outside organization or, indeed, run a community service scheme itself. In many towns there is a committee called the Council of Social Service or the Guild7 of Social Welfare and they will be able to tell you about voluntary activities in the area. The Citizens' Advice Bureau and the Women's Royal Voluntary Service are other sources of information, as is the public library. Churches, the Scouts9 and other youth organizations can tell you about their activities. Most large cities in the United Kingdom have youth groups for community service, for it is here that the need is greatest. If you join such a group, you will bring pleasure and hope to people who need your help.

New Words

community
n. 社区,社会

particular
a. 1. 特殊的,特别的
2. of a certain sort 特定的,某一的

elderly
a. (of a person) getting near old age 近老年的,过了中年的

handicapped
a. 有生理缺陷的,智力低下的

occur
v. 1. (of an idea) to come to (someone's) mind 被想到
2. to happen; take place 发生

organization
n. 组织,团体

voluntary
a. 自愿的,自发的

variety
n. 1. 种种
2. 种类

volunteer
n. 自愿参加者

activity
n. sth. that is done or is being done 活动,所做的事情

concerned
a. 1. 有关的
2. anxious; worried 担心的,不安的

concern
v. 涉及,与...有关系

redecorate
v. to put new paint, paper, etc. on (the inside of a building) 重新装饰

household
a. 家庭的,家用的
n. all the people living together in a home 家庭

eyesight
n. 视力

confine
v. 1. to keep or shut in a small space 禁闭
2. 限制

wheelchair
n. 轮椅

unable
a. 1. 不能的,不会的
2. 无能力的,不能胜任的

trolley3
n. 1. 手推车
2. 有轨电车

ward5
n. 病房

decoration
n. sth. that decorates 装饰品

organize
v. to make the necessary arrangements for 组织

pre-school
a. 学龄前的,入学前的

scheme
n. a plan or design 计划,方案

committee
n. a group of people chosen to do a particular job or for special duties 委员会

council
n. 理事会,委员会

guild
n. 协会

welfare
n. 福利

citizen
n. 公民,市民

bureau
n. a government department (政府机构的)局,处,司

royal
a. 皇家的,王室的

source
n. a place from which sth. comes or is obtained 源,来源

scout8
n. 1. 童子军
2. 侦察员,侦察机(或舰)

kingdom
n. 王国

Phrases and Expressions

get off
下(车),离开

make sure
确信,确保

in (no) danger of
处在(没有)...危险的情况下

carry out
开展,执行

a (wide) variety of
各种各样的

lend a hand
帮忙

give up
花费(时间等),放弃

take part in
参与,参加

in need of
需要

be concerned with
有关,涉及

take care of
照顾,照看

a great deal (of)
许多

put up
布置,张贴

look after
照顾,照看

Proper Names

the Council of Social Service
社会服务委员会

the Guild of Social Welfare
社会福利协会

the Citizens' Advice Bureau
公民咨询处

the Women's Royal Voluntary Service
皇家妇女志愿服务会

the Scouts
童子军

the United Kingdom
联合王国

Text B

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, answer the questions.

1. Do people in China move a lot? Why or why not?
2. When people move, where do they usually go -- from the country to the city or from the city to the suburbs (郊区)

Now compare your answers with those of your neighbours.

People on the Move

1. The history of the American people is, in part, the history of the movement of the American people. They moved from the colonies of the East Coast to the open space of the West. They moved from the country and the farm to the city. More recently, Americans have been moving from the cities to the suburbs.
2. Pioneer Americans began moving from the East Coast to the West 250 years ago. They moved west for many reasons. One reason was that they could obtain unlimited10 open space and land for farming. Americans liked large open spaces, and they liked the freedom and independence to develop the land in their own way. Some of the land became farms. Important minerals were discovered in some areas, so some of the land became mines. Other large areas became cattle ranches12. There seemed to be enough land for everybody. But it was a difficult life -- a life of endless work and hardship.
3. After 1860, the Industrial Revolution changed the United States. Americans learned how to manufacture steel. They began to produce petroleum13. The automobile14 was invented. Factories of all kinds began to appear, and cities began to grow up around the factories. Farmers and other country people moved to the growing cities in order to find jobs and an easier life. In the early 1900s, the cities were busy, exciting places. However, there was also a lot of poverty and hardship.
4. The cities grew up -- the buildings got taller -- and the cities grew out -- they spread out from the center. Private houses with yards and porches16 disappeared. Apartment buildings, each one taller than the next, took their place. More and more people moved to cities, and the cities got bigger and bigger.
5. Some cities could not spread out because there was no room to do so. These cities, of which New York is the best example, became more and more crowded. More people meant more cars, trucks, and buses, more noise, more pollution, and more crime. Many cities became ugly and dirty. Some people and some businesses began to leave the cities and move to the suburbs outside the cities.
6. The move to the suburbs is still happening. Americans are looking for a small piece of land that they can call their own. They want a house with a yard. However, they do not want to give up the good jobs they have in the city. In many cases, companies in the suburbs give them jobs. In other cases, Americans need to commute17 to and from the cities where their jobs are. In recent years, more and more businesses are moving to the suburbs. They are attracting many people and the suburbs are becoming crowded.
7. Americans have watched their big cities fall slowly into disrepair and die. Many middle-class people leave the cities, and the very rich and the very poor stay behind.
8. Concerned Americans are trying to solve the problems of noise, dirt, crime, and pollution in the big cities. They are trying to rebuild bad sections of the cities. They are trying to attract and keep business people. They are trying to make their cities beautiful. Many Americans are ready to move back to the cities.
9. Other Americans are finding that even the suburbs have become too crowded. They are looking for unpolluted open spaces and for an independent way of life. They are ready to move from the suburbs to the country.
10. Perhaps Americans will always be on the move.

New Words

colony
n. 1. 聚居地
2. a country or area controlled and developed by another country 殖民地

suburb
n. an outer area of a town or city, where people live 郊区,近郊

obtain
v. to get 获得,得到

unlimited
a. 无限的,无边无际的

independence
n. 独立,自主

ranch11
n. 大牧场

hardship
n. difficult conditions of life, such as shortage18 of money, hard work, etc. 苦难,困苦

industrial
a. of industry and the people who work in it 工业的,产业的

petroleum
n. 石油

automobile
n. a car 汽车,机动车

invent
v. to make or produce for the first time 发明,创造

poverty
n. the state of being very poor 贫穷,贫困

private
a. 1. personal; one's own 私人的
2. having no relation with government 私立的

porch15
n. 门廊,走廊

apartment
n. a flat 公寓

pollution
n. 污染

crime
n. 罪,犯罪

commute
v. to travel regularly a long distance between one's home and work, esp. by train 经常乘车上下班,经常乘车往返于两地

attract
v. to cause to like, admire, notice, or turn towards 吸引,引起(注意、兴趣、赞赏等)

solve
v. to come to an answer, explanation, or way of dealing19 with (sth.) 解决

dirt
n. 1. 肮脏(状态)
2. 污物,烂泥,灰尘

section
n. 1. 区,地区
2. a part of a larger object, place, group, etc. that is more or less separate (事物的)一段,一部分

independent
a. not dependent; not controlled 独立的,不愿受约束的

Phrases and Expressions

on the move
在迁移中

in part
部分地,在某种程度上

spread out
伸展

take sb's place/take the place of
代替

fall into
陷入(某种状态/错误等)

stay behind
留下来不走


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 helping 2rGzDc     
n.食物的一份&adj.帮助人的,辅助的
参考例句:
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
2 handicapped Cr7zaU     
a.残疾的,有智力缺陷的
参考例句:
  • a visually handicapped child 弱视儿童
  • mentally and physically handicapped 身心俱残
3 trolley YUjzG     
n.手推车,台车;无轨电车;有轨电车
参考例句:
  • The waiter had brought the sweet trolley.侍者已经推来了甜食推车。
  • In a library,books are moved on a trolley.在图书馆,书籍是放在台车上搬动的。
4 trolleys 33dba5b6e3f09cae7f1f7f2c18dc2d2f     
n.(两轮或四轮的)手推车( trolley的名词复数 );装有脚轮的小台车;电车
参考例句:
  • Cars and trolleys filled the street. 小汽车和有轨电车挤满了街道。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Garbage from all sources was deposited in bins on trolleys. 来自各方的垃圾是装在手推车上的垃圾箱里的。 来自辞典例句
5 ward LhbwY     
n.守卫,监护,病房,行政区,由监护人或法院保护的人(尤指儿童);vt.守护,躲开
参考例句:
  • The hospital has a medical ward and a surgical ward.这家医院有内科病房和外科病房。
  • During the evening picnic,I'll carry a torch to ward off the bugs.傍晚野餐时,我要点根火把,抵挡蚊虫。
6 wards 90fafe3a7d04ee1c17239fa2d768f8fc     
区( ward的名词复数 ); 病房; 受监护的未成年者; 被人照顾或控制的状态
参考例句:
  • This hospital has 20 medical [surgical] wards. 这所医院有 20 个内科[外科]病房。
  • It was a big constituency divided into three wards. 这是一个大选区,下设三个分区。
7 guild 45qyy     
n.行会,同业公会,协会
参考例句:
  • He used to be a member of the Writers' Guild of America.他曾是美国作家协会的一员。
  • You had better incorporate the firm into your guild.你最好把这个公司并入你的行业协会。
8 scout oDGzi     
n.童子军,侦察员;v.侦察,搜索
参考例句:
  • He was mistaken for an enemy scout and badly wounded.他被误认为是敌人的侦察兵,受了重伤。
  • The scout made a stealthy approach to the enemy position.侦察兵偷偷地靠近敌军阵地。
9 scouts e6d47327278af4317aaf05d42afdbe25     
侦察员[机,舰]( scout的名词复数 ); 童子军; 搜索; 童子军成员
参考例句:
  • to join the Scouts 参加童子军
  • The scouts paired off and began to patrol the area. 巡逻人员两个一组,然后开始巡逻这个地区。
10 unlimited MKbzB     
adj.无限的,不受控制的,无条件的
参考例句:
  • They flew over the unlimited reaches of the Arctic.他们飞过了茫茫无边的北极上空。
  • There is no safety in unlimited technological hubris.在技术方面自以为是会很危险。
11 ranch dAUzk     
n.大牧场,大农场
参考例句:
  • He went to work on a ranch.他去一个大农场干活。
  • The ranch is in the middle of a large plateau.该牧场位于一个辽阔高原的中部。
12 ranches 8036d66af8e98e892dc5191d7ef335fc     
大农场, (兼种果树,养鸡等的)大牧场( ranch的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • They hauled feedlot manure from the ranches to fertilize their fields. 他们从牧场的饲养场拖走肥料去肥田。
  • Many abandoned ranches are purchased or leased by other poultrymen. 许多被放弃的牧场会由其他家禽监主收买或租用。
13 petroleum WiUyi     
n.原油,石油
参考例句:
  • The Government of Iran advanced the price of petroleum last week.上星期伊朗政府提高了石油价格。
  • The purpose of oil refinery is to refine crude petroleum.炼油厂的主要工作是提炼原油。
14 automobile rP1yv     
n.汽车,机动车
参考例句:
  • He is repairing the brake lever of an automobile.他正在修理汽车的刹车杆。
  • The automobile slowed down to go around the curves in the road.汽车在路上转弯时放慢了速度。
15 porch ju9yM     
n.门廊,入口处,走廊,游廊
参考例句:
  • There are thousands of pages of advertising on our porch.有成千上万页广告堆在我们的门廊上。
  • The porch is supported by six immense pillars.门廊由六根大柱子支撑着。
16 porches 11fd403fac4c99e76c0fbe3dc1d295f7     
n.门廊( porch的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • He courted the summer girls on boarding-house porches. 他在公寓凉台上跟夏天来度假的青年女客吊膀子。 来自辞典例句
  • First floor depth of a house six, around are the porches. 底层进深六间,前后为廊。 来自互联网
17 commute BXTyi     
vi.乘车上下班;vt.减(刑);折合;n.上下班交通
参考例句:
  • I spend much less time on my commute to work now.我现在工作的往返时间要节省好多。
  • Most office workers commute from the suburbs.很多公司的职员都是从郊外来上班的。
18 shortage 1yrwh     
n.缺少,缺乏,不足
参考例句:
  • The city is suffering a desperate shortage of water.这个城市严重缺水。
  • The heart of the problem is a shortage of funds.问题的关键是缺乏经费。
19 dealing NvjzWP     
n.经商方法,待人态度
参考例句:
  • This store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing.该商店因买卖公道而享有极高的声誉。
  • His fair dealing earned our confidence.他的诚实的行为获得我们的信任。
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