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实用英语综合教程第一册-6

时间:2007-01-11 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:jimhe   字体: [ ]
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UNIT 6
Text A

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Do you agree or disagree with the statements?

1. Nowadays Americans are working harder than ever before.
2. The more time we spend at work, the more we can achieve.

Now compare your view with that of the author's.

Working Hard or Hardly Working?

1. According to a recent survey, employees in many companies today work longer hours than employees did in 1979. They also take shorter vacations. It seems that Americans are working harder today than ever before. Or are they? A management consultant1, Bill Meyer, decided2 to find out. For three days, he observed an investment banker hard at work. Meyer wrote down everything the banker did during his long workday -- the banker worked 80 hours a week. At the end of the three-day period, Meyer reviewed the banker's activities with him. What did they find out? They discovered that the man spent 80 percent of his time doing busy work. For example, he attended unnecessary meetings, made redundant3 telephone calls, and spent time packing and unpacking4 his two big briefcases6.
2. Apparently7, many people believe that the more time a person spends at work, the more she or he accomplishes. However, the connection between time and productivity8 is not always positive. In fact, many studies indicate that after a certain point, anyone's productivity and creativity begin to decrease. Furthermore, it is not always easy for individuals to realize that their performance is falling off.
3. Part of the problem is understandable. When employers evaluate employees, they often consider the amount of time on the job in addition to job performance. Employees know this. Consequently, they work longer hours and take less vacation time than they did nine years ago. Although many working people can do their job effectively during a regular 40-hour work week, they feel they have to spend more time on the job after normal working hours so that the people who can promote them see them.
4. A group of head-hunters (people who search out executive9 personnel10 for companies) were asked their opinion about a situation. They had a choice of two candidates for an executive position with an important company. The candidates had comparable11 qualifications for the job. For example, they were both reliable. One could do the job well in a 40-hour work week. The other would do the same job in an 80-hour week just as well. According to a head-hunting expert, the 80-hour-a-week candidate would get the job. The time this candidate spends on the job may encourage other employees to spend more time at work, too. Employers believe that if the employees stay at work later, they may actually do more work.
5. People do not work long hours only for more money. In such fields as advertising12, show business, and journalism13, the glamour14 and publicity15 are worth more than any monetary16 benefit. On the other hand, many employees are not willing to spend so much extra, unproductive time at the office. Once they finish their work satisfactorily, they want to relax and enjoy themselves. For these people, the solution is to find a company that encourages people to do both.

New Words

survey
n. an examination 调查
v. to examine the condition of (sth.) 调查

employee
n. a person who is employed 雇员

vacation
n. 假期,休假

management
n. 管理

consultant
n. 顾问

observe
v. 1. to see or notice; watch carefully 观察,注意到
2. 遵守,奉行(法律、习俗、规章等)

investment
n. 投资

unnecessary
a. 不必要的

redundant
a. not needed; more than is necessary 过多的,过剩的

briefcase5
n. 公事包,公文包

apparently
ad. 1. it seems (that); as it appears 表面上
2. it is plain (that) 明显地,显而易见地

accomplish
v. 1. 完成,实现
2. 做到,做成

connection
n. relationship 联系,连接关系

productivity
n. 生产能力,生产力,生产率

positive
a. 1. 正的
2. 肯定的

indicate
v. to make a sign for; make clear 表明

creativity
n. inventiveness 创造力

decrease
v. to (cause to) become less in size, number, amount, or quality 减少,减小

furthermore
ad. also; in addition; 而且,此外

individual
n. a single being or mem1ber of a group 个人
a. single; particular 个别的,个人的

consequently
ad. as a result; therefore 因而,所以

evaluate
v. 估价,评价

addition
n. 1. 增加的人(或物)
2. 加法

effectively
ad. 有效地

head-hunter
n. 物色人材的人

executive
a. concerned with making and carrying out decisions 执行的,行政上的
n. the person or group in the executive position 执行官,执行委员会

personnel
n. people employed in a firm or a public office 人员,员工

candidate
n. 候选人

qualification
n. 资格

reliable
a. being trusted 可靠的,可信赖的

head-hunt
v. 物色

expert
n. a person with special knowledge or training 专家

advertising
n. 广告

journalism
n. 新闻业

glamour
n. 魅力

publicity
n. public notice or attention (公众的)注意,名声

monetary
a. of or connected with money 钱的,货币的

extra
a. additional; beyond what is usual or necessary 额外的

satisfactory
a. good enough for a purpose 令人满意的

satisfactorily
ad. 令人满意地

relax
v. to make or become less active and stop worrying 使松驰,放松

solution
n. (an act or way of finding) an answer to a difficulty, problem, etc. 解决方法

Phrases and Expressions

in addition to
而且,此外

so that
为的是,结果是

search out
找,查出

Proper Name

Bill Meyer
比尔.迈耶(人名)

Text B

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Answer the questions before reading the passage.

1. List things that give you stress.
2. Is stress always a bad thing? Why or why not?

Now compare your answers with those of your neighbours'.

Stress

1. Most people feel stress at some time in their lives. Some people like this pressure and work better because of it. Other people are not comfortable with any stress at all; they soon become unhappy if they feel stress. Sometimes stress can lead people to do things they wouldn't usually do, such as overeat, smoke, drink, or use drugs. Stress, however, is a very normal part of life.
2. It is important to understand that stress doesn't come from an event itself; that is, from the things that are happening in our lives. It comes from the meaning we give to what has happened. For example, a crying baby may be stressful to one person, but it may not bother another person at all; a traffic jam may be stressful to one person while another person may be able to stay calm.
3. We can experience stress any time we feel we don't have control. It can come from a feeling that we can't do anything about a situation. Basically, it is the body's way of showing anxiety or worry.
4. Stress is not just caused by our mental or emotional condition. It is also influenced by how tired we are, whether we have a balanced diet with enough vitamins and minerals, whether we get enough physical exercise, and whether we can relax.
5. The point at which stress becomes a problem changes from day to day, even for the same person. In some situations, if we are rested and feel good about ourselves, a little stress will not be a problem. In another situation, if we are tired or feel unsure about our abilities, even a small amount of stress can cause problems. For example, we might begin to worry about things that haven't happened yet instead of working on things that are happening now. Or we might not feel able to find solutions to everyday problems.
6. If we feel stressed, there are several things that we can do. First, we need to learn how to relax and breathe slowly and smoothly17.
7. We can also take some time out of our worried, busy schedule to notice the small things in life. Smell the air, look at the flowers, notice the small designs in the leaves on a tree -- these activities can do much to quiet us and to give ourselves a small break in a busy schedule.
8. We need to take care of our bodies. Being tired makes it easier for us to get sick and to develop physical problems related to stress. We need to get enough rest, eat well, and do some regular exercise. Scientists have found that for our minds to think clearly, our bodies need to have certain vitamins and minerals; some of the most important vitamins are the B-complex vitamins. Doing regular exercise is also a physical way to let go of angry feelings or feelings of helplessness.
9. Finally, we need to find what is causing the stress in our lives. Once we have found it, we need to begin to change that part of our lives. If we believe that we can control stress, we can begin to control our lives. Then we can start to use stress in a positive way.

New Words

stress
n. 压力
v. to give force to; put stress on 施加压力

pressure
n. 压力

overeat
v. to eat too much 吃得太多

drug
n. 1. a medicine or material used for making medicines 药,药物
2. 成瘾性毒品

bother
v. to trouble 打扰

traffic
n. 交通

jam
n. 阻塞

basically
ad. 基本上

anxiety
n. fear, esp. as caused by uncertainty18 about sth. 忧虑,担心

mental
a. 1. of the mind 思想的,精神的
2. done only in or with the mind 脑力的

emotional
a. with regard to the strong feelings of the human spirit 情感的

balance
v. 使平衡
n. 平衡,均衡

diet
n. 饮食

vitamin
n. 维生素

physical
a. 1. of or concerning the body 身体的,生理的
2. 物质的

ability
n. 能力

smoothly
ad. 流畅的,顺利的

schedule
n. a timetable of things to be done 计划表,日程安排表

design
n. 1. 花纹
2. 设计,构思
v. 设计,构思

relate
v. to see or show a connection between 有关,涉及

complex
a. 1. 合成的,综合的
2. difficult to understand or explain 复杂的

Phrases and Expressions

because of
因为,由于

not at all
毫不,毫无

for example
例如

from day to day
一天一天,天天

instead of
代替,而不

work on
从事于,致力于

look at
看着,瞧着

(be) related to
和...有关

let go of
放弃,释放,不予理会


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 consultant 2v0zp3     
n.顾问;会诊医师,专科医生
参考例句:
  • He is a consultant on law affairs to the mayor.他是市长的一个法律顾问。
  • Originally,Gar had agreed to come up as a consultant.原来,加尔只答应来充当我们的顾问。
2 decided lvqzZd     
adj.决定了的,坚决的;明显的,明确的
参考例句:
  • This gave them a decided advantage over their opponents.这使他们比对手具有明显的优势。
  • There is a decided difference between British and Chinese way of greeting.英国人和中国人打招呼的方式有很明显的区别。
3 redundant Tt2yO     
adj.多余的,过剩的;(食物)丰富的;被解雇的
参考例句:
  • There are too many redundant words in this book.这本书里多余的词太多。
  • Nearly all the redundant worker have been absorbed into other departments.几乎所有冗员,都已调往其他部门任职。
4 unpacking 4cd1f3e1b7db9c6a932889b5839cdd25     
n.取出货物,拆包[箱]v.从(包裹等)中取出(所装的东西),打开行李取出( unpack的现在分词 );拆包;解除…的负担;吐露(心事等)
参考例句:
  • Joe sat on the bed while Martin was unpacking. 马丁打开箱子取东西的时候,乔坐在床上。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • They are unpacking a trunk. 他们正在打开衣箱。 来自《简明英汉词典》
5 briefcase lxdz6A     
n.手提箱,公事皮包
参考例句:
  • He packed a briefcase with what might be required.他把所有可能需要的东西都装进公文包。
  • He requested the old man to look after the briefcase.他请求那位老人照看这个公事包。
6 briefcases 03140fc6a6b7373e02cb9379249f4d4d     
n.公文[事]包( briefcase的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Portfolio, Name Card Holder, Pen, Briefcases, Computer Bags, Bags and Cases. 采购产品文件夹,名字备置卡片烛台,钢笔,公文包,计算机袋子,袋子和情形。 来自互联网
  • We have quite an array of leather briefcases. 我们有相当的一批公文包。 来自互联网
7 apparently tMmyQ     
adv.显然地;表面上,似乎
参考例句:
  • An apparently blind alley leads suddenly into an open space.山穷水尽,豁然开朗。
  • He was apparently much surprised at the news.他对那个消息显然感到十分惊异。
8 productivity IQoxT     
n.生产力,生产率,多产
参考例句:
  • Farmers are introducing in novations which increase the productivity.农民们正引进提高生产力的新方法。
  • The workers try to put up productivity.工人设法提高生产率。
9 executive Ymlxs     
adj.执行的,行政的;n.执行者,行政官,经理
参考例句:
  • A good executive usually gets on well with people.一个好的高级管理人员通常与人们相处得很好。
  • He is a man of great executive ability.他是个具有极高管理能力的人。
10 personnel YMsxM     
n.[总称]人员,员工,人事部门
参考例句:
  • The personnel are not happy to change these rules.全体工作人员对改变这些规定很不高兴。
  • Personnel has lost my tax forms.人事部门把我的税收表格给弄丢了。
11 comparable fXsye     
adj.相似的,同类的,可比的,比得上的
参考例句:
  • A fire is comparable with the sun,both give light and heat.火可以和太阳相比,两者都可以发光发热。
  • No horse has a speed comparable to that of his.没有一匹马的速度能比得上他的马。
12 advertising 1zjzi3     
n.广告业;广告活动 a.广告的;广告业务的
参考例句:
  • Can you give me any advice on getting into advertising? 你能指点我如何涉足广告业吗?
  • The advertising campaign is aimed primarily at young people. 这个广告宣传运动主要是针对年轻人的。
13 journalism kpZzu8     
n.新闻工作,报业
参考例句:
  • He's a teacher but he does some journalism on the side.他是教师,可还兼职做一些新闻工作。
  • He had an aptitude for journalism.他有从事新闻工作的才能。
14 glamour Keizv     
n.魔力,魅力;vt.迷住
参考例句:
  • Foreign travel has lost its glamour for her.到国外旅行对她已失去吸引力了。
  • The moonlight cast a glamour over the scene.月光给景色增添了魅力。
15 publicity ASmxx     
n.众所周知,闻名;宣传,广告
参考例句:
  • The singer star's marriage got a lot of publicity.这位歌星的婚事引起了公众的关注。
  • He dismissed the event as just a publicity gimmick.他不理会这件事,只当它是一种宣传手法。
16 monetary pEkxb     
adj.货币的,钱的;通货的;金融的;财政的
参考例句:
  • The monetary system of some countries used to be based on gold.过去有些国家的货币制度是金本位制的。
  • Education in the wilderness is not a matter of monetary means.荒凉地区的教育不是钱财问题。
17 smoothly iiUzLG     
adv.平滑地,顺利地,流利地,流畅地
参考例句:
  • The workmen are very cooperative,so the work goes on smoothly.工人们十分合作,所以工作进展顺利。
  • Just change one or two words and the sentence will read smoothly.这句话只要动一两个字就顺了。
18 uncertainty NlFwK     
n.易变,靠不住,不确知,不确定的事物
参考例句:
  • Her comments will add to the uncertainty of the situation.她的批评将会使局势更加不稳定。
  • After six weeks of uncertainty,the strain was beginning to take its toll.6个星期的忐忑不安后,压力开始产生影响了。
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