英语 英语 日语 日语 韩语 韩语 法语 法语 德语 德语 西班牙语 西班牙语 意大利语 意大利语 阿拉伯语 阿拉伯语 葡萄牙语 葡萄牙语 越南语 越南语 俄语 俄语 芬兰语 芬兰语 泰语 泰语 泰语 丹麦语 泰语 对外汉语

实用英语综合教程第二册-2

时间:2007-01-11 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:belle0920   字体: [ ]
特别声明:本栏目内容均从网络收集或者网友提供,供仅参考试用,我们无法保证内容完整和正确。如果资料损害了您的权益,请与站长联系,我们将及时删除并致以歉意。
    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

UNIT 2
Text A

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, look at these questions. Then try to find the answers as you read it.

1. What is the general meaning of the word "culture"?
2. What does the word "culture" mean for those who study humankind?

What Is Culture?

1. The word "culture" has many different meanings. For example, we sometimes say that people who know about art, music, and literature are cultured. However, the word culture has a different meaning for anthropologists (people who study humankind). To an anthropologist1 the word culture means all the ways in which a group of people act, dress, think, and feel. People have to learn the cultural ways of their community: they are not something that the people in the group are born with.
2. Instinctive2 behaviour, on the other hand, is a pattern of behaviour that an animal is born with. Spiders spinning their webs is an example of instinctive behaviour. The mother spider does not teach her babies how to spin webs. (In fact, she is not even there when they are born.) They know how to do it when they are born. This is what we mean by instinctive behaviour.
3. As humans, we learn some of the ways of our culture by being taught by our teachers or parents. We learn more of the ways of our culture by growing up in it. We see how other people in our culture do things, and we do them the same way. We even learn how to think and feel in this way.
4. All human beings have certain basic needs, such as eating, drinking, keeping warm and dry, and so on. However, the way in which they take care of these needs depends on the culture in which they grow up. All cultures have ways of eating, drinking, dressing3, finding shelter, marrying, and dealing4 with death. The foods that we think are good to eat, the kinds of clothes we wear, and how many people we can marry at one time are all parts of our culture.
5. Our own culture seems very natural to us. We feel in our hearts that the way that we do things is the only right way to do them. Other people's cultures often make us laugh or feel disgusted or shocked. We may laugh at clothing that seems ridiculous to us. Many people think that eating octopus5 or a juicy red piece of roast beef is disgusting. The idea that a man can have more than one wife or that brothers and sisters can marry each other may shock other cultures.
6. Ideas of what is beautiful differ from one culture to another. The Flathead Indians of North America used to bind6 the heads of babies between boards so they would have long sloping foreheads. In the Flathead culture, long sloping foreheads were beautiful. Other cultures might think that they are strange-looking and unattractive. Many people cut scars into their bodies or tattoo7 themselves so that others in their culture will think they are beautiful. Objects are inserted in holes in the nose, lips, and ears in a number of different cultures. In many twentieth-century societies, rouge8, lipstick9, eye shadow, perfume, and hair spray are all used to increase attractiveness.
7. When people die, different cultures dispose of their bodies in different ways. Sometimes bodies are burned. Sometimes bodies are buried in the ground. In many cultures in the past, people were buried with food, weapons, jewellery, and other things that might be useful in the next life. For example, the ancient Egyptians buried people with little human figures made from clay. These clay figures were supposed to work for the dead person in the other world. A religious group called the Parses10 exposed their dead on platforms for birds to eat. Some people practice a second burial. After the bodies have been in the earth for several years, the bones are dug up and reburied, sometimes in a small container.
8. These are just a few of the many different customs that are found in different cultures. Most of the time, the different ways that are the customs of different cultures are neither right nor wrong. It is simply that different people do the same things in different ways.

New Words

cultured
a. (of people) refined; cultivated 有修养的,有教养的

anthropologist
n. 人类学家,学人类学的学生

humankind
n. (= mankind) 人类

cultural
a. of or involving culture 文化的,文化上的

instinct
n. 1.本能
2.天性, 直觉

instinctive
a. 本能的,天生的

pattern
n. the way in which something happens or develops 方式,型

spider
n. 蜘蛛

spin
v. 1.(蜘蛛)结(网)
2.纺

web
n. 网

basic
a. 基本的,初步的

shelter
n. 1. 掩蔽,保护
2.躲避处,隐蔽处

disgust
v. 使厌恶

disgusted
a. 感到厌恶,反感

shock
v. 1.(使)震惊,
2.(使)震动

shocked
a. 感到震惊的

octopus
n. 章鱼

juicy
a. 多液汁的

roast
a. cooked in an oven, etc. 烤过的
v. to cook (meat, etc.) in an oven or in front of a fire 烤,炙(肉)

disgusting
a. 令人厌恶的,令人作呕的

differ
v. not to be the same as; be unlike 不同, 有异

bind
v. (bound) to tie or fasten, e.g. with rope 绑,缚,系

slope
v. (使)倾斜
n. 1. 倾坡,倾面
2. 倾斜,斜度

sloping
a. 斜的,倾斜的

forehead
n. 前额

scar
n. 疤,伤痕

tattoo
v. 文身, 在...上刻花纹

insert
v. to put, fit, place something into something or between two things 插入, 嵌进

rouge
n. 胭脂,口红
v. 涂胭脂,抹口红

lipstick
n. 唇膏

perfume
n. 香水,香料

spray
n. 喷雾,用作喷雾的液体

dispose
v. to get rid of someone or something that one does not want or cannot keep 处理,处置

weapon
n. the thing designed or used for causing physical harm 武器,兵器

jewel(l)ry
n. 宝石饰物,珠宝,饰物

clay
n. 粘土,陶土

dead
a. no longer alive 死的

expose
v. 1. to uncover or leave uncovered or unprotected 使暴露,使遭受
2. to make known (something secret); reveal 揭穿(秘密),暴露

burial
n. 埋葬,葬礼

container
n. a box, bottle, etc. in which something is kept, transported, etc. 容器(箱、瓶等)

Phrases and Expressions

be born with
与生俱来

at one time
同时,曾经有一个时期

feel in one's heart
心里觉得

laugh at
因...而笑,嘲笑

differ from...to
一方与另一方(在意见方面)持不同看法

dispose of
处理,处置,清除

Proper Names

the Flathead Indian
扁头印第安人

Egyptian
埃及人,埃及(人)的

the Parsee
n. 帕西人


Text B

PRE-READING TASK

Exercise 1
Before reading the passage, go over the food list to decide which you think is good to eat
(√)and which is bad to eat
(×)

1. tomatoes 6. rats(鼠)
2. pork (猪肉) 7. termites12 (白蚁)
3. beef 8. fish
4. mutton (羊肉) 9. dogs
5. butterfly (蝴蝶) 10.ducks

Now compare your choice with your neighbours' and give your reason for your choice.

Food and Culture

1. We all have ideas about what kinds of foods are good to eat. We also have ideas about what kinds of foods are bad to eat. As a result, people from one culture often think the foods that people from another culture eat are disgusting or nauseating13. When the famous boxer14 Muhammad Ali visited Africa, for example, one member of his group became quite sick when he saw someone pick up a butterfly and eat it. Many people would find it disgusting to eat rats, but there are forty-two different cultures whose people regard rats as appropriate food.
2. Some people in Africa think African termites make a delicious meal. Many other people would probably be sick if they had to eat termites, but one hundred grams of termites contain more than twice as many calories and almost twice as much protein as one hundred grams of cooked hamburger.
3. However, food likes and dislikes do not always seem related to nutrition. For example, broccoli15 is first on a list of the most nutritious16 common vegetables, but it is twenty-first on a list of vegetables that Americans like most to eat. Tomatoes are sixteenth on the list of the most nutritious vegetables, but they are first on the list of vegetables that Americans like most to eat.
4. But dislike is not the only reason why some cultures will not eat a certain food. In some cultures, certain foods are taboo17. Taboo is a word from the language of the Fiji Islands that is used to describe something that is forbidden. Some foods are taboo in certain religions, but there are also other food taboos18 that are not connected to a religion. We do not usually think about why certain things are taboo in our culture. We may not even know why they are taboo. Anthropologists try to discover the hidden reasons for taboos. For example, the sacred cows of India are well known. Cows can go wherever they want to in the streets of India, and they can eat anything they want from the supplies of the foodsellers on the street. As a result, the cows are a problem. However, no one in India will kill them or eat them. It is taboo to do so. This custom seems strange to other people, but anthropologists believe that there are reasons for it. First, cows are valuable because the farmers need them to help plow19 their fields. Second, cow manure20 is used as a fertilizer on the fields. In India, many farmers cannot afford to spend money on fertilizer. Third, the cow manure can be dried and burned to make cooking fires. Therefore, farmers that kill their cows for meat soon find that they cannot plow or fertilize21 their fields or make a cooking fire.
5. Another example is that Americans do not eat dogs, although people from some other cultures regard them as good food. In the United States, dogs are very important to people as pets. They are usually regarded as part of the family, almost like a child in some cases. In addition, dogs have value as protection against criminals. Thieves will not usually enter a house where there is a dog because the dog will bark and possibly attack a stranger who is trying to get into a house. Apparently22, the dog's place in society as a companion and as a protection against criminals makes the dog taboo as food.
6. The taboo against eating pork occurs in more than one culture. There is some evidence that some ancient Egyptians did not eat pork. The ancient Israelites also regarded pork as taboo. One explanation for the pig-eating taboo is that pork that is not cooked sufficiently23 may spread a disease called trichinosis. However, most people no longer think that this is a good explanation for the pork taboo.
7. Anthropologists believe that most food likes and dislikes are a result of the ways of life of different people. Some people live in areas where there are both large animals and many insects. It is difficult for these people to kill large animals, and it requires a lot of energy. It is easier for them to use insects for food because it is not difficult to catch insects and it does not require a lot of energy. Nomadic24 people who move around will not want to keep pigs for food. People will not eat pets such as dogs. Americans eat a lot of beef because there is plenty of land for raising cattle and their meat can be shipped cheaply for long distances by railroads.

New Words

nauseating
a. 令人作呕的

boxer
n. a person who fights (someone) with the fists, esp. as a sport 拳击手

butterfly
n. 蝴蝶

rat
n. 鼠

regard
v. to consider or think about someone or something in the specified25 way 把...视为,把...认为

appropriate
a. suitable, right and proper 合适的

termite11
n. 白蚁

delicious
a. giving pleasure, esp. to the senses of taste and smell 美味的,可口的

gram
n. 克(重量单位)

calorie
n. 卡路里,卡 (热量单位)

protein
n. 蛋白质

hamburger
n. 汉堡包,汉堡牛肉饼

dislike
n. the feeling of not liking26 不喜欢,反感
v. not to like 不喜欢,反感

nutrition
n. 营养物,食物

broccoli
n. (一种)花椰菜

nutritious
a. of high value as food 有营养的,营养价值高的

taboo
n. (某些文化中的)禁忌,忌讳
a. 禁忌的,忌讳的;禁止的

forbid
v. (forbade / forbidden) to make (something) difficult or impossible; prevent or not allow 禁止,不许可

sacred
a. 神圣的

wherever
ad. in any place 在任何地方

manure
n. 肥料,粪肥

fertilizer
n. 肥料(天然或人造肥料)

afford
v. (usu. with can, could, or be able to) to have enough money, time, space, etc. for (a specified purpose) (常与can, could 或 be able to 连用 ) (有足够的钱或时间等)能做

fertilize
v. 使肥沃,使多产

pet
n. 宠物

criminal
n. a person who commits a crime or crimes 罪犯
a. 犯了法的,与犯罪有关的

bark
v. (指狗)吠,叫

companion
n. a person or an animal who goes with, or spends much time with another 同伴,伴侣

pork
n. 猪肉

evidence
n. the information that gives a reason for believing something or proves something 证据,根据

sufficient
a. enough 足够的,充分的

sufficiently
ad. 充分地

trichinosis
n. (医)旋毛虫病,毛线虫病

insect
n. 昆虫

nomadic
a. 1.游牧部落的
2.流浪的

Phrases and Expressions

as a result
因此,作为结果

pick up
拾起,拿起

regard...as
认为...是,把...当作

in some cases
在某些情况下

in addition
另外

plenty of
大量的,足够的

Proper Names

Muhammada Ali
穆罕默德.阿里(美国拳击运动员, 1942-)

the Fiji Islands
斐济群岛

India
印度

Israelite
犹太人,希伯来人,古以色列人


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 anthropologist YzgzPk     
n.人类学家,人类学者
参考例句:
  • The lecturer is an anthropologist.这位讲师是人类学家。
  • The anthropologist unearthed the skull of an ancient human at the site.人类学家在这个遗址挖掘出那块古人类的颅骨。
2 instinctive c6jxT     
adj.(出于)本能的;直觉的;(出于)天性的
参考例句:
  • He tried to conceal his instinctive revulsion at the idea.他试图饰盖自己对这一想法本能的厌恶。
  • Animals have an instinctive fear of fire.动物本能地怕火。
3 dressing 1uOzJG     
n.(食物)调料;包扎伤口的用品,敷料
参考例句:
  • Don't spend such a lot of time in dressing yourself.别花那么多时间来打扮自己。
  • The children enjoy dressing up in mother's old clothes.孩子们喜欢穿上妈妈旧时的衣服玩。
4 dealing NvjzWP     
n.经商方法,待人态度
参考例句:
  • This store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing.该商店因买卖公道而享有极高的声誉。
  • His fair dealing earned our confidence.他的诚实的行为获得我们的信任。
5 octopus f5EzQ     
n.章鱼
参考例句:
  • He experienced nausea after eating octopus.吃了章鱼后他感到恶心。
  • One octopus has eight tentacles.一条章鱼有八根触角。
6 bind Vt8zi     
vt.捆,包扎;装订;约束;使凝固;vi.变硬
参考例句:
  • I will let the waiter bind up the parcel for you.我让服务生帮你把包裹包起来。
  • He wants a shirt that does not bind him.他要一件不使他觉得过紧的衬衫。
7 tattoo LIDzk     
n.纹身,(皮肤上的)刺花纹;vt.刺花纹于
参考例句:
  • I've decided to get my tattoo removed.我已经决定去掉我身上的纹身。
  • He had a tattoo on the back of his hand.他手背上刺有花纹。
8 rouge nX7xI     
n.胭脂,口红唇膏;v.(在…上)擦口红
参考例句:
  • Women put rouge on their cheeks to make their faces pretty.女人往面颊上涂胭脂,使脸更漂亮。
  • She didn't need any powder or lip rouge to make her pretty.她天生漂亮,不需要任何脂粉唇膏打扮自己。
9 lipstick o0zxg     
n.口红,唇膏
参考例句:
  • Taking out her lipstick,she began to paint her lips.她拿出口红,开始往嘴唇上抹。
  • Lipstick and hair conditioner are cosmetics.口红和护发素都是化妆品。
10 parses ae7a9da631e31f29d18bee75381ee8a0     
v.从语法上描述或分析(词句等)( parse的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • Parses structure of melody and automatically recognizes its key and harmony. 2. parses结构的旋律并自动识别其关键与和谐。 来自互联网
  • Parses template and sends to standard output (Browser) . 解析范本,并传送到标准输出(浏览器)。 来自互联网
11 termite npTwE     
n.白蚁
参考例句:
  • The termite control was also probed into further in this text.本文还进一步探讨了白蚁的防治方法。
  • Termite often destroys wood.白蚁经常破坏树木。
12 termites 8ee357110f82dc8b267190e430924662     
n.白蚁( termite的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Termites are principally tropical in distribution. 白蚁主要分布在热带地区。 来自辞典例句
  • This spray will exterminate the termites. 这种喷剂能消灭白蚁。 来自辞典例句
13 nauseating fb14f89658fba421f177319ea59b96a6     
adj.令人恶心的,使人厌恶的v.使恶心,作呕( nauseate的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  • I had to listen to the whole nauseating story. 我不得不从头到尾听那令人作呕的故事。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • There is a nauseating smell of rotten food. 有一股令人恶心的腐烂食物的气味。 来自《简明英汉词典》
14 boxer sxKzdR     
n.制箱者,拳击手
参考例句:
  • The boxer gave his opponent a punch on the nose.这个拳击手朝他对手的鼻子上猛击一拳。
  • He moved lightly on his toes like a boxer.他像拳击手一样踮着脚轻盈移动。
15 broccoli 1sbzm     
n.绿菜花,花椰菜
参考例句:
  • She grew all the broccoli plants from seed.这些花椰菜都是她用种子培育出来的。
  • They think broccoli is only green and cauliflower is only white.他们认为西兰花只有绿色的,而菜花都是白色的。
16 nutritious xHzxO     
adj.有营养的,营养价值高的
参考例句:
  • Fresh vegetables are very nutritious.新鲜蔬菜富于营养。
  • Hummingbirds have discovered that nectar and pollen are very nutritious.蜂鸟发现花蜜和花粉是很有营养的。
17 taboo aqBwg     
n.禁忌,禁止接近,禁止使用;adj.禁忌的;v.禁忌,禁制,禁止
参考例句:
  • The rude words are taboo in ordinary conversation.这些粗野的字眼在日常谈话中是禁忌的。
  • Is there a taboo against sex before marriage in your society?在你们的社会里,婚前的性行为犯禁吗?
18 taboos 6a690451c8c44df41d89927fdad5692d     
禁忌( taboo的名词复数 ); 忌讳; 戒律; 禁忌的事物(或行为)
参考例句:
  • She was unhorsed by fences, laws and alien taboos. 她被藩蓠、法律及外来的戒律赶下了马。
  • His mind was charged with taboos. 他头脑里忌讳很多。
19 plow eu5yE     
n.犁,耕地,犁过的地;v.犁,费力地前进[英]plough
参考例句:
  • At this time of the year farmers plow their fields.每年这个时候农民们都在耕地。
  • We will plow the field soon after the last frost.最后一场霜过后,我们将马上耕田。
20 manure R7Yzr     
n.粪,肥,肥粒;vt.施肥
参考例句:
  • The farmers were distributing manure over the field.农民们正在田间施肥。
  • The farmers used manure to keep up the fertility of their land.农夫们用粪保持其土质的肥沃。
21 fertilize hk5x8     
v.使受精,施肥于,使肥沃
参考例句:
  • Fertilizer is a substance put on land to fertilize it.肥料是施在地里使之肥沃的物质。
  • Reading will fertilize his vocabulary.阅读会丰富他的词汇。
22 apparently tMmyQ     
adv.显然地;表面上,似乎
参考例句:
  • An apparently blind alley leads suddenly into an open space.山穷水尽,豁然开朗。
  • He was apparently much surprised at the news.他对那个消息显然感到十分惊异。
23 sufficiently 0htzMB     
adv.足够地,充分地
参考例句:
  • It turned out he had not insured the house sufficiently.原来他没有给房屋投足保险。
  • The new policy was sufficiently elastic to accommodate both views.新政策充分灵活地适用两种观点。
24 nomadic 0H5xx     
adj.流浪的;游牧的
参考例句:
  • This tribe still live a nomadic life.这个民族仍然过着游牧生活。
  • The plowing culture and the nomadic culture are two traditional principal cultures in China.农耕文化与游牧文化是我国传统的两大主体文化。
25 specified ZhezwZ     
adj.特定的
参考例句:
  • The architect specified oak for the wood trim. 那位建筑师指定用橡木做木饰条。
  • It is generated by some specified means. 这是由某些未加说明的方法产生的。
26 liking mpXzQ5     
n.爱好;嗜好;喜欢
参考例句:
  • The word palate also means taste or liking.Palate这个词也有“口味”或“嗜好”的意思。
  • I must admit I have no liking for exaggeration.我必须承认我不喜欢夸大其词。
本文本内容来源于互联网抓取和网友提交,仅供参考,部分栏目没有内容,如果您有更合适的内容,欢迎点击提交分享给大家。
------分隔线----------------------------
TAG标签:   实用英语  综合教程
顶一下
(1)
50%
踩一下
(1)
50%
最新评论 查看所有评论
发表评论 查看所有评论
请自觉遵守互联网相关的政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
验证码:
听力搜索
推荐频道
论坛新贴