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新视野大学英语读写教程词汇 第二册 Unit 8b

时间:2010-12-18 06:19来源:互联网 提供网友:hs400652   字体: [ ]

  <TITLE>New Words</TITLE>
  ||<1>youngster|n.|[C] a young person |年轻人
  ||||Although my grandpa is over 60, he is as active as a youngster. |虽然我爷爷已经60多了,但他就像年轻人一样活跃。
  ||||This pub caters for youngsters aged from 20 to 30. |这个酒吧主要的顾客是20至30岁的年轻人。
  ||<2>expansion|n. |[U] the process of increasing in size |扩大;扩张;膨胀
  ||||Free expansion of a gas causes it to cool. |气体的自由膨胀会使其温度降低。
  ||||Expansion into new areas of research might be possible. |向新的研究领域拓展或许是可能的。
  ||<3>scholar|n. |[C] sb. who knows a lot about a particular subject |学者
  ||||a history scholar |历史学者
  ||||Mr. Miller was a distinguished scholar of Russian history. |米勒先生是一位俄国历史方面的知名学者。
  ||<4> <em>scholastic</em> |a.    |relating to school and education |学校的;教学的
  ||||My scholastic achievements were not very good. |我的学业成绩并不优异。
  ||||The book concludes his scholastic achievements. |这本书总结了他的学术成就。
  ||<5> <em>disaffected</em> |a.     |not satisfied and no longer loyal to sb. |不满的;不忠的
  ||||The senator was anxious to convince disaffected voters that he was listening to them. |参议员急着让心怀不满的选民相信他是在倾听他们的意见。
  ||||Last-minute concessions had been made to disaffected groups to win their support. |最后时刻还是对心怀不满的集团作了让步,以图赢得他们的支持。
  |@ |<6>motivate|vt. |make sb. want to achieve sth. |激励;激发
  ||||We are looking for someone who will be able to motivate our staff to work hard. |我们在寻找的人要能激励职工们努力工作。
  ||||What motivates Derek is simply an unhealthy desire for more and more. |德里克这样做纯粹是出于一种贪得无厌的欲望。
  |@ |<7>prospect|n. |1. (~s) chance of success |前程;前途
  ||||The prospects for this year's wine harvest are poor. |今年葡萄酒产量的前景并不乐观。
  ||||If she can bring in a few more good customers like that, her prospects with this company look excellent. |要是她能再多带几个那样的好客户来,她在这个公司的前途会十分看好。
  ||||2. [C, U] the possibility that sth. will happen |可能性
  ||||There's a reasonable prospect of reaching the trapped child before it gets dark. |在天黑前找到那个被困的孩子应该是可能的。
  ||||There's not much prospect that this war will be over soon. |这场战争不大可能很快结束。
  ||<8> <em>surveyor</em>|n. |[C] sb. who makes a survey |调查员
  ||||The surveyor will require the knowledge of the relevant issues in order to do the job well. |要把这项工作做好,调查员需要具备相关问题的知识。
  ||||A surveyor went door to door asking people about their opinions on the new dam. |调查员挨家挨户去问人们对新大坝的意见。
  ||<9>accountant |n. |[C] sb. whose job is to keep a financial record for a company or person |会计,会计师
  ||||Elaine's just got a job in a firm of accountants. |伊莱恩刚刚在一家会计事务所找到了一份工作。
  ||||Irving is the accountant for Robson Rhodes. |欧文是罗布森·罗德公司的会计。
  |@ |<10>civil |a. |relating to the people who live in a country |国民的;国内的
  ||||He was a grown man, in full possession of his civil rights. |他已是成年人,拥有所有公民应有的权利。
  ||||Thousands of people have been driven from their homes by civil war. |成千上万的人因内战而被迫离开家园。
  |@ |<11>domestic |a.|1. of the home, house or family |家的;家庭的
  ||||He is very successful in his career, but has a very unhappy domestic life. |他在职场上很成功,但家庭生活却不尽如人意。
  ||||Nowadays there is more sharing of domestic chores between husbands and wives. |现在越来越多的夫妻共同分担家务。
  ||||2. of or inside a particular country |国内的;本国的
  ||||This is our country's domestic affair; we do not expect other countries to interfere. |这是我们国家的内政,不希望别的国家干涉。
  ||||Our company's products are more competitive in the domestic market. |我们公司的产品在国内市场更有竞争性。
  |@ |<12>equality |n. |[U] the state of being equal |平等;同等;均等
  ||||Women are still making a great effort to achieve true equality with men. |妇女们仍在致力于实现真正的男女平等。
  ||||I believe in equality between the sexes. |我信奉性别平等。
  |@ |<13>comparison |n. |[U] the process of comparing two or more people or things |比较
  ||||To my mind there's no comparison between the two restaurants. |在我心里,这两家饭店压根不在一个档次上。
  ||||He's a good writer but he doesn't bear comparison with Shakespeare. |他是优秀作家,但无法与莎士比亚比肩。
  ||<14>preference |n. |1. [C, U] a feeling of liking sb. or sth. more than sb. or sth. else |偏爱;更喜欢
  ||||She has a preference for blue. |她比较偏爱蓝色。
  ||||Her preference is for comfortable rather than smart clothes. |她在衣着方面讲求的是舒适,而不是漂亮。
  ||||2. [C] sth. that one likes best |喜爱物,偏爱物
  ||||What are your preferences in music? |你喜欢什么音乐?
  ||||Which is your preference, coffee or tea? |咖啡和茶,你更喜欢哪一个?
  |@ |<15>traditional |a. |relating to or based on traditions |传统的
  ||||A group of children will perform traditional dances. |一群儿童将表演传统舞蹈。
  ||||His critics objected to the way he broke many of the traditional rules of art. |批评他的人不赞成他打破许多传统艺术规则的做法。
  ||<16> <em>nuclear family</em> |n.     |a family unit of father, mother and children |核心家庭
  ||||The traditional American family is a nuclear family. |传统的美国家庭是核心家庭。
  ||||The nuclear family may lead not to satisfaction but to frustration and disappointment. |核心家庭的生活不一定总会令人满意,也可能让人失望。
  |@ |<17>proportion |n. |1. [C] a part of a whole |部分
  ||||A large proportion of the earth's surface is water. |地球表面大部分是水。
  ||||A higher proportion of women are now working. |现在有更多妇女参加工作了。
  ||||2. [U] the relationship between two or more parts of a whole |比例,比率
  ||||What is the proportion of men to women in the population? |人口中男女的比率是多少?
  ||||The numbers shows how weight increases in proportion to height. |这些数字表明体重是怎样与身高成正比例上升的。
  |@ |<18>construct |vt.|build sth. such as a house, bridge, road, etc. |建造;构筑
  ||||The company has won the contract to construct the new bridge. |这家公司赢得了建造这座新桥的合同。
  ||||The wall is constructed of wood. |这堵墙是用木头建成的。
  ||<19> <em>constructive</em> |a.      |having a useful and helpful purpose |建设性的
  ||||She criticized my writing but in a way that was very constructive—I learned a lot from her. |她对我的作品提出了建设性的批评——我从她那儿学到了很多东西。
  ||||If you don't have anything constructive to say I'd rather you kept quiet. |如果说不出有建设性的东西,我看你还是别说。
  |@ |<20>vision |n. |1. [C] a mental image of sth., often including one's goal or dream |想象;构想;设想
  ||||a vision of a world where there is no poverty or illness |想象一个没有贫穷、没有疾病的世界
  ||||We see in his novels the vision of the dark and destructive forces at work in human nature. |在他的小说中我们可以看到人类本性中那阴暗和毁灭性的力量在起作用的景象。
  ||||2. [U] the ability to see; sight |视力;视觉
  ||||The blow on the head damaged his vision. |因头上挨过击打,他的视力受到了损害。
  ||||The tiger has come within my field of vision. |那只老虎已经进入了我的视野。
  ||<21>gang |n.|[C] a group of people who spend time together, and often cause trouble |一伙;一帮
  ||||Don't go around with that gang or you'll come to no good. |不要跟那伙人乱窜,那不会有好下场的。
  ||||A teacher was knocked down by a gang of school pupils. |一位老师被一群小学生给撞倒了。
  |@ |<22>swell |v. vi.|(swelled, swollen) (make sth.) increase in amount or number |(使)增加
  ||||Twenty-five employees have joined the union in this month alone, swelling its number to 110. |光这一个月就有25名雇员加入工会,使会员人数增至110人。
  ||||The soft rain swelled into a storm. |毛毛细雨变成了暴风雨。
  ||||become larger than normal |增大;膨胀;肿胀
  ||||His face was swollen up with toothache. |由于牙痛,他的脸都肿起来了。
  ||||His heart swelled with pride as he stood watching his son graduate. |当他站在那儿观看儿子的毕业典礼时,心中倍感自豪。
  |@ |<23>industrial |a. |relating to industry |工业的
  ||||industrial expansion |工业发展
  ||||He has an industrial background. |他有产业方面的背景。
  ||<24> <em>scary</em> |a. |causing fear |吓人的;可怕的
  ||||a scary, dark street |一条令人害怕的漆黑的街道
  ||||This was the scariest story I have ever heard. |这是我听过的最可怕的故事。
  ||<25>periodical |n.     |[C] a magazine that is published regularly |期刊;杂志
  ||||The periodical is published every month. |这本期刊每月发行。
  ||||She has written for several English periodicals. |她一直在为几家英语期刊撰稿。
  |||a.|happening regularly over a period of time |周期性的
  ||||a periodical medical check |定期体检
  ||||He suffers periodical mental diseases. |他患有周期性发作的精神病。
  ||<26>variation |n.|[C] sth. that is slightly different from similar things |变异;变化的东西
  ||||There are wide regional variations in house prices. |房价的地区差异很大。
  ||||His endless complaints are all variations on the same thing. |他无休止的抱怨说来说去全是同一码子事。
  ||<27>forecast |n.     |[C] a description of what is likely to happen in the future |预言;预测;预报
  ||||According to the weather forecast, it will be sunny tomorrow. |根据天气预报,明天是晴天。
  ||||She gave a very depressing economic forecast last night on the radio. |她昨晚在广播里对经济作了非常悲观的预测。
  |||vt.|predict what will happen in the future |预言;预测;预报
  ||||Snow has been forecast for tonight. |天气预报说今晚要下雪。
  ||||Oil prices are forecast to increase by less than 2% this year. |据预测说今年石油价格增长将低于2%。
  ||<28> <em>projection</em> |n.     |[C] a statement about what sth. will be in the future |推断;预测
  ||||The city's sales-tax revenues are running $800,000 below projections. |本市的销售税收入比预测的低80万美元。
  ||||It will take anywhere from 12 to 18 months for the lake to fill, according to projections. |根据预测,灌满这个湖将需要12到18个月时间。
  |@ |<29>absence |n. |[U] the fact of not existing or being present |缺乏;没有;缺席
  ||||In the absence of any other suitable people who want this job, we decided to offer the job to Mr. Conway. |由于没有别的合适人选竞争这份工作,我们决定让康韦先生来做这工作。
  ||||He drew attention to the absence of definite proof. |他让大家注意,尚缺乏确凿的证据。
  ||<30>plausible |a.|reasonable and likely to be true |有道理的;可能正确的
  ||||She could find no plausible explanation for its disappearance. |对于那件物品的失踪,她找不到合理的解释。
  ||||His story sounded plausible. |他的故事听起来似乎可信。
  ||<31>gloomy |a.|1. making people feel that things are not going well |无望的;令人沮丧的
  ||||In spite of the gloomy economic forecasts, the manufacturers are all confident about the prospect. |尽管经济方面的预测并不乐观,制造商们却对前景一致看好。
  ||||What are you so gloomy about? Cheer up! |你在犯些什么愁?打起精神来!
  ||||2. dark |昏暗的;阴暗的
  ||||We ran past the gloomy corner. |我们跑过那个阴暗的角落。
  ||||What gloomy weather we're having! |天气多么阴沉啊!
  |@ |<32>implicit |a. |suggested or understood without being stated directly |暗示的;含蓄的
  ||||Implicit in the poem's closing lines are the poet's own religious doubts. |这首诗最后几行暗示了诗人自己对宗教的疑虑。
  ||||You must fulfill the duties which are implicit in the agreement. |你必须履行契约中所暗含的义务。
  |@ |<33>principal |a.  |most important |重要的;主要的
  ||||The Danube is one of the principal rivers of Europe. |多瑙河是欧洲的主要河流之一。
  ||||The principal reason for moving was to find a house in a more peaceful neighborhood. |搬家最主要的原因是为了在更宁静的地区找一所房子。
  |||n. |[C] a head in an organization, esp. in schools and colleges |校长;院长
  ||||the principal of St. James' college |圣詹姆斯学院院长
  ||||If you talk any more in class, I'll send you off to see the principal. |你要是上课再讲话,我就让你去见校长。
  ||<34> <em>principally</em> |ad.    |mainly |主要地
  ||||Resistance to the changes comes principally from the unions. |对改革的反对意见主要来自于工会。
  ||||The advertising campaign is aimed principally at women. |广告大战主要瞄准了妇女。
  ||<35>economical |a. |using sth. carefully without wasting |经济的,节约的
  ||||an economical method of heating |一种经济的供暖方法
  ||||My new car is quite economical. |我的新车很省油。
  ||||He is economical of money and time. |他既节约时间又节约钱。
  ||<36> <em>economically</em> |ad.    |1. in a way that is related to money |经济上
  ||||Economically, the country has been improving steadily these past ten years. |就经济而言,该国十年来是在稳步发展。
  ||||The country is economically stable. |这个国家经济稳定。
  ||||2. in a way that uses sth. carefully without wasting |节约地;节俭地
  ||||The school's budget was cut, so its administrators had to think of new ways to use resources economically. |学校的预算削减了,因此学校行政部门得想出节约资源的新方法。
  ||||Mary dresses very economically; she makes all her clothes herself. |玛丽衣着俭朴,衣服都是自己做的。
  ||<37>dominant|a.     |more important, noticeable, etc. than anything else of the same type |占统治地位的;支配的
  ||||No dominant group has appeared. |还没有出现具有主导地位的集团。
  ||||It is a country that has long been the dominant military power in the region. |在军事上,这个国家长期以来在该地区居主导地位。
  ||<38>asset|n. |(usu. pl.) the things that sb. owns and can be sold to pay debts |财产;资产
  ||||fixed/liquid assets |固定/流动资产
  ||||His assets included shares in the company and a house in London. |他的财产包括公司的股份和伦敦的一所房子。
  |@|<39>grind |vi.vt. |(ground, ground) move or work slowly and with difficulty |缓慢运转;缓慢移动
  ||||A truck came grinding up the hill. |一辆卡车嘎嘎响地慢慢驶上山。
  ||||break sth. into small pieces or powder |碾碎;磨成粉末
  ||||They ground the beans every morning to prepare their coffee. |他们每天早晨磨咖啡豆,准备咖啡。
  ||||They grind the bones down and make them into a traditional drink that is believed to increase strength. |他们把骨头碾碎,做成一种据说可以强身健体的传统饮料。
  ||<40> <em>transformation</em> |n.     |[C, U] a complete change |改变;转化
  ||||Her friends and neighbors watched her transformation from shy girl to a famous movie actress. |她的朋友和邻居看着她从一个羞怯的姑娘转变为一位著名影星。
  ||||It is rare for a person to undergo a dramatic transformation in his political thinking, but it does happen. |一个人的政治思想很少会发生剧烈变化,但这种情况确实会发生。
  |@ |<41>eliminate |vt. |get rid of sth. that is unwanted |消除;根除
  ||||A move towards healthy eating could help eliminate heart disease. |养成健康的饮食习惯有助于根除心脏病。
  ||||The parents should eliminate the possibility that the child doesn't lose confidence in the face of failure. |父母应该确保孩子在面对失败时不会失去自信。
  |@ |<42>display |vt. |1. show a feeling, quality, attitude, etc. |显露;表现
  ||||Her writing displays natural talent. |她的文章显露出了她的天资。
  ||||The British tend not to display much emotion in public. |英国人不爱在公共场合表露感情。
  ||||2. put sth. on show |陈列;展览
  ||||It's the first time the painting has been displayed to the public. |这幅画是首次公开展出。
  ||||Why don't you display your ad on the notice board where everyone can see it? |你为什么不把你的广告贴在布告牌上,让每个人都能看见?
  <TITLE>Phrases and Expressions</TITLE>
  ||<43>the good old days |a time in the past when everything was much better than now|过去的好时光
  |||The friends met occasionally to chat about the good old days at school. |朋友们偶尔聚会,谈论学生时代的美好时光。
  |||My mother often talks about the good old days but they sound like the bad old days to me. |我母亲常常谈起那昔日的美好时光,但是我听起来却像是昔日的艰难岁月似的。
  ||<44>play (it) safe |carefully avoid risks |稳扎稳打;小心行事
  ||    |The bus might be early, so we'd better play safe and leave now. |公共汽车可能会早到,所以为了保险起见我们最好现在就动身。
  ||    |Let's allow an extra 10 minutes, just to play it safe. |为谨慎起见,我们还是再多安排10分钟吧。
  ||<45>whether... or not   |used to say that it does not matter which of two possibilities is true |无论;不管
  ||        |They'll find out who did it, whether you tell them or not. |不管你是否告诉他们,他们都会查明是谁干的。
  |||It all depends on whether or not she's got the time. |这全取决于她是否有时间了。
  ||<46>be happy with |feel satisfied that sth. is good or right |对...感到满意;认为...是好的
  ||   |Are you happy with your life? |你对生活感到满意吗?
  ||   |She's quite happy with the new working arrangements. |她对新的工作安排很满意。
  ||<47>in short |in a few words; briefly |总之;简言之
  |||Things couldn't be worse, financially; in short, we have no money. |财政情况糟透了;一句话,我们没钱了。
  |||He's disorganized, he's inefficient, and he's never there when you want him—in short, the man's hopeless. |他办事没有条理,没有效率,当你需要他时总找不到他——一句话,这个人没治了。
  ||<48>by comparison |when compared |相比之下
  ||   |The tallest buildings in London are small by comparison with those in New York. |伦敦最高的建筑与纽约的相比就相形见绌了。
  ||   |The life at school seems comfortable by comparison with that in the army. |和军队生活相比,学校生活是舒适的。
  ||<49>associate with |have or make a connection with sb. or sth. |把...联系在一起;与...相关联
  ||    |You wouldn't normally associate him with that writer—their styles are completely different. |人们通常是不会把他和那位作者联系在一起的——他们的风格截然不同。
  ||    |I'd rather not associate myself with any political statements. |我可不想让自己与任何政治言论有什么联系。
  ||<50>at large |as a whole; in general |全部;整个
  |||Elementary education is an important issue that needs to be discussed by society at large. |基础教育是重要问题,需要整个社会都来参与讨论。
  |||This shows the opinion of students at large. |这反映了学生们的普遍意见。
  ||<51>in the absence of  |when lacking sth. or sth. does not exist |由于缺乏
  |||In the absence of any evidence, the police had to let him go. |由于缺乏证据,警方只好把他放了。
  |||In the absence of any opposition, the agreement was passed. |由于没有任何反对意见,协议被通过了。
  ||<52>protect... from...   |keep sb. or sth. from harm, hurt, etc. |防御;保护
  |||You need warm clothes to protect you from the cold. |你需要暖和的衣裳来御寒。
  |||She's learning self-defense so she can protect herself from being attacked. |她正在学习自我防身术,以使自己免受攻击。
  ||<53>grind to a halt |come to a stop gradually |逐渐停止
  ||     |Traffic ground to a halt at it came to the accident site. |车辆在靠近事故现场时慢慢停了下来。
  ||     |The strike brought economy grinding to a halt. |罢工使经济逐渐趋于停滞。
  <TITLE>Proper Names</TITLE>
  ||<54>Harris | |哈里斯 (人名)
  ||<55>Alfred North Whitehead | |阿尔弗雷德·诺斯·怀特海德(1861― 1947,英国数学家、逻辑学家及哲学家)

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