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实用英语综合教程第一册-9

时间:2007-01-11 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:jimhe   字体: [ ]
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UNIT 9
Text A

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, answer the questions.

1. Is it important for people to be well-informed? Why?
2. How can people get the latest news? Which of the following do you think is the most important?
A. Newspapers and magazines.
B. Home computers.
C. Radio and television programmes.

Now compare your answers with those of your neighbours'.

What's New

1. In the modern world, it is important to be well-informed. Success in many fields depends on getting the latest information. To keep up with what is happening in the world, well-informed people read newspapers and news magazines. They listen to the news on the radio and they watch it on television. Owners of home computers can even receive their news directly from the wire services -- news agencies that supply newspapers, magazines, radio and television with news reports -- through special telephone links.
2. Most people read newspapers for the news of the day. The typical daily newspaper contains articles about local, regional, national, and international news, as well as sports news, weather reports, editorials2, and other features. In large cities, newspaper readers can often choose between a "morning paper" distributed early in the morning and an "evening paper" distributed at the end of the workday. Most American newspapers also publish an enlarged Sunday edition containing articles about the news of the day and of the week, plus a number of entertainment and advertising3 supplements. Daily newspapers are designed to be read quickly by busy people looking for specific information. The Sunday papers, on the other hand, are intended to entertain as well as inform, and they tend to be read leisurely4 by all members of the family. Other types of newspapers include campus newspapers, written by students at universities, and weekly newspapers, usually intended for a specific audience.
3. News magazines such as Time, Newsweek, and U.S. News and World Report are published weekly. They contain articles about the important national and international news of the week, and special sections are devoted5 to news about such areas as business, science, education, and arts. News magazines are a popular source of general information on a wide range of recent events. They also feature longer articles dealing6 with the influence of current events on modern life.
4. Radio and television present the important news of the hour. Many radio stations in the U.S. broadcast news every hour, and a few all-news stations broadcast news and news commentary7 programs in the evening (beginning at 5:00 or 6:00 P.M.) and at night (beginning at 10:00 or 11:00 P.M.). The evening news generally consists of a national network news program and a local news program, while at night it is usually a local program. In addition, some TV stations offer early morning news, late night news, and weekly "news magazine" programs. Cable television networks in some cities offer foreign language news and all-news channels.
5. Students learning English in English-speaking countries find the news a useful source of language practice. To improve their listening comprehension, they listen to the news on the radio and watch it on television. Then they check their comprehension by reading newspapers and news magazines. Everyone likes to talk about the news. In the office, on the campus, at parties, or on the street, conversations often begin with questions like "What's new?", "What's happening?", or "Have you heard about…?" By staying well-informed, these students find it easier to enter into conversation about the news.

New Words

inform
v. to give information to 告诉,通知

agency
n. 1. 机构
2.代理(处), 代办(处)

typical
a. 典型的

contain
v. to have within itself; hold 包含

local
a. of or in a certain place, esp. the place one lives in 地方的,本地的

regional
a. 地区的, 局部的

editorial1
n. leading article 社论

feature
n. 1. a special long article in a newspaper (报纸等的)特辑, 特写
2. 特征, 特色
v. 特载

reader
n. 1. a person who reads 读者
2.读物, 读本

distribute
v. to give out or deliver 分发, 分配

publish
v. (of a newspaper or magazine) to print (sth. written) and offer for sale to the public 发行,出版

enlarge
v. to cause to grow larger and wider 扩大, 扩展

edition
n. one printing of a book, newspaper, magazine, etc. 版, 版本

plus
prep. 加, 加上

entertainment
n. 娱乐

supplement
n. 补充, 增补

intend
v. 1. 打算使...(成)为
2. to mean to do 打算,想要

tend
v. 1. 往往是
2. 趋向, 倾向

leisurely
ad. 慢慢地, 从容地

type
n. a certain kind, class or group 类型

campus
n. the grounds and buildings of a university or college (大学)校园

weekly
a. 每周的
ad. 每周

audience
n. 读者, 观众, 听众

range
n. the limits between which something varies 范围, 幅度

current
a. of the present time 当前的, 现时的

broadcast
v. to send out sound or images by radio or television 广播

commentary
n. 评论, 评注

program(me)
n. 1. 节目
2. a plan of what is to be done 计划

generally
ad. usually 通常, 一般地

consist
v. to be made up (of) 由...组成(构成)

network
n. 1. 广播网, 电视网
2.网, 网状物

cable
n. 电缆

channel
n. 1.频道
2.海峡

conversation
n. 会话, 谈话

Phrases and Expressions

keep up with
跟上

listen to


supply ... with
提供

as well as
还有, 既...又

a number of
一些, 若干

be devoted to
专用于...的, 献身...的

consist of
由...组成, 由...构成

enter into
进入, 开始(谈话)

Proper Names

Time
《时代周刊》(美国)

Newsweek
《新闻周刊》(美国)

U.S. News and World Report
《美国新闻与世界报导》(美国)


Text B

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, look at the symbol signs. Tell what each of them stands for. Write your answers in the blank next to each symbol sign.

Now compare your answers with those of your neighbours'.

Searching for a Uniform Sign Language

1. A picture can be worth far more than a thousand words, at least when it comes to guiding travelers. That was the reason behind an experimental project by the U. S. Department of Transportation. The Department wanted to test the efficiency of thirty-four graphic8 symbols in air terminals and other public places in several American cities -- as an aid to Americans and their guests from abroad.
2. William R. Meyers, who directs the project, requires that the signs be clear, uniform, and easy to comprehend9. "This means, above all, signs that would overcome the language barrier," Meyers explains. "Far too many foreign visitors find themselves in strange and confusing surroundings, not knowing the language of the country and uncertain as to where to go to obtain help."
3. In the past, there has been no uniform sign system, and a number of organizations worldwide have posted widely varying signs for guiding the public. For example, the sign for a telephone at the Mexico Olympic Games was a telephone dial; at the Tokyo Olympics, a telephone and dial; in most other sign systems, a telephone headset. After considering all the various telephone symbols as to their instant communication value, experts selected a stylized telephone handset.
4. Pictures for the signs were created by the American Institute of Graphic Arts in New York City. The creators of the graphic symbols wanted to find a uniform sign language that people everywhere would comprehend easily. For example, they decided10 that the back view of an envelope indicates a mail facility more clearly than a front or "side" view. To communicate a currency exchange, the creators developed a uniform symbol sign that shows a rectangle11 with figures for a dollar, pound, franc, and yen12 depicted14 on it. Also, a martini with an olive15 became the uniform sign for a bar, not because the martini was judged the most popular cocktail16 but because the shape of the glass is distinctive17, and other cocktail glasses can easily be confused with a water glass.
5. Several years ago, representatives from all over Europe met in Geneva to agree upon a uniform code of highway markings. When these were posted, it became possible for motorists from all over the world to drive with greater safety even though they didn't know the language of the country that they were visiting. In the future, the uniform highway signs from Europe may appear along major roads in many other countries as well.
6. Once the signs are posted throughout the world, a knife and fork will mean a restaurant, a suitcase will indicate baggage, and a car under a key, a car rental18. And if anyone has questions about the whole proposition19, he can simply go to the information desk under the sign that has a big question mark within a circle.

New Words

experimental
a. used for or connected with experiment 实验(性)的,试验(性)的

project
n. (a plan for) work or activity of any kind 项目,计划

department
n. 部,部门

transportation
n. 运输

efficiency
n. the state or quality of being efficient 效率,有效性

graphic
a. concerned with written signs, usu. letters or drawings 图示的,图解的

terminal
n. (航空、铁路等)终点站,(海、陆、空运输路线的)终点

comprehend
v. to understand 理解

overcome
v. 克服,战胜

barrier
n. 障碍

surroundings
n. the place and conditions of life 环境,周围的事物

uncertain
a. not certain 不确知的

worldwide
a. in or over all the world 世界范围的
ad. 在世界范围内

dial
n. 拨号盘
v. to make a telephone call; call on a telephone with a dial 拨(号), 打电话

headset
n. 头戴式受话机,耳机

instant
a. 1.coming or happening at once 立即的,即刻的
2. (食品)已配制好的,快速而方便的

select
v. to choose as best, most suitable, etc. from a group 挑选

stylize
v. to treat or present in a fixed20 style 使风格化

handset
n. 手持送受话机,电话听筒

institute
n. (研究)所,院,学会

view
n. 1.图,视图
2. an opinion, belief, idea of one's own 观点,意见

envelope
n. 信封

mail
n. 邮递,邮政制度

facility
n. 1.设施, 设备
2.an advantage 方便, 便利

communicate
v. 传达, 传送

currency
n. the particular type of money in use in a country 货币

rectangle
n. 矩形

franc
n. 法郎

yen
n. 日元

depict13
v. to show by a picture 描画, 描绘

martini
n. 马提尼酒 (一种鸡尾酒)

olive
n. 橄栏叶, 橄栏枝

cocktail
n. 鸡尾酒

distinctive
a. 与众不同的, 有特色的

representative
n. a person acting21 in place of one or more others 代表

code
n. 代号

highway
n. 公路

motorist
n. a person who drives, and usu. owns a car 驾驶汽车的人

suitcase
n. 小提箱, 衣箱

baggage
n. luggage 行李

rental
n. 出租, 出租业

proposition
n. 1.提议, 主张
2.问题, 事情

Phrases and Expressions

search for
寻找

at least
至少

when it comes to
涉及, 谈到

above all
首先, 最重要的是

as to
有关

agree upon/on
达成一致意见

in the future
将来

as well
同样地, 也

Proper Names

U.S. Department of Transportation
美国交通部

William R. Meyers
威廉.R.梅耶斯(人名)

the Mexico Olympic Games
墨西哥奥运会

the Tokyo Olympic Games
东京奥运会

the American Institute of Graphic Arts
美国图形艺术研究所

New York City
纽约市(美国城市)

Geneva
日内瓦(瑞士城市)


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 editorial Eqdxt     
adj.编者的,社论的;n.(报刊的)社论,重要评论
参考例句:
  • For a full hour they argued over the wording of the editorial.他们为社论的措辞争论了一个小时。
  • We now bring you the full text of the Renmin Ribao editorial.现在全文广播《人民日报》社论。
2 editorials fc17fa4de31ffa987b19e3f010cef568     
n.社论(美)( editorial的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Newspaper editorials spoke of the need to sweep away corruption. 报纸社论论述了清除腐败的必要性。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • I take basic issue with the editorials you have written. 我对你们撰写的那几篇社论从根本上持反对意见。 来自辞典例句
3 advertising 1zjzi3     
n.广告业;广告活动 a.广告的;广告业务的
参考例句:
  • Can you give me any advice on getting into advertising? 你能指点我如何涉足广告业吗?
  • The advertising campaign is aimed primarily at young people. 这个广告宣传运动主要是针对年轻人的。
4 leisurely 51Txb     
adj.悠闲的;从容的,慢慢的
参考例句:
  • We walked in a leisurely manner,looking in all the windows.我们慢悠悠地走着,看遍所有的橱窗。
  • He had a leisurely breakfast and drove cheerfully to work.他从容的吃了早餐,高兴的开车去工作。
5 devoted xu9zka     
adj.忠诚的,忠实的,热心的,献身于...的
参考例句:
  • He devoted his life to the educational cause of the motherland.他为祖国的教育事业贡献了一生。
  • We devoted a lengthy and full discussion to this topic.我们对这个题目进行了长时间的充分讨论。
6 dealing NvjzWP     
n.经商方法,待人态度
参考例句:
  • This store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing.该商店因买卖公道而享有极高的声誉。
  • His fair dealing earned our confidence.他的诚实的行为获得我们的信任。
7 commentary kXeyu     
n.评论,评注;实况广播报导,现场口头评述
参考例句:
  • He is giving the commentary on the basketball game.他正在对篮球赛作评论。
  • His running commentary on the football match was excellent.他对这次足球赛所作的实况报道十分精彩。
8 graphic Aedz7     
adj.生动的,形象的,绘画的,文字的,图表的
参考例句:
  • The book gave a graphic description of the war.这本书生动地描述了战争的情况。
  • Distinguish important text items in lists with graphic icons.用图标来区分重要的文本项。
9 comprehend ZXpyF     
vt.了解,理解,领会
参考例句:
  • I did not comprehend his meaning.我不理解他的意思。
  • If you can use a word correctly and effectively,you comprehend it.你如果能正确和有效地使用一个字,你就了解它了。
10 decided lvqzZd     
adj.决定了的,坚决的;明显的,明确的
参考例句:
  • This gave them a decided advantage over their opponents.这使他们比对手具有明显的优势。
  • There is a decided difference between British and Chinese way of greeting.英国人和中国人打招呼的方式有很明显的区别。
11 rectangle VAnzN     
n.长方形,矩形
参考例句:
  • Suppose the width of a rectangle is x metres.设长方形的宽是x米。
  • He handed me a little rectangle of white paper.他递给我一张小小的长方形白纸片。
12 yen JfSwN     
n. 日元;热望
参考例句:
  • He wanted to convert his dollars into Japanese yen.他想将美元换成日币。
  • He has a yen to be alone in a boat.他渴望独自呆在一条船上。
13 depict Wmdz5     
vt.描画,描绘;描写,描述
参考例句:
  • I don't care to see plays or films that depict murders or violence.我不喜欢看描写谋杀或暴力的戏剧或电影。
  • Children's books often depict farmyard animals as gentle,lovable creatures.儿童图书常常把农场的动物描写得温和而可爱。
14 depicted f657dbe7a96d326c889c083bf5fcaf24     
描绘,描画( depict的过去式和过去分词 ); 描述
参考例句:
  • Other animals were depicted on the periphery of the group. 其他动物在群像的外围加以修饰。
  • They depicted the thrilling situation to us in great detail. 他们向我们详细地描述了那激动人心的场面。
15 olive yI2x1     
n.橄榄,橄榄树,橄榄色;adj.黄绿色的,黄褐色的,橄榄色的
参考例句:
  • Have you eaten a kind of fruit called olive?你吃过橄榄这种水果吗?
  • She likes olive because It'symbolizes peace.她喜欢橄榄色因为它象征着和平。
16 cocktail Jw8zNt     
n.鸡尾酒;餐前开胃小吃;混合物
参考例句:
  • We invited some foreign friends for a cocktail party.我们邀请了一些外国朋友参加鸡尾酒会。
  • At a cocktail party in Hollywood,I was introduced to Charlie Chaplin.在好莱坞的一次鸡尾酒会上,人家把我介绍给查理·卓别林。
17 distinctive Es5xr     
adj.特别的,有特色的,与众不同的
参考例句:
  • She has a very distinctive way of walking.她走路的样子与别人很不相同。
  • This bird has several distinctive features.这个鸟具有几种突出的特征。
18 rental cBezh     
n.租赁,出租,出租业
参考例句:
  • The yearly rental of her house is 2400 yuan.她这房子年租金是2400元。
  • We can organise car rental from Chicago O'Hare Airport.我们可以安排提供从芝加哥奥黑尔机场出发的租车服务。
19 proposition o08zp     
n.建议,命题,主张;vt.向...提议,向...调情
参考例句:
  • The two teams prepared to debate the given proposition.两个队准备就所给定的命题展开辩论。
  • It is clearly illogical to maintain such a proposition.坚持这种主张显然是没有道理的。
20 fixed JsKzzj     
adj.固定的,不变的,准备好的;(计算机)固定的
参考例句:
  • Have you two fixed on a date for the wedding yet?你们俩选定婚期了吗?
  • Once the aim is fixed,we should not change it arbitrarily.目标一旦确定,我们就不应该随意改变。
21 acting czRzoc     
n.演戏,行为,假装;adj.代理的,临时的,演出用的
参考例句:
  • Ignore her,she's just acting.别理她,她只是假装的。
  • During the seventies,her acting career was in eclipse.在七十年代,她的表演生涯黯然失色。
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