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新视野大学英语读写教程词汇 第二册 Unit 7b

时间:2010-12-18 06:14来源:互联网 提供网友:hs400652   字体: [ ]
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  <MUSIC>sound/unit07_newwords_b.mp3</MUSIC>
  <TITLE>New Words</TITLE>
  |■ |<1>workaholic |n. |[C] sb. who chooses to work a lot so that they do not have time to do anything else |工作狂
  ||||Modern life, with its stress on maximizing efficiency, encourages people to be workaholics. |现代生活强调的是效率的最大化,鼓励人成为工作狂。
  ||||A self-confessed workaholic, Tony can't remember when he last had a holiday. |托尼承认自己是个工作狂,他都记不起上次休假是什么时候了。
  |@ |<2>dimension|n. |1. [C] the length, height, width, etc. |维(长、高、宽等)
  ||||What are the dimensions of the room? |这个房间的长宽高是多少?
  ||||It will be a building of vast dimensions. |这将是幢巨大的建筑。
  ||||2. [C] a part of a situation or a quality involved in it |部分;方面
  ||||There is a dimension to the problem that we have not discussed. |这个问题有一个方面我们还没有讨论。
  ||||His character has several different dimensions. |他的性格是多面的。
  ||<3> <em>dimensional</em> |a.   |having the stated number of dimensions |...维的;...方面的
  ||||Space is considered to be three-dimensional and time is thought of as the fourth dimension. |空间被认为是三维的,而时间则被看作第四维。
  ||||A square is two-dimensional and a cube is three-dimensional. |正方形是二维的,而立方体是三维的。
  |@ |<4>constant |a.|going on all the time; happening again and again |经常的;不断的
  ||||He's in constant trouble with the police. |警察常常找上他。
  ||||They make constant use of their computers. |他们经常使用计算机。
  ||<5> <em>constantly</em> |ad.  |all the time or very often |经常地;不断地
  ||||She has the television on constantly. |她经常开着电视机。
  ||||She worries constantly. |她时常发愁。
  ||<6>drunk |a. |unable to control one's behavior because one has drunk too much alcohol |喝醉的
  ||||They've put wine in her fruit juice to get her drunk. |他们把酒倒进她的果汁,将她灌醉。
  ||||I was a bit drunk at the time so I don't remember much. |那时候我有点醉了,所以我记不太清楚了。
  |@ |<7>consequence |n. |[C] sth. that is a result or effect of sth. else |结果;影响
  ||||The consequence is that she lost everything she owned. |后果是她损失了所有的财产。
  ||||I missed the bus this morning and as a consequence was late for work. |今天早上我没有赶上公共汽车,结果上班迟到了。
  |@ |<8>system |n.     |1. [C] a method of organizing or doing things |制度;体制;方法
  ||||Under our education system, you're supposed to be able to choose the type of schooling that your child receives. |我们的教育体制让人们能选择自己孩子受教育的类型。
  ||||Like a lot of companies, they have a system that people are generally promoted from within. |像许多公司一样,他们的体制是提拔对象一般从员工内部产生。
  ||||2. [C] a group of things or parts working together as a whole |系统;体系
  ||||There is a new central-heating system in this building. |这座大楼里有一套新的中央供热系统。
  ||||The cinema that I go to has a really good music system. |我去的那家电影院的音响设备很好。
  ||<9>sanction |vt. |officially accept or allow sth. |批准;认可
  ||||I can't sanction your methods. |我不能同意你的办法。
  ||||He tried to get the government to sanction his plan. |他设法让政府批准他的计划。
  ||<10> <em>workaholism</em> |n.     |[U] the state of being a workaholic |迷恋工作
  ||||Once workaholism sets in, it progresses through stages like those in taking drugs. |一旦犯了工作狂的毛病,其发展过程类似于吸毒。
  ||||Workaholism may take its toll on a person's life, but it does have advantages. |迷恋工作可能危害人的生命,但确也有好处。
  ||<11>employee |n.|[C] sb. who is paid to work for sb. else |雇员
  ||||The manager employed three employees. |经理雇佣了三个人。
  ||||The number of employees in the company has increased ten times over the past five years. |过去五年,公司雇员数增加了十倍。
  ||<12>employer |n.|[C] sb. or a company that employs people |雇主
  ||||They are not good employers. |他们不是好雇主。
  ||||Your former employer recommends you for this post. |你的前雇主推荐你担任这个职位。
  |@ |<13>loyal |a. |always supporting sb. or sth. |忠诚的;忠心的
  ||||Jack has been a loyal worker in this company for almost 50 years. |杰克已是这家公司近50年的忠实员工了。
  ||||When all her friends left her, Steve remained loyal. |当其他朋友都离她而去的时候,史蒂夫仍忠诚不变。
  ||<14>hazard |vt.    |risk sth. |冒...的危险
  ||||Rock-climbers are hazarding their lives. |攀岩的人用生命去冒险。
  ||||The policy hazarded the islands and put the lives of the inhabitants at risk. |这项政策使小岛面临危险,把岛上居民的生命推向危险的境地。
  |||n.|[C] a danger |危险;风险
  ||||Smoking is a serious health hazard. |吸烟对健康危害严重。
  ||||Drivers faced the hazards of the ice and snow. |司机面临着冰雪的危险。
  ||<15>trap |vt.    |keep sb. in a place from where they cannot escape |把...困于;使陷入
  ||||They were trapped in the burning hotel. |他们被困在着火的旅馆中。
  ||||The two men died when they were trapped in the flood. |这两名男子因被困在大水里而丧生。
  |||n.|[C] a device that is designed to catch animals or people |陷阱;圈套
  ||||The farmer sets traps to catch rats. |这个农夫用捕鼠器捕捉老鼠。
  ||||The rabbit was caught in a trap. |兔子掉进了陷阱。
  ||<16>consumption |n.  |[U] the use of sth. such as fuel, food, etc., or the amount that is used |消耗;消费;消耗量;消费量
  ||||The meat was declared unfit for human consumption. |已宣布那种肉不适于人们食用。
  ||||We have measured the car's fuel consumption. |我们已经测量了汽车的耗油量。
  |@|<17>mode |n.|[C] a way or manner in which sth. is done |方式;方法
  ||||Each department in the company has its own mode of operation. |公司每个部门都有自己的运作方式。
  ||||You'll have to change your mode of life now that you have a baby. |你已有了孩子,得改变一下你的生活方式了。
  ||<18>merchant |n. |[C] a businessman |商人
  ||||a coal merchant |煤炭商
  ||||The main canals in Amsterdam are lined with houses built by rich merchants in the 17th and 18th centuries. |阿姆斯特丹的主要运河两岸排列着十七、十八世纪富商建造的房子。
  ||<19>rack |vt. |cause physical or mental pain or trouble |使痛苦;折磨
  ||||The dog was already racked by the pains of old age. |那只狗早就为衰老带来的病痛所折磨。
  ||||He was racked with doubts. |他因疑惑而深感不安。
  ||<20> <em>counselor</em> |n.   |[C] (BrE counsellor) sb. whose job is to give advice and help to people with problems |顾问
  ||||legal counselor |法律顾问
  ||||The company employed a group of counselors to solve this problem. |公司聘请了一班律师来解决这个问题。
  |@ |<21>attain |vt. |succeed in achieving sth. after trying for a long time |获得
  ||||When migrating, birds may attain a height of 3,000 meters or more. |候鸟在迁徙途中的飞翔高度能达到3千多米。
  ||||They tried to attain levels of quality and customer satisfaction greater than they had ever imagined. |他们想达到的质量和顾客满意度比以前想象的要高。
  |@ |<22>evident |a.|obvious; clear |明显的;显然的
  ||||It must be evident to all of you that he has made a mistake. |你们大家一定都清楚他犯了一个错误。
  ||||Harry's courage during his illness was evident to everyone. |哈里在生病时表现出来的勇气每个人都很清楚。
  |★ |<23>bleak |a. |1. without reasons to feel happy or hopeful |没希望的;暗淡的
  ||||The chief executive said that the company was faced with a bleak future. |总裁说公司的前景黯淡。
  ||||Many people were facing a financially bleak Christmas. |许多人正面临一个经济上低迷的圣诞节。
  ||||2. cold and without any pleasant features |阴冷的;阴郁的
  ||||In the bleak light of dawn she was preparing to leave her hometown for an unknown place. |在黎明惨淡的光线中,她准备离开故乡,去一个陌生的地方。
  ||||The snow-covered coast looked bleak and uninviting. |海岸线上一片白雪,看上去十分阴冷,毫无吸引人之处。
  ||<24>lane |n. |1. [C] a road marked out for a single line of traffic |车道
  ||||the inside lane |内车道
  ||||The southbound lane is closed because of an accident. |南向车道因为一起事故而封闭了。
  ||||2. [C] a narrow road in the countryside |小路;小巷
  ||||I live at the end of Church Lane. |我住在教堂巷尽头处。
  ||||It is very dangerous to drive fast along narrow country lanes. |在狭窄的乡村小路上开快车很危险。
  |@|<25>discharge |v.     |allow liquid, gas, energy, etc. to leave a place |(使)释放;(使)排出
  ||||Lightning is caused by clouds discharging electricity. |闪电是由云层放电而产生的。
  ||||Large amounts of dangerous waste are discharged daily by the factory. |这家工厂每天排放出大量危险的废弃物。
  |||vt.|officially allow sb. to leave somewhere |释放;让...离开
  ||||Patients were discharged from the hospital because the beds were needed by other people. |由于其他人需要床位,病人们被允许出院。
  ||||Because of the cut-down in sales, half of our employees were discharged. |因为销售额降低,我们有一半员工被解雇了。
  | |<26>grief |n. |1. [U] extreme sadness |悲伤,忧伤
  ||||You mustn't say "I know how you feel" as each person's grief is unique. |你不能说 “我知道你的感受”,因为每个人的悲伤心情都只有自己能体会。
  ||||I'd no idea that forgetting his birthday would cause him so much grief. |我没想到忘了他的生日会使他如此伤心。
  ||||2. [C] sth. causing great sadness |令人悲伤的事
  ||||His marriage was a great grief to his parents. |他的婚姻让他父母尤为伤心。
  ||||It was a grief to her that her son had never returned from the war. |她的儿子没能从战场上回来,这是她的伤心事。
  ||<27>trait |n.|[C] a particular quality in sb.'s character |品质;特点
  ||||One of his less attractive traits is criticizing his wife in public. |他不太好的那些品质中有一点就是当众数落自己的妻子。
  ||||His sense of humor is one of his better traits. |他的幽默感是他比较好的性格特点之一。
  |#|<28>equate |vt. |consider sth. to be the same as sth. else |等同
  ||||He equates poverty with suffering. |他把贫穷和痛苦等同起来。
  ||||You can't equate the education system of Britain to that of Germany. |你不能把英国的教育制度和德国的相提并论。
  ||<29>presumably |ad. |used to say that sth. is probably true |大概;可能
  ||||She is aware of the difficulties, presumably? |可能她知道存在的困难吧?
  ||||Presumably you've heard the news? |你可能已经听到这个消息了吧?
  ||<30>denial |n. |[C, U] a statement that sth. is not true |否认
  ||||His denial of responsibility for the accident was not convincing. |他否认自己对事故负有责任,这让人难以信服。
  ||||Nobody believes their repeated denials of guilt. |他们再三声言自己无罪,但没人会相信他们。
  ||<31>rational |a. |1. based on reasons rather than emotions |合理的;基于理性的
  ||||There must be a perfectly rational explanation for what happened. |对所发生的事一定有一个非常合理的解释。
  ||||We need to decide what would be the most rational course of action. |我们需要确定采取什么样的行动是最合理的。
  ||||2. being able to think calmly and sensibly |理智的,理性的
  ||||She was too sad to be rational. |她太悲伤了,无法保持理智。
  ||||Man is a rational being. |人是理性动物。
  ||<32> <em>rationalization</em> |n.     |[C, U] the act of rationalizing sth. |合理化
  ||||In the press conference, the general gave a rationalization for the retreat of his army. |在记者招待会上,将军解释了他的军队为何撤退。
  ||||The child could not provide his parents with a rationalization for his strange behavior. |孩子无法向父母解释自己怪异的行为。
  ||<33>excessive  |a.|too much; too great |过多的;过度的
  ||||The young man died of excessive drinking. |那个年轻人因为酗酒而身亡。
  ||||$5,000 is an excessive price for such a shabby second-hand car. |五千美元买这样一辆破旧的二手车,实在是太贵了。
  ||<34> <em>rationalize</em> |vt.    |provide an explanation for sth. |为...作出合理解释;使合理化
  ||||He rationalized his decision to leave the job by saying that he wanted to spend more time with his family. |他阐述了决定辞职的理由,说他想多花些时间和家人在一起。
  ||||Tom's parents sometimes find it difficult to rationalize his behavior. |汤姆的父母有时候发现很难理解他的行为。
  |@ |<35>schedule |n. |[C] a plan or timetable of what sb. is going to do and when they are going to do it |日程表;进度表
  ||||His schedule for this week is full. |他这个星期的日程表排得满满的了。
  ||||e've planned our teaching schedule for the next six months. |我们已安排好了接下来六个月的教学计划。
  |@ |<36>indispensable |a.   |very important and useful, without which nothing can be done |必不可少的;不可或缺的
  ||||Air, food, and water are indispensable to life. |空气、食物与水是生命所必不可缺少的。
  ||||She's good but not indispensable for the team; no player is. |她是个优秀队员,但并非是必不可少的队员,任何队员都不是必不可少的。
  |@ |<37>ambition |n.|1. [C] a strong desire to achieve sth. |抱负;追求目标
  ||||My family is more important to me than political affairs and personal ambition. |我的家庭对我来说比政治事务和个人抱负更为重要。
  ||||He has already achieved his main ambition in life—to become rich. |他已实现了生活的主要目标——发财致富。
  ||||2. [U] determination to be successful, rich, powerful, etc. |雄心;野心
  ||||She denies that she has any political ambitions. |她否认自己有任何政治上的野心。
  ||||I've always had a burning ambition to be a film actor. |我一直雄心勃勃,想成为一名电影演员。
  ||<38>durable |a.|continuing for a long time |耐用的;持久的
  ||||Our friendship is durable. |我们的友谊是永恒的。
  ||||It calls for a durable solution in the area. |在该地区需要一个持久的解决方法。
  |@ |<39>welfare |n.|[U] the health and happiness of people |幸福;安康
  ||||The police are very concerned for the welfare of the missing child. |警方非常担心失踪儿童的健康。
  ||||These organizations have fought very hard for the rights and welfare of the people. |这些组织非常努力地为人民的权利和福利而奋斗。
  ||<40>psychological |a.    |relating to the way that the mind works |心理的
  ||||Doctors dismissed her complaints of pain as psychological. |医生们认为她喊疼完全是心理上的反应。
  ||||The cause of a physical illness can often be psychological. |生理上的疾病往往是心理因素造成的。
  ||<41> <em>psychologically</em> |ad.    | |心理上地
  ||||Years of torment ruined the inmate psychologically. |多年的折磨使囚犯心理深受创伤。
  ||||The child is psychologically normal and does not need to see a psychiatrist. |这孩子心理上正常,没必要去看心理医生。
  |@ |<42>summarize |v.|(BrE summarise) make a brief statement of the main points |概述
  ||||Could you summarize the plot so far because I haven't seen any of it? |我一点也没看,你能把情节跟我大致说一下吗?
  ||||I'll just summarize the main points if I may. |如果可以的话我将只概括要点。
  <TITLE>Phrases and Expressions</TITLE>
  ||<43>other than |in addition to or except for sb. or sth. |除了...之外(还)
  |||She has no close friends other than him. |除了他以外,她没有别的亲密朋友了。
  |||We missed the last bus so there was no choice other than to walk home. |我们没赶上最后一班公交车,所以没其他办法,只能步行回家了。
  ||<44>on the other hand |used for giving two different opinions about sth. |另一方面
  |||I'd like a job that pays more, but on the other hand I enjoy the work I'm doing now. |我想要一份薪水更高的工作,但另一方面我又喜欢现在的工作。
  |||She plans to spend her holiday in Spain; on the other hand, she really wants to stay at home relaxing. |她计划去西班牙度假,但另一方面,她又很想呆在家里放松放松。
  ||<45>to the contrary |showing that the opposite is true |相反地
  |||I will assume that you want me to come on Monday unless you write to the contrary. |我会认为你要我星期一来,除非你写信不让我来。
  |||If I don't hear to the contrary I'll see you at the station at ten. |如无变动,十点钟我在车站见你。
  ||<46>burn the midnight oil |study or work until late at night |(学习、工作)到深夜;开夜车
  ||   |She takes her exams next week, so she's burning the midnight oil. |她下星期要参加考试,所以在开夜车。
  ||   |He's been burning the midnight oil over the last few weeks because he's been trying to finish writing up his paper. |前几个星期他一直工作到深夜,因为他正努力完成论文。
  ||<47>rack up |increase in number or amount step by step |积累;逐步增加
  |||Great losses were racked up by the airlines during this period. |这段时期航空公司的损失惨重。
  |||Still greater sales are racked up by putting the designer's name on the package. |把设计者的名字印在包装上使销售量进一步增大。
  ||<48>fear for |feel worried about sb. or sth. |为...担心
  |||I fear for her safety in this weather. |在这种天气情况下,我担心她的安全。
  |||All mothers fear for their children when they first leave home. |所有的母亲都为初次出门的孩子们担心。
  ||<49>at work |at the place where one works or doing one's job |在工作的地方;在工作
  |||Please don't ring me at work. |上班时请不要给我打电话。
  |||I drank a cup of coffee at work. |我工作时喝了杯咖啡。
  ||<50>come in |appear; happen |出现;发生
  |||This is where the mistakes come in. |这就是错误之所在。
  |||Have the results from the blood test come in yet? |验血的结果出来了没有?
  ||<51>put all one's eggs in one basket |risk everything one has on the success of just one plan |孤注一掷
  |||Insurance companies generally spread a large risk among several companies, so that they don't put all their eggs in one basket. |保险公司通常把大的风险分给几家公司承担,这样就将风险分散了。
  |||I'm applying for several jobs because I don't really want to put all my eggs in one basket. |我正在申请好几个工作,因为我不想把所有的希望寄托在一家公司上。

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