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实用英语综合教程第二册-1

时间:2007-01-11 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:jimhe   字体: [ ]
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UNIT 1
Text A

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, try to answer the questions.

1. Do you know what public relations is?
2. What is the usual abbreviation for public relations?
3. Why do companies use public relations?

Now compare your answers with your neighbours'.

Public Relations

1. When the founders2 of the United States wrote the Declaration of Independence, they said that a "decent respect" for the opinion of people everywhere required the American colonies to tell the world why they were freeing themselves of British rule. The American founder1 believed that their cause could not win unless they had the confidence of other peoples.
2. Public relations, too, tries to win the confidence and goodwill3 of people. No company, government agency, school, hospital, or other institution can flourish if it pays no attention to what the people think of it. Public relations is the activity of giving a business or other organisation4 information about how its actions might affect public opinion -- or how public opinion might affect its actions. It is also the job of the public relations officer to tell the public about a company's activities, plans, or ideas. This is necessary because people are likely to have more confidence in a company if they know something about it.
3. There is not just one big public whose opinion a company has to worry about if it is to survive and grow. Only a few organisations, such as a national government, are so large that all the public has some opinion about their actions. Most companies and organisations have to think about the opinions of smaller groups -- their customers, for instance, or their workers or their shareholders5. A company must also have the trust and goodwill of its neighbours in the places where it has factories and offices. The company must be on good terms with the government, because every business can be seriously affected6 by government laws or regulations.
4. Gaining the confidence of others requires, first of all, thoughtfulness about other people's beliefs, interests, and feelings. Public relations begins by planning one's actions so as to respect the rights and beliefs of other people. Unless a public relations program takes these things into account, it can do little to help a company. Not all the money in the world, nor the most skilful7 writers or speakers, can make a company look as if it cares about other people if the company really does not care. Most companies, therefore, consider how any action, such as moving to a new location or buying another business, will affect public opinion. Having made a decision, the company wants everyone to understand the decision and the reasons it was made.
5. Most large companies have a public relations department, which tells the public about the company's plans and activities. The department is made up of writers, editors, photographic and picture experts, and researchers.
6. There are many ways to reveal a company's activities and character. A very effective one is through speeches by officials of the company before organisations such as the local chamber8 of commerce and various clubs. The speeches are usually reported in the newspapers and are often reprinted for distribution to government officials, educators, journalists, and others who might be interested in the company's views. Printed pamphlets and booklets, including the company magazine and the annual report of the management to the shareholders, also help inform the public about a company. Motion-picture films are often used to show people something about a company. A company may also, as a public service, undertake projects not directly connected with its business, to help make society better.
7. Besides using their own public relations staffs, many companies hire independent public relations firms, which work for several clients at once. Specially9 trained outsiders often see trends or problems that people inside a company might miss because they are too close to the situation.
8. Anyone who plans to do public relations work should get as broad an education as possible. In addition to a college education, work in some area of the communications field -- on a newspaper or with a broadcasting station -- is useful for the future public relations officer.

New Words

declaration
n. a formal announcement 宣言,宣布

decent
a. 1. proper; socially acceptable 得体的,合乎礼仪的
2. satisfactory; quite good 令人满意的,像样的

goodwill
n. 1. 友好,亲善
2.(商店,企业等的)信誉

flourish
v. to be successful, very active 茂盛,繁荣

action
n. 行动,做法

affect
v. to have an influence on (something) 影响

survive
v. to continue to exist or live 生存,幸存

serious
a. 1. important because of possible danger or risk 严重的
2. solemn and thoughtful 严肃的,深思的

seriously
ad. 严重地,厉害地

regulation
n. (usu. pl.) the rule or restriction10 made by an authority 规章,条例,法令

thoughtful
a. 1. caring about other people 体贴的,关心的
2. thinking 思考的,沉思的

thoughtfulness
n. 考虑周到

skil(l)ful
a. having or showing skill 灵巧的,熟练的

writer
n. the person whose job is to write books, stories, etc. 作者,作家

location
n. a place or position 场地,场所,位置

editor
n. 编辑

photographic
a. 摄影的

reveal
v. to make (facts, etc.)known 揭示,透露,泄露

character
n. 特征,特点

chamber
n. 1.(商业资本家联合组织的)会所
2.寝室

commerce
n. trade (esp. between countries) 商业,贸易

club
n. 俱乐部,社团

distribution
n. (instance of) giving or being given to each of several people, etc. 分发,分配

educator
n. the person who educates (esp. professionally) 教育工作者

journalist
n. 新闻工作者,记者

pamphlet
n. 小册子

booklet
n. a thin book, usu. in paper covers 小册子

annual
a. 1. happening every year 一年一次的
2. calculated for the rear 按年计的

motion
n. moving 移动,运动

motion-picture
n. a cinema film 电影

undertake
v. 1. to (start to) make oneself responsible for (something) 担任,从事
2. to agree or promise to do something 同意(做),答应(做)

staff
n. (pl.) 全体工作人员,全体职员

outsider
n. a person who is not (or is not accepted as) a member of a society, group, etc. 外人,局外人,非会员

Phrases and Expressions

free...of
免除,解除

pay (no) attention to
(不)注意

(be) on good terms with
同某人关系好

so as to
为的是,以便

take...into account
对...加以关注,考虑

care about
关心

be made up of
由...组成

inform...about/of
把...告诉某人

Proper Name

the Declaration of Independence
(美国)《独立宣言》

Text B

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Here are some typical interview questions. Think about what you might say in reply.

1. Why have you selected this kind of work?
2. If you had your choice of a job and company, what would you most like to do and where?
3. Would you be willing to work overtime11?

Now read the passage to learn more about the interview.

The Interview

1. Let us suppose that your letter of application for a job has been received by your prospective13 employer and you have been asked to go to the office for an interview. How do you prepare yourself and behave during this interview? The following advice should help you get through this most important first step towards getting a job.
2. First of all, do everything you can to prepare for the interview as soon as you know it is arranged. Make a list of all the points you want to ask about if you have the chance. Equip yourself with all your certificates and other relevant documents, a list of all the examinations you have passed, denoting subjects and credits, all the schools you have attended, sports you have played and any positions of responsibility held at school. If you have had a job before, then you should list details of this as well and your reasons for leaving. You may already have supplied these details but you should have a copy with you in case you are asked for it. It shows efficiency on your part.
3. Secondly14, find out all you can about your prospective employer. What exactly the firm does, where it is and how long it has been in existence. At the same time check the times of buses and ferries so that you are sure to arrive on time. In fact, if you can, be a little early. No one wants to employ a member of staff who is always late!
4. Thirdly, make a little extra effort with your appearance. Is your hair tidy? Your shirt freshly pressed? Your dress clean? Shoes polished? So, your preparations complete, you have arrived at the office on time and are waiting to be called for the interview. If you are feeling a little nervous, take a few deep breaths and let them out slowly. Read through your curriculum vitae again so that it is fresh in your mind.
5. When the interviewer or a secretary invites you in, try to show courtesy in your appearance and manner. Stand until you are invited to sit and then sit straight in the chair, do not lounge. Relax and smile.
6. The interviewer will begin by asking you questions about yourself, your curriculum vitae and even perhaps what you hope the future holds. Answer the questions simply, directly and honestly. Do not show impatience15 if you feel the interviewer is repeating things or asking questions that have no relevance16 to the matter in hand. He or she probably just wants to know if you have opinions of your own, and whether you can speak sensibly and coherently. Look straight at the interviewer when you answer questions and if asked about your family or school speak with loyalty17 and affection. Call the interviewer "Sir" or "Madam" or use a name if you have been asked to do so. Keep your certificates and other documents until they are asked for. If you failed an exam or had a job before do not be afraid to talk about it. If you are asked what salary you expect, state the figure mentioned in the advertisement you replied to.
7. If you sense that the interview is coming to an end, be ready with your queries18. The interviewer may ask you if you have any questions but if you are not asked, wait for a suitable moment. You have as much right to be concerned about your future work as the interviewer has about your ability to do the job. Do not lay undue19 emphasis on questions about holidays, days off, lunch breaks, sports facilities, etc. Ask first of all about promotion20 prospects21, other examinations you can take to get ahead and so on.
8. When the interview is at an end, stand up, wish the interviewer "Good morning" or "Good afternoon", and walk out.

New words

application
n. a formal request 申请,请求

prospective
a. future or possible; expected to be or to occur 未来的,有希望的,预期的

behave
v. 1. to act or conduct oneself in the specified22 way 表现,举动
2. to show good manners; conduct oneself well 举止适当,有礼貌

arrange
v. 1. to plan the details of (a future event); organise23 in advance 准备,筹备,安排
2. to put (something) in order; make tidy, neat or attractive 排列,整理,布置

equip
v. to supply with what is needed, for a particular purpose 装备,配备

relevant
a. 有关的

document
n. the paper, form, book, etc. giving information about something 文件,公文

denote
v. 表示,代表

credit
n. 1. 学分
2. 信用贷款,赊欠

detail
n. a small, particular fact or item 细节,详情

ferry
n. 渡船

polish
v. rub something so that it shines 擦亮,磨光

polished
a. shiny from polishing 擦亮的,磨光的

preparation
n. 1.准备,预备
2. 准备工作,准备措施

nervous
a. fearful; worried 神经紧张的,情绪不安的

curriculum
(pl. curricula vitae)resume (求职者等写的)简历,履历

interviewer
n. the person who conducts an interview (对求职者)进行口头初审的人,(对应试者)进行面试的人

secretary
n. an employee in an office, usu. working for another person, dealing24 with letters, typing, filing, etc. 秘书,书记

courtesy
n. 礼貌的举止,文雅的仪态

lounge
v. to sit or stand in a lazy way 懒洋洋地坐或站

patience
n. being calm when you are waiting or when you have trouble, problems, etc. 耐心,忍耐

impatience
n. 不耐烦,不耐心

relevance
n. 有关

sensible
a. right and good; wise 合情理的;明智的

sensibly
ad. in a sensible way 合情理地,切合实际地

coherently
ad. 条理清楚地,前后一致地

loyalty
n. being true and faithful 忠诚

affection
n. the feeling of fondness; love 喜爱,热爱

madam
n. (also Madam) 夫人,女士

salary
n. the fixed25 regular (usu. monthly) payment to employees doing other than manual or mechanical work 薪水

query26
n. a question or doubt 问题; 质询

undue
a. more than is right or proper; excessive 不适当的,过分的

emphasis
n. (pl. emphases) 强调

promotion
n. 1. the raising or being raised to a higher rank or position 提升,晋升
2. the encouragement or aid to the progress of (a cause) 促进,提倡

prospect12
n. 1. (pl.) the chance of success 前景;前途
2. the reasonable hope that something will happen; the expectation 希望,期望

Phrases and Expressions

get through
通过

prepare for
为...作准备

make a list of
造表列出,把...列入一览表

equip...with
装备,配备

as well


in case
万一

on someone's part / on the part of someone
由某人表现出来的,由某人所作出的

on time
准时

in hand
处理中的,执行中的,手头有的

come to an end
结束

wait for
等待

be concerned about
关心

lay (undue) emphasis on
(过分)强调

get ahead
有进展

and so on
等等

at an end
结束,完毕


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 Founder wigxF     
n.创始者,缔造者
参考例句:
  • He was extolled as the founder of their Florentine school.他被称颂为佛罗伦萨画派的鼻祖。
  • According to the old tradition,Romulus was the founder of Rome.按照古老的传说,罗穆卢斯是古罗马的建国者。
2 founders 863257b2606659efe292a0bf3114782c     
n.创始人( founder的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • He was one of the founders of the university's medical faculty. 他是该大学医学院的创建人之一。 来自辞典例句
  • The founders of our religion made this a cornerstone of morality. 我们宗教的创始人把这看作是道德的基石。 来自辞典例句
3 goodwill 4fuxm     
n.善意,亲善,信誉,声誉
参考例句:
  • His heart is full of goodwill to all men.他心里对所有人都充满着爱心。
  • We paid £10,000 for the shop,and £2000 for its goodwill.我们用一万英镑买下了这家商店,两千英镑买下了它的信誉。
4 organisation organisation     
n.组织,安排,团体,有机休
参考例句:
  • The method of his organisation work is worth commending.他的组织工作的方法值得称道。
  • His application for membership of the organisation was rejected.他想要加入该组织的申请遭到了拒绝。
5 shareholders 7d3b0484233cf39bc3f4e3ebf97e69fe     
n.股东( shareholder的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • The meeting was attended by 90% of shareholders. 90%的股东出席了会议。
  • the company's fiduciary duty to its shareholders 公司对股东负有的受托责任
6 affected TzUzg0     
adj.不自然的,假装的
参考例句:
  • She showed an affected interest in our subject.她假装对我们的课题感到兴趣。
  • His manners are affected.他的态度不自然。
7 skilful 8i2zDY     
(=skillful)adj.灵巧的,熟练的
参考例句:
  • The more you practise,the more skilful you'll become.练习的次数越多,熟练的程度越高。
  • He's not very skilful with his chopsticks.他用筷子不大熟练。
8 chamber wnky9     
n.房间,寝室;会议厅;议院;会所
参考例句:
  • For many,the dentist's surgery remains a torture chamber.对许多人来说,牙医的治疗室一直是间受刑室。
  • The chamber was ablaze with light.会议厅里灯火辉煌。
9 specially Hviwq     
adv.特定地;特殊地;明确地
参考例句:
  • They are specially packaged so that they stack easily.它们经过特别包装以便于堆放。
  • The machine was designed specially for demolishing old buildings.这种机器是专为拆毁旧楼房而设计的。
10 restriction jW8x0     
n.限制,约束
参考例句:
  • The park is open to the public without restriction.这个公园对公众开放,没有任何限制。
  • The 30 mph speed restriction applies in all built-up areas.每小时限速30英里适用于所有建筑物聚集区。
11 overtime aKqxn     
adj.超时的,加班的;adv.加班地
参考例句:
  • They are working overtime to finish the work.为了完成任务他们正在加班加点地工作。
  • He was paid for the overtime he worked.他领到了加班费。
12 prospect P01zn     
n.前景,前途;景色,视野
参考例句:
  • This state of things holds out a cheerful prospect.事态呈现出可喜的前景。
  • The prospect became more evident.前景变得更加明朗了。
13 prospective oR7xB     
adj.预期的,未来的,前瞻性的
参考例句:
  • The story should act as a warning to other prospective buyers.这篇报道应该对其他潜在的购买者起到警示作用。
  • They have all these great activities for prospective freshmen.这会举办各种各样的活动来招待未来的新人。
14 secondly cjazXx     
adv.第二,其次
参考例句:
  • Secondly,use your own head and present your point of view.第二,动脑筋提出自己的见解。
  • Secondly it is necessary to define the applied load.其次,需要确定所作用的载荷。
15 impatience OaOxC     
n.不耐烦,急躁
参考例句:
  • He expressed impatience at the slow rate of progress.进展缓慢,他显得不耐烦。
  • He gave a stamp of impatience.他不耐烦地跺脚。
16 relevance gVAxg     
n.中肯,适当,关联,相关性
参考例句:
  • Politicians' private lives have no relevance to their public roles.政治家的私生活与他们的公众角色不相关。
  • Her ideas have lost all relevance to the modern world.她的想法与现代社会完全脱节。
17 loyalty gA9xu     
n.忠诚,忠心
参考例句:
  • She told him the truth from a sense of loyalty.她告诉他真相是出于忠诚。
  • His loyalty to his friends was never in doubt.他对朋友的一片忠心从来没受到怀疑。
18 queries 5da7eb4247add5dbd5776c9c0b38460a     
n.问题( query的名词复数 );疑问;询问;问号v.质疑,对…表示疑问( query的第三人称单数 );询问
参考例句:
  • Our assistants will be happy to answer your queries. 我们的助理很乐意回答诸位的问题。
  • Her queries were rhetorical,and best ignored. 她的质问只不过是说说而已,最好不予理睬。 来自《简明英汉词典》
19 undue Vf8z6V     
adj.过分的;不适当的;未到期的
参考例句:
  • Don't treat the matter with undue haste.不要过急地处理此事。
  • It would be wise not to give undue importance to his criticisms.最好不要过分看重他的批评。
20 promotion eRLxn     
n.提升,晋级;促销,宣传
参考例句:
  • The teacher conferred with the principal about Dick's promotion.教师与校长商谈了迪克的升级问题。
  • The clerk was given a promotion and an increase in salary.那个职员升了级,加了薪。
21 prospects fkVzpY     
n.希望,前途(恒为复数)
参考例句:
  • There is a mood of pessimism in the company about future job prospects. 公司中有一种对工作前景悲观的情绪。
  • They are less sanguine about the company's long-term prospects. 他们对公司的远景不那么乐观。
22 specified ZhezwZ     
adj.特定的
参考例句:
  • The architect specified oak for the wood trim. 那位建筑师指定用橡木做木饰条。
  • It is generated by some specified means. 这是由某些未加说明的方法产生的。
23 organise organise     
vt.组织,安排,筹办
参考例句:
  • He has the ability to organise.他很有组织才能。
  • It's my job to organise all the ceremonial events.由我来组织所有的仪式。
24 dealing NvjzWP     
n.经商方法,待人态度
参考例句:
  • This store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing.该商店因买卖公道而享有极高的声誉。
  • His fair dealing earned our confidence.他的诚实的行为获得我们的信任。
25 fixed JsKzzj     
adj.固定的,不变的,准备好的;(计算机)固定的
参考例句:
  • Have you two fixed on a date for the wedding yet?你们俩选定婚期了吗?
  • Once the aim is fixed,we should not change it arbitrarily.目标一旦确定,我们就不应该随意改变。
26 query iS4xJ     
n.疑问,问号,质问;vt.询问,表示怀疑
参考例句:
  • I query very much whether it is wise to act so hastily.我真怀疑如此操之过急地行动是否明智。
  • They raised a query on his sincerity.他们对他是否真诚提出质疑。
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TAG标签:   实用英语  综合教程
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