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新视野大学英语读写教程词汇 第一册 unit02 b

时间:2010-12-17 05:54来源:互联网 提供网友:wokan222   字体: [ ]

  <TITLE>New Words</TITLE>
  |@|<1>concept     |n.|[C] a thought, idea, or principle |概念;观念
  ||        ||The concept that "big is beautiful" is no longer as popular as it was. |“大就是美”这种观念不再那么流行了。
  ||        ||This section has introduced some of the basic concepts used by many sociologists. |本节介绍了许多社会学家使用的某些基本概念。
  ||<2>consistency |n.|[U] the quality of always being the same |一致性;连贯性
  ||        ||Your work lacks consistency. Sometimes it's excellent but at other times it's full of mistakes. |你的工作缺乏稳定性,有时做得很好,有时则错误百出。
  ||        ||Consistency of performance depends on several factors. |表演的稳定依赖于几种因素。
  |@|<3>response    |n.|1.[C] a reply |回答
  ||        ||I've sent out 20 letters of enquiry but I haven't had any responses yet. |我发出了20封询问信,但还没有收到回复。
  ||        ||Her response was to leave the room and slam the door. |她的反应是离开房间把门砰地关上。
  ||        ||2.[C, U] an action done as a reaction to sth. |反应,回应
  ||        ||She opened the door in response to the knock. |听到敲门后她便开了门。
  ||        ||The report has aroused a strong response from the readers. |这篇报道引起了读者的强烈反应。
  |★|<4>refute      |vt.|prove that sb. or sth. is not correct |反驳,驳斥
  ||        ||The view that the world is flat was refuted long ago. |地球是扁的这一观点早就被驳斥了。
  ||        ||I knew he was lying but I had no evidence with which to refute his story. |我知道他在撒谎,但我没有证据反驳他。
  |@|<5>tend        |vi.|be likely to do sth. |倾向于,趋于
  ||        ||People tend to need less sleep as they grow older. |随着年龄增长,人们对睡眠的需求往往在减少。
  ||        ||It tends to rain here a lot in the spring. |这里春天往往雨水很多。
  ||        |vt.|take care of; look after |照料,照顾
  ||        ||She tended her husband during his long illness. |丈夫长期卧病,她一直照料他。
  ||        ||Jane was outside tending the garden when the fire broke out. |发生火灾时,简在外面护理花园。
  |@|<6>evaluate    |vt.|judge the value, quality, or degree of sth. |评价;评估
  ||        ||The school has only been open for six months, so it's hard to evaluate its success. |该学校仅开办了六个月,现在很难估计其成绩。
  ||        ||It can be difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments. |很难评估不同治疗方法的效果。
  ||<7> <em>evaluation</em>  |n.  |[C, U] a judgment about the value, quality, or degree of sth. |评估;评价
  ||        ||We need to carry out a proper evaluation of the new system. |我们需要对这个新的系统做适当评估。
  ||        ||They took some samples of products for evaluation. |他们取了一些样品进行评估。
  |@|<8>guidance    |n.|[U] help and advice |指导,引导
  ||        ||They offer practical guidance to people starting their own businesses. |他们给开始自己创业的人提供切实可行的指导。
  ||        ||Your teacher can give you guidance on choosing a career and writing a job application. |你的老师可以指导你如何选择职业和写就业申请。
  ||<9>career      |n.|[C] a job or profession one is trained for and intends to follow for part or the whole of one's life |职业;一生的事业
  ||        ||His career in politics is rather successful. |他的政治生涯很成功。
  ||        ||Overall, I am very pleased about this new turn in my career. |总的说来,我对自己事业中的转机很满意。
  |@|<10>trend      |n.|[C] a change toward sth. new or different |趋势;倾向
  ||        ||Lately there has been a trend towards hiring younger employees. | 近来的一种趋势是雇用年轻的员工。
  ||        ||A lot of the students don't think for themselves; they just follow the latest trends. |很多学生不用脑思考,他们只会跟随最新潮流。
  |@|<11>apply      |vt.|use sth. such as a method, idea, etc. |使用,应用
  ||        ||New technology is being applied to almost every industrial field. |新技术被应用到几乎每个工业领域。
  ||        ||These ideas are often difficult to apply in practice. |这些思想在实践中往往难以应用。
  ||        |vi.|request sth., esp. in writing |申请
  ||        ||She said she would apply to the department for a computer. |她说她会向系里申请要部电脑。
  ||        ||How many jobs had you applied for before you were offered this one? |在得到这份工作之前,你申请了多少工作?
  |@|<12>individual |a.|single or particular |单个的;个别的
  ||        ||The education department decides on general teaching policies, but the exact details are left to the individual schools. |教育部门决定总的教育方针,但确切的细节留待各个学校自己处理。
  ||        ||He has his own individual method of organizing his work. |他以自己独特的方式组织自己的工作。
  ||        |n.|[C] one single person or thing |个人;个体
  ||        ||Are the needs of society more important than the rights of the individual? |社会的需求比个人的权利更重要吗?
  ||        ||Effects of the drug vary from individual to individual. |这药的效果因人而异。
  |■|<13>teen       |n.|[C] (infml.) a teenager |少年,十几岁的孩子
  ||        ||Many teens continue to look to their parents for guidance in their studies. |许多十多岁的孩子学习时依然依赖父母给予帮助。
  ||        ||Seeing the police, the teens ran away. |一看到警察,这些少年就跑开了。
  |@|<14>relate     |vi.|(to) be able to understand a situation or the way sb. feels or thinks |理解;适应;和睦相处
  ||        ||The magazine deals with scientific subjects that ordinary people can relate to. |该杂志讨论的科学话题一般人都能看懂。
  ||        ||Laurie finds it difficult to relate to children. |劳利感到很难与孩子沟通。
  ||        |v.|show or make a connection between two different things |把...联系起来
  ||        ||I don't understand how the two ideas relate. |我不明白这两个观点之间有什么联系。
  ||        ||The report relates heart disease to high levels of stress. |这篇报告认为心脏病与精神压力过大有关。
  |@|<15>entitle    |vt.|1.give a title to a book, play, etc. |给(书、剧本等)题名;定名
  ||        ||Have you read the novel entitled <em>Crime and Punishment</em>? |你读过《罪与罚》这部小说吗?
  ||        ||The last song is entitled "Into the Woods". |最后一首歌叫《走进森林》。
  ||        ||2.give sb. the right to have or do sth. |使有权做;给予...的资格
  ||        ||Only members of the company are entitled to use the facilities. |只有公司职员有权享用这些设施。
  ||        ||Being a member entitles you to discounts on tickets. |成为会员可以使你享受折扣票。
  |@|<16>attitude   |n.| [C] a way of feeling or thinking about sb. or sth. |态度;心态
  ||        ||She shows a very positive attitude to her work. |她的工作态度很积极。
  ||        ||Officials took the attitude that the problem was not their responsibility. |官员的态度是,这问题不是他们的责任。
  |▲|<17>contagious |a.|1. (of an action, thought, etc.) that is likely to cause a similar response in others |有感染力的
  ||        ||Her contagious smile impressed me most. | 她的微笑富有感染力,给我留下深刻印象。
  ||        ||Trust is contagious. You trust other people and they will trust you. |信任是有感染力的。你信任他人,他人就信任你。
  ||        ||2. (of a disease) that can be passed from one person to another |传染的
  ||        ||Measles is highly contagious. |麻疹的传染性很强。
  ||        ||Most eye infections are contagious. |多数眼睛感染是会传染的。
  |@|<18>confidence |n.|1.[U] the belief that one can do sth. well |信心,把握
  ||        ||The company is looking forward with confidence to the next five years. |那家公司对未来五年充满信心。
  ||        ||I developed much more confidence in my ability and I've pushed my grades up. |我对自己的能力信心更足,而且我的成绩也提高了。
  ||        ||2.[U] the belief that sb. or sth. is good and one can trust them |信任,信赖
  ||        ||We have complete confidence in your ability to do the job. |我们完全相信你有能力做这项工作。
  ||        ||What is most important is to maintain the customers' confidence in our product. |最重要的是要保持消费者对我们产品的信赖。
  ||<19> <em>self-confidence</em> |n.     |[U] confidence in oneself |自信
  ||             |     |Passing the test helped her gain self-confidence. |她通过了考试,这帮助她获得了自信。
  ||             |     |He's new on the job, but he has plenty of self-confidence. |他干这项工作是个新手,但是他非常自信。
  |@|<20>sound      |vi.|(linking verb) seem |听起来;好像
  ||        ||This proposal sounds good to me, and I'm interested in seeing how it actually works. |这个建议听起来很好,而且我很想看如何实施它。
  ||        ||It sounds to me as if he needs professional help. |我觉得他好像需要职业帮助。
  |■|<21>interrogation  |n.|[C, U] the process of asking sb. questions for information, sometimes using threats |审问,盘问
  ||        ||He said he had the right to silence during the police interrogations. |他说警察审问时他有权保持沉默。
  ||        ||The interrogation of terrorist suspects gave the police a lot of information. |通过审问恐怖分子嫌疑犯警察获得了很多信息。
  |@|<22>adopt      |vt.|1.decide to use sth. |采用;采取
  ||        ||She decided not to adopt her husband's name when she got married. |她决定婚后不从夫姓。
  ||        ||These standards have been adopted by many cities; others have established their own standards. |很多城市采用了这些标准;其他城市建立了自己的标准。
  ||        ||2.take sb. else's child into one's family and legally become its parent |收养,领养
  ||        ||The couple adopted a baby boy. |那对夫妇领养了一个男婴。
  ||        ||She was adopted when she was four. |他四岁时被人领养了。
  |@|<23>curiosity  |n.|[U] the desire to know or learn |好奇心;求知欲
  ||        ||She asked the question out of curiosity. |她问这个问题是出于好奇心。
  ||        ||The news aroused a lot of curiosity among local people. |这条新闻引起了当地人的极大好奇心。
  |@|<24>view       |n.|1.[C] an opinion or idea about sth. |观点,意见
  ||        ||In my view, she has done nothing wrong. |依我看,她没有做错。
  ||        ||I don't agree with the view that longer prison sentences stop people from committing crime. |我不同意判重刑会阻止人们犯罪这一观点。
  ||        ||2.[U] ability to see sth.; sight |视力;视线
  ||        ||The car turned the corner and was no longer in our view.| 那辆车拐过街角就从我们的视线中消失了。
  ||        ||Frank hit him in full view of all the guests. |弗兰克当着所有客人的面打了他。
  |@|<25>oppose     |vt.|disagree with sth. such as a plan or idea and try to change or stop it |反对
  ||        ||Some people oppose the use of death penalty. |有的人反对使用死刑。
  ||        ||The local people opposed the building of an airport nearby. |当地居民反对在附近修建机场。
  |★|<26>rebellion  |n.|[C, U] opposition to sb. in authority; refusal to obey |反抗;反对;对(权威等的)蔑视
  ||        ||As a result of the workers' rebellion, their working conditions have been improved. |工人们反抗的结果是,他们的工作条件得到了改善。
  ||        ||Teenage rebellion is something that many parents are concerned about. |青少年叛逆是很多父母关心的事情。
  |▲|<27>chore      |n.|[C] a regular piece of work or job, esp. in a house |家庭杂务;日常零星工作
  ||        ||Everyday chores like shopping and housework take much of her time. |购物、家务等日常杂务占去了她很多时间。
  ||        ||Husbands should do their share of the household chores. |丈夫也应该承担部分家务活。
  |@|<28>conflict   |n.|[C, U] a state of disagreement or argument between people or groups |冲突;争论
  ||        ||There is a conflict between what they are doing and what we need. |他们所做的事与我们的需要有冲突。
  ||        ||I came into conflict with one of my key managers. |我与我的一个重要经理发生了冲突。
  ||        |vi.|(of ideas, beliefs, etc.) cannot exist together or both be true |冲突;抵触
  ||        ||His statement and yours conflict. |他的话和你的话相互矛盾。
  ||        ||The company's desire to make large profits often conflicts with consumers' interests. |公司想赚大钱,这往往与顾客的利益冲突。
  |▲|<29>credibility |n. |[U] the quality of deserving belief and trust |可信性;可靠性
  ||         | |The accident has damaged the credibility of the nuclear power industry. |这一事故损坏了核能工业的可信度。
  ||         | |There are questions about the credibility of these reports. |对于这些报道的可靠性,有人提出了质疑。
  |@|<30>ruin|vt.|destroy or spoil completely |毁坏,毁掉
  ||        ||The war ruined the ancient city. |战争毁掉了那座古城。
  ||        ||A long strike would ruin the company. |长期罢工会毁掉这家公司。
  |▲|<31>carton     |n.|[C] a box made from stiff paper or plastic |硬纸盒;塑料盒
  ||        ||a carton of orange juice |一盒橙汁
  ||        ||I took a ballpoint pen and punched a hole in the carton. |我拿了一支圆珠笔,在盒子上戳了个洞。
  |@|<32>admit|vt.|accept or agree that sth. is true or sb. is right |接受;承认
  ||        ||He admitted his guilt. |他承认有罪。
  ||        ||You may not like her, but you have to admit that she's good at her job. |你可能不喜欢她,但你得承认她工作很出色。
  ||<33>acceptance |n.|[U] the act of accepting or being accepted |接受;认可
  ||        ||The new theory is gaining acceptance among the experts. |这一新理论正被专家所接受。
  ||        ||His calm acceptance of whatever comes his way surprised us. |无论发生什么,他都能冷静接受,这使我们很吃惊。
  ||<34> <em>self-acceptance<em> |n.     |[U] the act of accepting oneself |自我接受
  ||             |     |Self-acceptance may be even more difficult than getting other people to accept you. |自我接受也许比让别人接受你更难。
  ||             |     |Self-acceptance is important to most youngsters. |自我接受对多数青少年来说很重要。
  ||<35>tolerance  |n.|[U] the ability to accept or allow sth. that one does not like or agree with |包容;宽容
  ||        ||We should have tolerance for those with different views. |我们应该包容不同意见的人。
  ||        ||My biggest weakness was my lack of tolerance for any error. |我最大的缺点是我不能容忍任何错误。
  ||<36>perfection |n.|[U] the state of being perfect or without fault |完美
  ||        ||He aims at perfection in everything he does. |他做事样样追求完美。
  ||        ||The perfection of a person's looks is only skin deep. True beauty comes from the inside. |外貌的完美是肤浅之美。真正的美来自内心。
  ||<37> <em>imperfection<em> |n.     |[C, U] the state or quality of not being perfect |不完美
  ||          |  |He admits that there are imperfections in the social system. |他承认社会制度有不完美的地方。
  ||          |  |The design of the test has some imperfections. |这一考试的设计有不完美的地方。
  |@|<38>approach|v.|move closer |接近,靠近
  ||        ||She heard footsteps approaching from behind. |她听到身后有脚步声向她靠近。
  ||        ||As I approached the house, I noticed a light on upstairs. |在我靠近房子时,我注意到楼上有盏灯亮着。
  ||   |vt.|begin to consider or deal with |处理
  ||        ||What is the best way to approach this problem? |着手处理这个难题的最好办法是什么?
  ||        ||It might be possible to approach the issue in a different way. |或许可以用另一种方式来处理这个问题。
  ||        |n.|1.[C] a method of doing sth. or dealing with a problem |方法;途径
  ||        ||Parents don't always know what approach to take with teenage children. |父母往往不知道怎样对待十多岁的孩子。
  ||        ||The company needs to adopt a different approach to this matter. |处理这个问题,公司需要一种不同的方法。
  ||        ||2.[U] the act of moving closer |接近,靠近
  ||        ||With the approach of winter, animals begin collecting food. |冬天来临,动物开始储藏食物。
  ||        ||At their approach the boy ran away. |他们走近时,小男孩跑开了。
  ||<39> <em>hurtful<em>  |a.|painful to the feelings |伤感情的;刻薄的
  ||        ||His words were hurtful. |他的话很伤感情。
  ||        ||Don't say such hurtful things to your friend. |别对你的朋友说这样伤感情的话。
  |@|<40>argument   |n.|1.[C] a disagreement, esp. one that is noisy |争论,争吵
  ||        ||She had an argument with her father about music. |她和她父亲为了音乐问题而争吵。
  ||        ||She told the police that she and her husband had an argument before he left. |她告诉警察,在丈夫离开前,她和他吵了架。
  ||        ||2.[C] a reason given to support or oppose sth. |论据;论点
  ||        ||His argument was that if they bought a smaller car, they would save money. |他的理由是,如果买辆小的车,他们就可以省点钱。
  ||        ||Do you agree with the argument that violence on TV makes people behave violently? |电视里的暴力使人们行为充满暴力,你同意这种观点吗?
  |@|<41>humor|n.|[U] (BrE humour) the quality of causing fun |幽默;诙谐
  ||        ||It's an awful situation but at least you can see the humor in it. |处境虽然尴尬,但你至少可看到其中的幽默。
  ||        ||Do the best you can, hope for the best, and try to keep a sense of humor. |尽力干,往好的方面想,力求保持幽默感。
  |@|<42>possibility |n. |[C, U] sth. that might happen or be true |可能(发生)的事;可能性
  ||         | |There is a strong possibility that they will win the election. |他们很有可能在选举中获胜。
  ||         | |What's the possibility of the weather getting better before the weekend? |周末之前天气好转的可能性有多大?
  |■|<43>awaken|v.|wake up or make sb. wake up |醒来;唤醒
  ||        ||He awakened to see it was already 10 in the morning. |他醒来时,发现已是上午10点。
  ||        ||We were awakened by a loud knock at the door. |敲门声音很大,把我们吵醒了。
  |@|<44>neglect    |vt.|give little or no attention to |忽视,忽略
  ||        ||The garden has been neglected for a long time. |花园已很久没有人照管了。
  ||        ||Four security guards were accused of neglecting their duties. |四位保安人员被指控失职。
  ||        |n. |[U] failure to look after sth. or sb. properly |忽略,疏忽
  ||        ||The accident was caused by neglect of duty. |事故是由于玩忽职守引起的。
  ||        ||After years of neglect, the road was in poor condition. |由于几年无人维护,这条路的路况很糟糕。
  <TITLE>Phrases and Expressions</TITLE>
  ||<45>as a result |because of sth. that has happened |结果是
  |||There was a heavy snow and, as a result, she was late. |她由于下大雪而迟到了。
  |||A terrible earthquake took place last week. As a result, 2,500 people were killed. |上周发生了可怕的地震,结果死了2,500人。
  ||<46>in turn|1.as a result of sth. |因此,转而
  |||One of the members told the story to his friend who, in turn, leaked it to a reporter. |一名成员将情况告诉了他的朋友,这个朋友转而将消息告诉了记者。
  |||Stressful environment leads to unhealthy behavior, which in turn increase the risk of heart disease. |有压力的环境会导致不良的行为,这反过来会增加患心脏病的危险。
  |||2.one after the other, esp. in a particular order |依次;轮流
  |||There were cheers for each of the women as they spoke in turn. |女士们依次发言,听众对每个人报以欢呼。
  |||We drove in turn so that each of us could rest a bit. |我们轮流开车,以便大家都能休息一会。
  ||<47>tap into|understand sth. such as people's ideas, beliefs or attitudes |了解
  |||The survey is aimed to tap into people's attitudes toward the new policy. |这项调查旨在了解人们对新政策的态度。
  |||The program helps people tap into more job opportunities. |这个项目帮助人们了解更多的就业机会。
  ||<48>get ahead|make progress or be successful |取得进步;成功
  |||The best way to get ahead is through hard work. |成功的最佳途径是努力工作。
  |||She soon found that it wasn't easy to get ahead in the movie business. |她很快发现很难在电影业发展。
  ||<49>look to |depend on sb. to do sth. |依赖;指望
  |||He always looked to his father for advice. |他经常依靠父亲给他提供意见。
  |||They're looking to the new manager to make the company profitable. |他们正指望新经理能使公司赢利。
  ||<50>feel like|feel as if |感觉好像;似乎
  |||They felt like they were giving away company secrets. |他们觉得好像在泄露公司秘密。
  |||I stayed there two days, but it felt like a week. |我在那里呆了两天,但觉得好像呆了一周。
  ||<51>the way|(used to introduce a clause) in the way that |以...方式,以...方法
  |||He does not bother about small matters the way his elder brother does. |他不像他哥哥常为琐事而操心。
  |||He tried to decorate his house the way we did. |他尽力像我们一样装修房子。
  ||<52>sound like|seem |听起来;似乎
  |||Becoming a doctor sounds like a good idea. |当医生似乎是个好主意。
  |||Malta sounds like a great place for a holiday. |马耳他似乎是个度假的好地方。
  ||<53>rather than |instead of |而不是
  || |It was what he meant rather than what he said that annoyed me. |让我生气的是他话中的意思,而不是他所说的话。
  || |Nuclear science should be developed to benefit the people rather than harm them. |发展核科学应该是为了造福人类而不是伤害人类。
  ||<54>point of view |a particular way of seeing or judging a situation, person, event, etc. |观点,意见
  ||   |He always put his point of view with courage. |他总是大胆地说出自己的观点。
  ||   |From an economic point of view, the new development will benefit the town greatly. |从经济角度看,新的发展大大有利于这个城镇。
  ||<55>as opposed to |used to compare two things and show they are different from each other |与...对照;而不是
  ||   |This is a book about business practice as opposed to theory. |这本书讲的商业实务而不是理论。
  ||   |Students have discussions as opposed to just listening to the teacher. |学生们展开讨论,而不是单纯地听老师讲。
  ||<56>get across|(cause to) become understood or accepted |(被)理解;(被)接受
  |||It is hard to get some Chinese jokes across to foreigners because of cultural gap. |由于文化差异,一些中国笑话很难被外国人理解。
  |||We must get across the simple fact that drugs are dangerous. |我们必须让人知道这个简单的事实:毒品是很危险的。
  ||<57>be concerned  about |give one's attention to or worry about sb. or sth.|担心
  |||If you are concerned about your baby's health you should consult a doctor immediately. |如果你担心婴儿的健康,就立刻带他去看医生。
  |||She is concerned about her son's performance at school. |她很担心儿子在学校的成绩。
  ||<58>check in|1.(AmE) call a person to say where one is and what one is doing |打电话报平安
  |||He called to check in and tell us how he was doing. |他打电话报平安,告诉我们他的情况。
  |||She checks in with her mother at least once a week. |她一个星期至少打一次电话给妈妈报平安。
  |||2.report one's arrival, as at a hotel desk, airport, etc. |登记入住;办登机手续
  |||We've checked in at a local hotel. |我们已在当地一家旅馆办理了入住手续。
  |||Passengers should check in two hours before the time their plane leaves. |旅客要在起飞前两小时办理登机手续。
  ||<59>put sth. away |put sth. where one usually keeps it |把某物收好或放好
  ||   |Put the books away on the bookshelf. |把书放回到书架上。
  ||   |He put his toys away every night. |他每晚都把玩具收拾好。
  ||<60>lose one's cool |lose one's calmness and self-control |失去冷静
  |||His teacher lost his cool when the boy was late again. |男孩又迟到了,他的老师很生气。
  |||I should not have lost my cool and behaved in that manner. |我真不该生气,做出那样的行为。
  ||<61>awaken sb. to sth. |make sb. aware of sth. |使某人意识到某事
  |||We must awaken people to the need to protect our environment. |我们必须使人们认识到保护环境的必要性。
  |||The program awakens us to the danger of pollution.|这个节目让我们认识到污染的危害。

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