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实用英语综合教程第一册-10

时间:2007-01-11 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:jimhe   字体: [ ]
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UNIT 10
Text A

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, consider the questions.

1. Do surveys play an important role in our life?
2. Are the figures in the survey always true? Why or why not?

Now read the passage and check your answers with the author's.

Surveys, Surveys and More Surveys

1. In the United States, there's a widespread belief that statistics1 don't lie. Perhaps that's why surveys are such an important part of American life. For many years, politicians, businesspeople, and scholars have used surveys to find out more about that mysterious and complicated creature, the human being.
2. American newspapers and magazines have been taking public opinion polls3 since the 1800s. In the 1930s, poll2 experts such as Elmo Poper and George Gallup began using scientific methods to select and interview participants in political surveys. Since the 1940s, American businesspeople have been developing, naming, packaging, and promoting products with the help of surveys. And also since the 1940s, surveys have been a major research tool among scholars in the social sciences. Psychologists and sociologists have asked people about everything from their religious beliefs to their sexual5 behavior. The mass media have frequently reported the results of these surveys, and the American public has always been quite interested in the responses.
3. However, the most complete and most important survey for Americans is the national census6. A census is the official count of the number of people living in a city, state, or country. The idea of a census has existed for more than two thousand years. In ancient Rome, the government counted its citizens for purposes of taxation7 and military service. But the first modern census began here in the United States in 1790. In that year, the population of the new nation was 3 929 214. Since 1790, the American government has taken a census every ten years, and the population has been growing steadily8 every decade. The 1980 census reported a population of 226 504 825.
4. In addition to statistics on the total population, the 1980 census has given us a great deal of information about recent changes in American life. One of the many important changes concerns where people live. Americans are still a mainly urban people with about 75 percent of the population living in or near large cities. But, since 1970, the small communities have been gaining population at a faster rate than the cities or suburbs. American have been moving back to the small towns and the rural areas. This is a dramatic change from the trend in preceding decades. Americans have always done a great deal of moving from one part of the country to another, but, in recent years, the moves have been mostly to the South and West. States in the "Sun Belt" have been gaining population, and states in the Northeast and the Midwest have been losing population.
5. Marriage and family life have been changing, too. Americans have been marrying later, having fewer children, getting more divorces, and living more often as singles or as unmarried couples. The actual number of married couples has risen in recent years, but the percentage of married people has declined10. Similarly, the number of actual births has gone up, but the size of the average family has gone down. The average young woman of today plans to have only two children.
6. Along with many other surveys, the national census gives Americans a statistical11 picture of a changing society. It allows the government and the people to see what's happening and to adjust to the new picture.

New Words

widespread
a. found, placed, etc., in many places 普遍的, 分布广的

belief
n. the feeling that sth. is true or that sth. really exists 相信, 信条

statistics
n. 1.统计, 统计资料 2.统计学

politician
n. 政治家

scholar
n. a learned person 学者

mysterious
a. not easily understood 神秘的, 难以理解的

creature
n. an animal of any kind 生物, 动物

being
n. 1.人, 生物 2.存在, 生存

poll
n. 民意测验

interview
v. 1.采访, 会见 2.对...进行面试
n. 1.采访, 会见 2.面试

participant
n. a person who takes part or has a share in an activity 参加者

package
v. to place in a spesial package before selling to the public 包装, 打包

sociologist4
n. 社会学家

sexual
a. 关于性生活的

medium
n. (pl. media) 1. (pl.) the means of mass communication (复数)传播媒介, 宣传工具,
2. 中间, 适中

response
n. 1. an answer 回答, 答复
2. 反应, 响应

census
n. 人口普查

ancient
a. in or of times long ago 古代的

taxation
n. 1.纳税
2.税收

military
a. of, for, by or connected with soldiers, armies, or war fought by armies 军事的

steadily
ad. 稳定地

decade
n. a period of ten years 十年, 十年期

urban
a. of a town or city 城市的, 都市的

rate
n. 1.速度, 速率 2.比率, 率

rural
a. of or like the countryside; concerning country or village life 农村的

dramatic
a. exciting 惹人注目的

trend
n. a general direction or course of development 倾向, 趋势

preceding
a. that came just before in time or place 前面的, 在前的

northeast
n. 1. (一国或一地区的)东北部 2.东北

marriage
n. 结婚, 婚姻

unmarried
a. single 未婚的, 独身的

married
a. 结了婚的

divorce
n. 离婚

decline9
v. 下降

statistical
a. 统计的, 统计学的


Phrases and Expressions

for purposes/the purpose of
为了...目的

at a (faster) rate
以(较快的)速度

a great deal of
大量, 许多

go down
下降

along with
和...一起, 和...同时

adjust to
适应

Proper Names

Elmo Poper
艾谟.普波(人名)

George Gallup
乔治.盖洛普(人名)

Rome
罗马(意大利城市)


Text B

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, think over the questions.

1. Does advertising12 play a very important role in our life? Why?
2. Have you bought anything advertised?
3. What kind of business do you think advertising is?

Now compare your answers with those of your neighbours'.

Advertising

1. Advertising is part of our daily lives. To realize this fact, you have only to leaf through a magazine or newspaper or count the radio or television commercials that you hear in one evening. Most people see and hear several hundred advertising messages every day. And people respond to the many devices that advertisers use to gain their attention.
2. Advertising is a big business -- and, to many people, a fascinating business, filled with attraction and excitement. It is part literature, part art, and part show business.
3. Advertising is the difficult business of bringing information to great numbers of people. The purpose of an advertisement is to make people respond -- to make them react to an idea, such as helping13 prevent forest fires, or to make them want to buy a certain product or service.
4. At the beginning of the 20th century, advertising was described as "salesmanship in print." If this definition were expanded to include radio and television, it would still stand today. The most effective way to sell something is through person-to-person contact. But the cost of person-to-person selling is high. Because it takes a great deal of time, it increases the cost of the product or service. Advertising distributes the selling message to many people at one time.
5. Advertising is very old. It can be traced back as far as the public criers of ancient Greece -- who, for a fee, shouted out messages about their clients' products to one and all. But it first became important in the late 15th century, when the merchants of the rapidly growing cities and towns needed a way to tell people where their goods could be bought.
6. The first printed advertisement in the English language appeared in 1478, more than a century before Shakespeare's first play was produced. This early ad was the work of William Caxton, England's first printer, who used it to advertise religious books from his own workshop. Caxton posted small printed notices along London's main streets. Besides advertising his product, he identified his shop with a red-striped shield so that customers could find it easily.
7. This same sort of simple, informational advertising is still used. Examples are the roadside signs that tell travelers that they can buy fresh corn just down the road or that there is a restaurant in the next town.
8. The industrial Revolution, in the 18th and 19th centuries, brought a new kind of advertising. Large factories took the place of small workshops, and goods were produced in large quantities. Manufacturers used the newly built railroads to distribute their products over wide areas. They had to find many thousands of customers in order to stay in business. They could not simply tell people where shoes or cloth or tea could be bought -- they had to learn how to make people want to buy a specific product. Thus modern advertising was born. Advertising created new markets and helped to raise standards of living as people came to feel that they had a right to new and better products.
9. Advertising agencies began to develop in the United States just after the Civil War. At first these agencies merely sold space in the various media, mainly newspapers and magazines. But they soon added the service of writing and producing advertisements. From these beginnings, advertising has developed into a highly specialized14 profession.

New Words

commercial
n. 无线电(或电视)中的广告节目
a. 商业的, 商务的

respond
v. 1. to act in answer 响应
2. to answer 回答

device
n. 1.手段 2.装置, 设备

advertiser
n. 登广告的人

fascination15
n. (有)魅力

attraction
n. 吸引力

excitement
n. 刺激, 兴奋

literature
n. 1.印刷品, 宣传品
2.文学

advertisement
n. (=ad)广告

react
v. to act in reply 反应

salesmanship
n. skill in selling 推销术

definition
n. an exact statement of the meaning, nature, or limits of sth. 定义

expand
v. to (cause to) become larger 扩大, 扩充

effective
a. producing the desired result 有效的

trace
v. 追溯

fee
n. 费用, 酬金

client
n. 客户, 委托人

merchant
n. 商人

advertise
v. to make sth. known to the public 作广告

workshop
n. 作坊, 车间

besides
prep. in addition to; as well as 除...之外(尚有…)

striped
a. 有条纹的

shield
n. 防护物, 护罩

customer
n. 顾客, 主顾

roadside
a. at or near the edge of the road 路边的

quantity
n. an amount or number 数量

manufacturer
n. 1. 制造商, 工厂主
2.制造厂

living
n. 生活
a. 活的, 活着的

civil
a. 国内的, 民间的

merely
ad. only... and nothing else 仅仅,只不过

highly
ad. 高度地

profession
n. 职业


Phrases and Expressions

leaf through
翻阅

(be) filled with
充满

at the beginning of
在…开始的时候

be described as
说成, 被称为

be traced back
追溯到

shout out
(突然)大声呼喊

take the place of
取代, 代替

Proper Names

Greece
希腊(国名)

Shakespeare
莎士比亚(1564-1616, 英国剧作家,诗人)

William Caxton
威廉.卡克斯顿(约1422-91, 英格兰第一位书刊印刷者)

London
伦敦(英国城市)

The Industrial Revolution
产业革命


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 statistics iGyzb     
n.统计,统计数字,统计学
参考例句:
  • We have statistics for the last year.我们有去年的统计资料。
  • Statistics is taught in many colleges.许多大学都教授统计学。
2 poll iOXxH     
n.民意测验,民意调查,选举投票
参考例句:
  • The result of the poll won't be known until midnight.选举结果要到午夜才能揭晓。
  • They expected a heavy poll.他们期望会有很高的投票数。
3 polls 952e8cf2c863b8ddc656bac6ad0b729b     
民意调查( poll的名词复数 ); 民意调查的结果; 投票选举; 投票数
参考例句:
  • The two candidates are in a dead heat in the polls. 两名候选人在民意测验中势均力敌。
  • Opinion polls indicated a two-thirds majority in favour of ratification of the treaty. 民意调查表明2/3 的多数票赞成批准这个条约。
4 sociologist 2wSwo     
n.研究社会学的人,社会学家
参考例句:
  • His mother was a sociologist,researching socialism.他的母亲是个社会学家,研究社会主义。
  • Max Weber is a great and outstanding sociologist.马克斯·韦伯是一位伟大的、杰出的社会学家。
5 sexual YiLzlw     
adj.性的,两性的,性别的
参考例句:
  • He was a person of gross sexual appetites.他是个性欲旺盛的人。
  • It is socially irresponsible to refuse young people advice on sexual matters.拒绝向年轻人提供性方面的建议是对社会不负责任。
6 census arnz5     
n.(官方的)人口调查,人口普查
参考例句:
  • A census of population is taken every ten years.人口普查每10年进行一次。
  • The census is taken one time every four years in our country.我国每四年一次人口普查。
7 taxation tqVwP     
n.征税,税收,税金
参考例句:
  • He made a number of simplifications in the taxation system.他在税制上作了一些简化。
  • The increase of taxation is an important fiscal policy.增税是一项重要的财政政策。
8 steadily Qukw6     
adv.稳定地;不变地;持续地
参考例句:
  • The scope of man's use of natural resources will steadily grow.人类利用自然资源的广度将日益扩大。
  • Our educational reform was steadily led onto the correct path.我们的教学改革慢慢上轨道了。
9 decline K9gyw     
n.衰微,跌落,下降;vt.使降低,婉谢;vi.下降,衰落,偏斜
参考例句:
  • I must decline to show favour to any of the candidates.我必须拒绝偏袒任何一位候选人。
  • The birthrate is on the decline.出生率在下降。
10 declined 59e6b9e272eca41f44360ca9b264e57e     
v.辞谢,谢绝(邀请等)( decline的过去式和过去分词 );(道路、物体等)下倾;(太阳)落下;(在品格、价值上)降低
参考例句:
  • We asked her to come to our party, but she declined. 我们请她来参加我们的晚会,但是她谢绝了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He declined to charge his memory with so many details. 他不愿在脑中记这么多细枝末节。 来自《简明英汉词典》
11 statistical bu3wa     
adj.统计的,统计学的
参考例句:
  • He showed the price fluctuations in a statistical table.他用统计表显示价格的波动。
  • They're making detailed statistical analysis.他们正在做具体的统计分析。
12 advertising 1zjzi3     
n.广告业;广告活动 a.广告的;广告业务的
参考例句:
  • Can you give me any advice on getting into advertising? 你能指点我如何涉足广告业吗?
  • The advertising campaign is aimed primarily at young people. 这个广告宣传运动主要是针对年轻人的。
13 helping 2rGzDc     
n.食物的一份&adj.帮助人的,辅助的
参考例句:
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
14 specialized Chuzwe     
adj.专门的,专业化的
参考例句:
  • There are many specialized agencies in the United Nations.联合国有许多专门机构。
  • These tools are very specialized.这些是专用工具。
15 fascination FlHxO     
n.令人着迷的事物,魅力,迷恋
参考例句:
  • He had a deep fascination with all forms of transport.他对所有的运输工具都很着迷。
  • His letters have been a source of fascination to a wide audience.广大观众一直迷恋于他的来信。
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