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新视野大学英语读写教程词汇 第二册 Unit 5b

时间:2010-12-18 06:07来源:互联网 提供网友:hs400652   字体: [ ]

  <TITLE>New Words</TITLE>
  |@|<1>spoil|vt.    |1. give a child everything they want, or let them do whatever they want, often with the result that they behave badly |溺爱;宠坏
  ||||Her parents have spoiled the little girl by giving her everything she had ever asked for. |父母把小女孩宠坏了,她要什么就给什么。
  ||||Peters, unable for once to do exactly as he wanted, lost his temper just like a spoiled child. |彼德斯有一次未能如愿以偿就发脾气,像个被宠坏了的孩子。
  ||||2. have a bad effect on sth. so that it is no longer attractive, enjoyable, useful, etc. |损坏;破坏
  ||||The bad news has spoiled my day. |这条坏消息使我一整天没有过好。
  ||||I haven't seen the film, so don't spoil it for me by telling me what happens. |我还没有看过这部电影,所以不要把内容告诉我,以免破坏我的兴致。
  |||vi.|(of food) become bad or unfit to eat |(食物)变质
  ||||The cake will spoil if you don't keep it in the fridge. |如果你不把蛋糕放进冰箱,它就会变质。
  ||||The dinner spoiled because he put the stove on too high. |这顿饭算是给毁了,因为他把烤炉的温度调得太高了。
  ||<2>overnight|ad. |1. for or during the night |在夜间;夜里
  ||||You'd better not leave your bike outside overnight. |你最好不要将你的自行车整夜停放在外面。
  ||||2. suddenly |突然间;一下子
  ||||He became ill overnight and had to see the doctor. |他突然间病倒了,只好去看医生。
  ||||Yoga centers are spring up in the town overnight. |城里突然多了好多瑜伽健身中心。
  |||a.|1. happening during the night or for the night |夜间的
  ||||We're making an overnight stop in Paris on our way to the Dordogne. |去多道格尼的途中,我们将在巴黎停留一晚。
  ||||After an overnight rain, the sky appeared clear and blue. |一夜雨之后天空变得晴朗蔚蓝。
  ||||2. happening suddenly |突然间的
  ||||The book was an overnight success. |这本书很快获得成功。
  ||||It's said his father is an overnight millionaire. |据说他父亲是个暴发户。
  |@ |<3>assign|vt.|1. give money, equipment, etc. to sb. to use |给予;分配
  ||||Though the room they assigned me was small, it was quiet and clean. |虽然他们分给我的房间很小,但房间很干净,也很安静。
  ||||He was assigned a car for personal use. |他分配到一辆汽车,供他个人使用。
  ||||2. give sb. a particular job or make them responsible for sb. or sth. |分配,分派,指派(任务)
  ||||Did you choose Russia or were you simply assigned there? |你是自己选择去俄罗斯的呢,还是被指派去的?
  ||||They've assigned their best man to the job. |他们选派了最得力的人去担负这项工作。
  ||<4>lavatory |n. |[C] a toilet |厕所;盥洗室
  ||||Is there a lavatory on this floor? |这一层是否有厕所?
  ||||The lavatory is temporarily out of order. |厕所暂时坏了。
  ||<5>kit |n. |[C] a set of tools, equipment, etc. for a particular purpose |一套工具
  ||||a toilet or shaving kit |盥洗用具
  ||||I keep a repair kit in the back of my car. |我在汽车后面放了一套修理用具。
  ||<6>closet |n. |[C] a cupboard built into the wall of a room |壁橱
  ||||The robbers threw me in a closet and tied me up. |强盗把我扔进壁橱,还把我捆了起来。
  ||||Are all your cupboards and closets crammed full? |你所有的柜子和壁橱都塞满了吗?
  |@ |<7>barely |ad. |only with great difficulty or effort; almost not |勉强地;几乎不
  ||||We barely had time to catch the train. |我们差点误了火车。
  ||||She was barely 15 when she won her first championship. |她第一次获得冠军时才刚15岁。
  |@ |<8>tendency |n. |[C] a strong chance that sth. will happen in a particular way |趋向,倾向
  ||||His tendency to speak loud is well known. |他喜欢大声嚷嚷是出了名的。
  ||||There is a tendency for job losses to rise in the winter in the States. |在美国,冬季失业率有上升的趋势。
  |★|<9>generosity |n. |[U] the quality of being generous |慷慨;大度
  ||||Her friends take advantage of her generosity, and stay in her house for months on end without paying her anything. |她的朋友们利用了她的慷慨,在她家里一连呆了好几个月,一分钱也不付。
  ||||He has a nature of generosity. |他生性慷慨大方。
  |@ |<10>somewhat |ad. |to some degree |稍微;有些
  ||||I was somewhat surprised to see him. |见到他我有点吃惊。
  ||||She's somewhat more confident than she used to be. |她似乎比过去更自信了。
  |@|<11>harmful |a. |causing or likely to cause harm |有害的;造成损害的
  ||||He didn't quit smoking although he was quite aware of its harmful effects. |尽管他很明白吸烟的害处,但他还是没有戒烟。
  ||||Pushing kids so hard from such an early age is likely to have some harmful results. |对小孩从这么小起就逼得这么紧会产生有害的结果。
  ||<12>accommodation |n.   |1. [sing., U] an agreement between people who have different views or opinions |和解;调和
  ||||The two sides failed to agree on every point but came to an accommodation. |双方未能在每一点上都取得一致意见,但达成了和解。
  ||||If labor and management don't reach an accommodation there will be a strike. |如果劳资双方不能达成妥协,就会发生罢工。
  ||||2. [U](AmE ~s) a place for sb. to stay, live, or work |住所;工作场所
  ||||Can we find accommodations at the hotel for the night? |我们能在这家旅馆找到房间过夜吗?
  ||||The society provides accommodations for the meeting. |协会为参加会议的人提供食宿。
  |@ |<13>compensate |v. |give sb. sth. to remove the bad effect of sth. |补偿;弥补
  ||||Nothing can compensate for the loss of one's health. |健康受损是无法弥补的。
  ||||The animal's good sense of smell compensates for its poor eyesight. |这种动物敏锐的嗅觉弥补了其视力上的缺陷。
  |@ |<14>possession |n. |1. [C] sth. that one owns or has |(个人)财物,财产
  ||||The people had to gather up their few possessions and leave their homes. |人们只能收拾起少得可怜的财产,离开自己的家。
  ||||A small child clutched a satchel with both arms as though it were her most prized possession. |小孩紧抓住自己的书包,似乎那是她最宝贵的财产。
  ||||2. [U] the state of having or holding sth. |拥有
  ||||She was found in possession of dangerous drugs. |她被发现拥有危险的药物。
  ||||He came into possession of a large fortune. |他拥有了一大笔财产。
  |@ |<15>infer |vt. |reach an opinion from facts |推知;推断
  ||||It is possible to infer two completely opposite conclusions from this set of facts. |从这组论据中能推断出两种完全相反的结论是可能的。
  ||||What do you infer from her refusing? |你从她的拒绝中推断出什么?
  |@ |<16>fluctuate |vi. |keep changing; become higher and lower irregularly |波动;起伏
  ||||The price fluctuates between $5 and $6. |价格在五美元和六美元之间波动。
  ||||Her wages fluctuate between £150 and £200 a week. |她的周工资在150至200英镑之间浮动。
  |@ |<17>generous |a. |willing to give money, spend time, etc. in order to help people |慷慨的;大方的
  ||||It was generous of you to share your food with me. |你真大方,把食物分给我吃。
  ||||She's very generous with her time—always ready to help other people. |她在时间上很慷慨──总是乐于助人。
  ||<18> <em>ungenerous</em> |a.  |not generous |不慷慨的;不大方的
  ||||It is ungenerous of you to refuse his request. |你拒绝他的请求,这样做并不大方。
  ||||In not giving money to the poor, he showed how ungenerous he could be. |他不愿给穷人钱,让自己显得很不慷慨。
  |★|<19>resentment |n. |[U] anger and dislike; feeling of resenting sth. |愤恨;憎恶
  ||||Bitterness, anger and resentment can act as emotional cancers, eating us up inside. |怨恨、愤怒和不满可能成为情感的癌症,啃啮着我们的内心。
  ||||There was resentment at the lack of industrial development in the city and its surrounding areas. |人们对本城和周围地区的工业发展不力有一种不满情绪。
  ||<20>variable |a.  |likely to change |易变的;多变的
  ||||His attitude is variable. |他的态度变化无常。
  ||||British weather is perhaps at its most variable in the spring. |英国春天的天气也许是最反复无常的。
  |||n.|[C] sth. that can change and affect the result of a situation |可变因素
  ||||With so many variables, the exact cost is difficult to estimate. |由于有这么多可变因素,很难算出准确的成本。
  ||||Temperature is a variable in the experiment. |在实验中,温度是一个变量。
  ||<21> <em>variability</em> |n.   |[U] the quality of being variable |可变性
  ||||Her husband did what he could but was still never ready for the variability of her temper. |她丈夫尽其所能,但对她情绪的多变仍感到无所适从。
  ||||You should get prepared for the variability of the weather in that area. |你对那个地区多变的天气要有所准备。
  ||<22>loosen |v. |become or make loose or looser |(使)放松;(使)松
  ||||Can you loosen the lid of this bottle? |你能把这个瓶子的盖子打开吗?
  ||||He held my hand very tightly at first but gradually his hold loosened. |开始时他紧紧握住我的手,后来渐渐松开了。
  |@ |<23>sour |v.  |1. make or become unfriendly or unfavorable |(使)变坏;(使)恶化
  ||||Relations between the two governments were soured by boundary fighting. |两国间的关系由于边境冲突而恶化。
  ||||Many friendships have soured over borrowed money. |许多人之间的友谊都是因为借钱的纠纷而恶化的。
  ||||2. make have or have an unpleasant taste or smell |(使)变酸;(使)变馊
  ||||The hot weather soured the milk. |炎热的天气使牛奶变酸了。
  ||||The cream sours in hot weather. |奶油在热天会变酸。
  |||a.|having an unpleasant taste or smell |酸的;馊的
  ||||His shoes have a sour smell. |他的鞋有一股酸臭味儿。
  ||||Food can easily go sour in warm weather. |天热时食物很容易变馊。
  |★|<24>parental |a.|relating to being a parent |父母的;家长的
  ||||parental rights and responsibilities |父母的权利和义务
  |@ |<25>greedy |a. |1. filled with desire for sth. |贪婪的;贪心的
  ||||Greedy for power, the general plotted a plan to knock down the government. |因为权欲作祟,将军密谋推翻政府。
  ||||Not everybody is simply greedy for power. |并非人人都是贪恋权势的。
  ||||2. having strong desire for food |贪吃的
  ||||We ate a lot as children but I don't think we were ever greedy. |我们童年时确实很能吃,但我认为我们从不贪吃。
  ||||You mean you've eaten all three pieces of cake? You greedy pig! |你是说你把三块蛋糕全吃完了?你真是头贪吃的猪!
  |@ |<26>selfish |a. |caring only about oneself and not about other people |自私的
  ||||He's too selfish to think of lending me his car. |他太自私了,不会愿意把汽车借给我的。
  ||||I know it sounds selfish, but what I'm really worried about is what will happen to me. |我知道这听上去有点自私,可我真正关心的是我会碰上什么事。
  |@ |<27>sensitive |a. |1. able to understand other people's feelings and problems |理解别人的
  ||||When I need advice, he is a helpful and sensitive friend. |当我需要有人给我出主意时,他就是一个能帮得上忙还善解人意的朋友。
  ||||We are sensitive to the needs and expectations of our customers. |我们理解顾客的需要和期望。
  ||||2. reacting quickly to sth. |敏感的;灵敏的
  ||||Some people's teeth are highly sensitive to cold. |有些人的牙齿对冷非常敏感。
  ||||Photographic paper is highly sensitive to light. |感光纸对光线非常敏感。
  ||||3. likely to become angry or upset easily |容易生气的;神经过敏的
  ||||He's very sensitive about being small, so don't mention it. |他对自己个头小很敏感,因此不要提及那一点。
  ||||Her reply showed that she was very sensitive to criticism. |她的回答表明她对批评很敏感。
  ||<28> <em>insensitive</em> |a.   |not aware of or not showing sympathy for other people's feelings |麻木不仁的;缺乏同情心的
  ||||I've never known anyone as insensitive as Gina. |我从未见过像吉娜那样麻木不仁的人。
  ||||The police have been criticized for being insensitive to complaints from the public. |警方因漠视公众的意见而受到批评。
  |@ |<29>undermine |vt. |gradually make sb. or sth. less strong or effective |逐渐削弱;破坏
  ||||The killings had undermined hopes for a peaceful solution. |这些杀戮使和平解决的希望变得渺茫起来。
  ||||Every mistake that she makes further undermines her authority. |她犯的每一个错误都进一步降低了她的威望。
  |@|<30>limited |a. |not very great in amount, number, ability, etc. |有限的
  ||||His intelligence is rather limited. |他的智力相当低下。
  ||||There was a very limited choice of sofas in the style that we wanted. |我们要的那种沙发样式可选择的范围非常有限。
  ||<31> <em>unlimited</em> |a. |not limited |无限的
  ||||He's dreaming of an unlimited supply of money all day long. |他成天梦想着拥有用之不竭的钱财。
  ||||Inter-Rail passes are available for one month's unlimited travel within Europe. |欧洲无限制旅行一个月的列车通票有售。
  ||<32>contradiction |n.    |[C, U] a statement, action, or fact that is opposite in nature or in character to another one |矛盾;不一致
  ||||You say that you're good friends and yet you don't trust him. Isn't that a bit of a contradiction? |你说你们是好朋友,可你又不信任他,这不是有点矛盾吗?
  ||||I found no contradiction between his publicly expressed opinions and his private actions. |我看不出他公开发表的观点和他私下的行动之间有什么不一致。
  ||<33>conversely |ad. |taking the opposite point of view |相反(地)
  ||||Running can strengthen your heart and muscles, but conversely, it can also damage your knees and the bones in your feet. |跑步能增强你的心脏和肌肉功能,但反过来也可能损伤你的膝盖和脚部骨骼。
  ||||You can add the liquid to the powder or, conversely, the powder to the liquid.|你可以将液体倒入粉末里,或者反过来,将粉末倒入液体里。
  ||<34>limitation |n. |1. [C] a rule or situation that puts a limit on sth. |限制
  ||||set limitations on reporting |对报告内容加以限制
  ||||Aren't there any limitations on his spending money? |他花钱有没有限制?
  ||||2. [C] qualities that make sb. or sth. less effective |局限;缺陷
  ||||She has her limitations as a singer. |作为歌手,她有自身的局限。
  ||||Despite the limitations of the survey, it did suggest some general trends. |尽管这一调查有缺陷,它还是指出了一些趋势。
  |@ |<35>submit |v. |obey sb., esp. when one has no choice |屈从;服从
  ||||She decided to submit to the new rules. |她决定接受新的规则。
  ||||We protested about the changes for a long time, but in the end we had to submit. |我们对这种改变抗议了很长一段时间,但最终还是不得不屈服。
  |||vt.|formally give sth. to sb. so that they can make a decision about it |提交;递交;呈送
  ||||You must submit your application before January 1. |你必须在1月1日之前提交申请书。
  ||||I was required to submit an essay to my teacher this May. |我需要在五月份交一篇文章给老师。
  |@ |<36>uncover |vt. |1. find out about sth. that has been kept secret |揭露;揭开
  ||||A plot was uncovered against the President. |谋害总统的阴谋败露了。
  ||||In her novel on Taylor, she tries to uncover the inner man. |在那本关于泰勒的小说中,她试图揭示出他的内心世界。
  ||||2. remove the cover from sth. |揭开...的盖子
  ||||He pulled back the sheet, to uncover a beautiful 18th century armchair. |他揭开盖布,露出一把美丽的18世纪的扶手椅。
  ||||Removing the earth, she uncovered gold in her garden. |挖开泥土后,她在花园里发现了金子。
  |@ |<37>respond |vi. |react to sth. |反应;回应
  ||||The waitress waited a moment and then responded. |那个女服务员等了一会,然后才有回应。
  ||||The children responded well to the day's activities. |孩子们对当天的活动反应不错。
  |@ |<38>prompt |a.     |done or acting without delay |迅速的;即时的
  ||||Try to be prompt because we'll be very short of time. |尽量快点, 因为我们时间很紧。
  ||||They've written back already. That was a very prompt reply. |他们已经写了回信了;那可是相当迅速的答复。
  |||vt.|cause or encourage sb. to do sth. |促使;推动
  ||||What prompted him to be so generous? |是什么使他变得这样慷慨?
  ||||Seeing the children in the park prompted thoughts of his own sons on the other side of the Atlantic. |公园里的孩子们激起了他对远在大西洋彼岸的儿子的思念之情。
  |@ |<39>definite |a. |1. clear |明确的;无疑的
  ||||I have no definite plans for tomorrow. |明天我没有确定的计划。
  ||||I want a definite answer, "yes" or "no". |我需要明确答复:“是”或“不是”。
  ||||2. sure; certain |一定的;肯定的
  ||||He seemed definite about what had happened. |他似乎对发生的情况了如指掌。
  ||||There's a definite smell of gas. Did you turn the oven off? |肯定有股煤气的味道,你把炉子关上了吗?
  |@ |<40>manner |n.|[sing.] the way in which sth. is done or happens |方式;方法
  ||||It was the manner of her death that shocked the public's mind. |她的死亡方式令人们感到震惊。
  ||||She stared at me in a criticizing manner. |她以责备的目光看着我。
  |@ |<41>bound |a. |likely; almost certainly |一定的;几乎肯定的
  ||||The weather is bound to get better tomorrow. |明天天气一定会好起来。
  ||||He's bound to fail the exam if he doesn't work hard. |如果他不努力,考试注定会不及格。
  |@ |<42>satisfied |a. |pleased; contented |感到满意的
  ||||A good travel agent knows that a satisfied customer will always come back. |好的旅行社知道顾客满意了就会再来。
  ||||I'm quite satisfied with the way my hair was cut. |我对自己的发型很满意。
  |@ |<43>gradual |a. |happening slowly over a long period of time |逐步的,逐渐的
  ||||There has been a gradual rise in our sales over the last two years. |过去两年里我们的销售额在逐步增加。
  ||||As you go further south, you will notice a gradual change of climate. |继续向南走,你会发现气候在逐渐变化。
  |@ |<44>improvement |n.  |[C, U] the state of being better than before |改进;改善;提高
  ||||This year's car is an improvement on last year's model. |今年的汽车是去年的改进型。
  ||||He's been having treatment for two months now without any improvement. |他接受治疗已有两个月了,但仍毫无起色。
  |@ |<45>slip |n. |[C] a small mistake |过失;小错;疏忽
  ||||There were a few slips in the translation. |翻译中有几个小错误。
  ||||A slip of tongue made me say Robert instead of Richard. |由于口误,我把理查德说成了罗伯特。
  |||vi.|1. lose one's balance and fall |滑倒;失足
  ||||She slipped and broke her leg. |她滑倒时跌断了腿。
  ||||Careful you don't slip—there's water on the floor. |小心别滑倒了,地板上有水。
  ||||2. go somewhere quietly and quickly in order not to be noticed |溜走
  ||||Just slip out of the room while nobody's looking. |趁没人看着,溜出房去。
  ||||I'm just going to slip to the shops before lunch. |我只是打算在午饭前偷偷去趟商店。
  |■|<46>nag |v. |keep complaining |唠叨;不停抱怨
  ||||He nagged at her all day long. |他整天指责她。
  ||||My mum's always nagging me to have my hair cut. |我妈妈总唠叨着要我去理发。
  <TITLE>Phrases and Expressions</TITLE>
  ||<47>make a point |state a point; make one's opinions known |提出论点
  |||He's just made an interesting point. |他刚刚提出了一个有趣的论点。
  |||You made an original point in your speech. |你在发言中提出了一个新颖的观点。
  ||<48>take... for granted |see sth. as natural and certain; treat sb. with too little attention or concern |视...为理所当然
  |||I take it for granted you have read this book. |我以为你肯定读过这本书。
  |||For all these years, I have taken him for granted, and paid little attention to his feelings. |这些年来,我一直忽视了他,几乎没有在意他的感受。
  ||<49>hold down |succeed in keeping a job for some time |保住(工作)
  |||He couldn't hold down a job after his psychological illness. |他患了心理疾病以后就无法保住工作了。
  |||He's never been able to hold down a steady job. |他从未能保住一份稳定的工作。
  ||<50>pine for|be unhappy because you want sth. you don't have |为(不能得到某物)而伤心
  |||She pined for some change in her life. |他为生活缺少变化而悲痛。
  |||Diana has pined for a piano for a long time, but she still cannot afford it. |很久以来戴安娜就盼望着有台钢琴,但她到现在还是买不起。
  ||<51>make fun of |make jokes about sb. or sth. in an unkind way |嘲笑;取笑
  |||It's cruel to make fun of people who are deaf. |嘲笑耳聋的人是不人道的。
  |||You are always making fun of me! |你总是取笑我!
  ||<52>stand up to |react in a particular way to severe conditions or treatment |经得起;经得住
  |||Will the lorries stand up to the journey over rough roads? |货车能经得起这一路上的颠簸吗?
  |||Their views won't stand up to detailed criticism. |他们的观点经不起仔细推敲。
  ||<53>give in |yield; give way |屈服;让步
  |||The authorities showed no signs of giving in to the demands. |当局对民众的要求毫无妥协的迹象。
  |||The exchange of views went on for hours as neither side would give in. |争辩延续了几个小时,因为任何一方都不肯让步。
  ||<54>to some degree |partly |在某种程度上
  |||I agree with you to some degree. |我在某种程度上同意你的意见。
  |||There's truth in what she said to some degree. |在某种程度上她说的话有道理。
  ||<55>on demand |whenever asked for |一经要求
  |||She's in favor of help on demand. |她赞成对有要求的人及时提供帮助。
  |||Babies should be fed on demand. |婴儿有需要时应该立即喂食。
  ||<56>turn over a new leaf |change one's life by starting to be a better person |悔过自新;洗心革面
  |||She decided to turn over a new leaf and give up smoking. |她决定改掉旧习惯,把烟戒掉。
  |||After released from prison, he was determined to turn over a new leaf. |出狱后,他决心洗心革面,重新做人。
  ||<57>in the end |at last; finally |最后;终于
  |||He tried many different jobs; in the end he became a postman. |他试过许多不同的工作,最后当了邮递员。
  |||We were thinking about going to Switzerland, but in the end we went to Austria. |我们原打算去瑞士,但最终去了奥地利。

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