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新视野大学英语读写教程词汇 第二册 Unit 8a

时间:2010-12-18 06:19来源:互联网 提供网友:hs400652   字体: [ ]

  <TITLE>New Words</TITLE>
  |@|<1>formal|a. |following accepted rules of behavior |正式的
  ||||She has a very formal manner. |她举止文雅。
  ||||The letter was written in very formal language. |这封信使用了非常正式的语言。
  ||<2> <em>informal</em>|a. |not formal |不正式的
  ||||It is only an informal gathering. |这只是个非正式的集会。
  ||||"Hi" is an informal way of greeting people. |“喂”是跟人打招呼的一种不正式的形式。
  ||<3>poll|n. |[C] a survey of public opinion |民意测验;民意调查
  ||||We're conducting a poll among the children who have dropped out of school. |我们正在辍学儿童中进行调查。
  ||||A recent poll shows that 70% of British children are regular TV viewers by the age of three. |最近一项民意测验表明,70% 的英国儿童三岁时已是经常性的电视观众了。
  ||<4>resident|a. |living in a particular place |居住(在某地)的
  ||||The town's resident population is over 10,000. |该镇的居住人口超过一万人。
  ||||The migrant workers are not resident in any one place. |流动工人不在任何一地长住。
  |||n.|[C] sb. who lives or stays in a particular place |居民
  ||||The local residents were angry at the lack of parking spaces. |当地居民对停车场地不足感到恼火。
  ||||He's a resident of the United States. |他是一名美国居民。
  |@ |<5>compute|v. |calculate a number or amount |计算;算出
  ||||He computed his losses at $5,000. |他估计他的损失为5,000美元。
  ||||Scientists have computed the course that the bullet will likely take. |科学家已算出了子弹可能的运行轨迹。
  ||<6> <em>consumeristic</em> |a.     |believing in spending money and buying goods |消费主义的
  ||||Modern society has become very consumeristic, as people seem to only care about buying things. |现代社会消费主义十分严重,人们似乎只想着物质消费。
  ||||I don't like your consumeristic attitude; you spend too much money on unnecessary things. |我不赞成你那消费主义的态度:你在不必要的东西上花的钱太多了。
  ||<7>accordingly|ad. |1. as a result of sth. |因此,所以
  ||||She was angry and accordingly refused to attend the meeting. |她很生气,因此拒绝参加会议。
  ||||I was lost and accordingly I bought a map. |我迷路了,所以我买了张地图。
  ||||2. in a way that is suitable for a particular situation |相应地
  ||||I've told you what the situation is; you must act accordingly. |我已经向你说明了情况,你必须照此办理。
  ||||She's an expert in her field, and is paid accordingly. |她在自己的领域内是个专家,并得到了相应的报酬。
  |@ |<8>popular|a. |1. liked by many people |受欢迎的
  ||||Contrary to popular belief, the Australian desert is often full of wildlife. |与流行的看法相反,澳洲的沙漠通常有许多野生动物。
  ||||I don't accept the popular view that all criminals should be put in prison. |我不同意流行的看法:所有的罪犯都应该被关进监狱。
  ||||2. suited for ordinary people |通俗的;大众的
  ||||TV is a form of popular entertainment. |电视是一种大众娱乐方式。
  ||||He studies American popular culture and often writes articles about it. |他研究美国通俗文化,常常就此写文章。
  |★|<9>accounting|n.|[U] the work of accountants or the methods they use |会计;会计学
  ||||She majored in accounting when she was an undergraduate student. |她读本科时专业是会计学。
  ||||Any applicants for this job should have experience in accounting. |申请这个工作的人都要求有会计方面的经验。
  ||<10>humanity|n. |1. (the ~ties) subjects of study such as literature, history, or art |人文学科
  ||||Susan has always been more interested in the humanities than the sciences. |苏珊对人文科学一向比对自然科学更感兴趣。
  ||||The humanities include such subjects as literature and philosophy. |人文科学包括文学、哲学之类的课程。
  ||||2. [U] human beings as a whole |人类
  ||||Hitler was guilty of great crimes against humanity. |希特勒对人类犯下了滔天罪行。
  ||||All humanity will suffer if the nations do not unite. |如果世界各国不联合起来,全人类就会遭殃。
  ||||3. [U] a kind attitude toward other people |仁爱;人道
  ||||For more than five years, they were denied humanity. |在五年多的时间里,他们受到了非人的待遇。
  ||||We must treat prisoners with humanity. |我们必须人道地对待俘虏。
  |@ |<11>ethnic|a.|of a national or racial group that has a common cultural tradition |民族的;种族的
  ||||ethnic conflicts |种族冲突
  ||||The exhibition celebrated ethnic differences. |展览会颂扬种族差异。
  |@ |<12>enroll|v. |(BrE enrol) become or make sb. a member of an organization |登记;注册
  ||||We enrolled him as member of the society. |我们接纳他为协会会员。
  ||||Is it too late to enroll at the college? |现在去大学注册太晚了吗?
  |★|<13>enrollment|n. |(BrE enrolment) 1. [C] the number of people enrolled |注册(或登记)人数
  ||||The school has an enrollment of 800 pupils. |这所学校的在册学生为800人。
  ||||Student enrollments at the university have increased steadily in recent years. |近几年这所大学的学生入学人数稳步增长。
  ||||2. [U] the process of enrolling or being enrolled |登记;注册
  ||||the enrollment of five new members |五个新会员的登记
  ||||The deadline for enrollment is three days before the class. |注册最后期限是上课前三天。
  ||<14>elementary|a. |1. relating to the first years of school |初级的;小学的
  ||||an elementary class |初级班
  ||||an elementary school |小学
  ||||2. simple or basic |基本的;基础的
  ||||Many adults seem to know little about the most elementary science. |许多成年人似乎连最基本的科学常识都知之甚少。
  ||||The group had made some elementary mistakes. |小组犯了一些基本的错误。
  ||<15>secondary|a. |1. (of education) above the elementary level |(教育)中等的
  ||||secondary education |中等教育
  ||||The suggested changes include making it necessary for everyone to attend secondary school up to age 18. |提出的改革举措包括务必使每个18岁以下的人都能接受中等教育。
  ||||2. less important |次要的
  ||||Her health is what matters most—the cost is of secondary importance. |她的健康是最重要的,费用是次要的。
  ||||Our priority is to have an efficient transport system, and clean air is a secondary factor. |当务之急是要建立起有效的运输系统,清新的空气是次要的考虑因素。
  |★|<16>specialization |n.     |(BrE specialisation) [U] the study of a particular subject |专门研究;专修
  ||||In the course I'm taking, there's no opportunity for specialization until the final year. |我正在学的课程中没有涉及专业知识,要到最后一年才进入专业课学习。
  ||||The lawyer said that he was unable to help us because our case fell outside his specialization. |律师说他没法帮助我们,因为我们的案子超出了他的专业范围。
  |★|<17>maturity|n. |[U] the state of being mature |成熟
  ||||There's a real difference in the maturity level of a 13- and a 15-year-old girl. |13岁和15岁女孩子的成熟程度确实有差异。
  ||||These bananas are different in maturity. |这些香蕉的成熟程度不同。
  ||<18>corporation |n.  |[C] a company |公司
  ||||the British Broadcasting Corporation |英国广播公司
  ||||She didn't want to work for a big corporation. |她不想去大公司工作。
  ||<19>agency|n. |1. [C] an organization |机构
  ||||the Central Intelligence Agency |中央情报局
  ||||an assistance agency |援助机构
  ||||2. [C] a business providing a service for people |代理机构
  ||||He works for an advertising agency. |他就职于一家广告代理公司。
  ||||Our company has agencies all over the world. |我们公司在全世界均有代理处。
  |@ |<20>confine|n.     |(~s) limits or borders |界限;范围
  ||||This is beyond the confines of human knowledge. |这超出了人类知识的范围。
  ||||The narrow confines of life in a religious job proved too difficult for him. |教会工作狭小的生活空间对他来说显然太难了。
  |||vt.|keep sb. or sth. within certain limits |把...限制于
  ||||I wish the speaker would confine himself to the subject. |但愿演讲人不要离题。
  ||||I don't like a job in which I'm confined to doing only one thing. |我不喜欢仅限于做一件事情的工作。
  ||<21>occupation|n.|[C] a job or profession |工作;职业
  ||||In the space marked "occupation" she wrote "police officer." |她在“职业”一栏里写上了“警官”两字。
  ||||Please state your name, age, and occupation. 请说出你的姓名、年龄和职业。
  |@ |<22>render|vt. |1. give help, assistance, service, etc. to sb. |给予;提供
  ||||This is a reward for services rendered. |这是酬谢所提供服务的奖金。
  ||||Thanksgiving Day is a holiday to render thanks to God. |感恩节是答谢上帝的节日。
  ||||2. cause sb. or sth. to be in a particular condition |使得;使成为
  ||||His rudeness rendered me speechless. |他的粗鲁让我讲不出话来。
  ||||We were rendered helpless by the accident. |我们被这意外事故弄得束手无策。
  |@|<23>institution |n.  |[C] a large organization that has a particular kind of work or purpose |机构
  ||||Now he is working in a research institution. |他目前在一所研究院里工作。
  ||||Profitability is the sole aim of many financial institutions. |盈利是许多财政机构的唯一目标。
  |★ |<24>revelation|n. |1. [U] the act of making known sth. that was secret or hidden |泄露;揭示
  ||||His accent was the revelation of his identity. |他的口音暴露了他的身份。
  ||||His wife divorced him after the revelation that he was having an affair. |他有婚外情这事败露后,他的妻子与他离了婚。
  ||||2. [C] sth. that is revealed |所揭露的事
  ||||His Hamlet was a revelation to the critics. |他所表演的哈姆雷特令评论家们大为惊讶。
  ||||Shocking revelations appeared in the papers about the private life of the Smiths. |报纸所批露的史密斯夫妇私生活情况令人震惊。
  |★|<25>deduction|n.|[C, U] the process of taking away an amount from a total, or the amount that is taken away |扣除;扣除额
  ||||Interest will be paid without deduction of tax. |利息将含支付。
  ||||After deductions of tax, your monthly pay will be $500. |扣除税后,你的月薪是500美元。
  ||<26>preferable|a. |better or more suitable |更好的;更合适的
  ||||He finds country life preferable to living in the city. |他觉得住在乡下比城里好。
  ||||If it would be preferable, we could go on a later train. |合适的话,我们可以乘下一次列车。
  ||<27> <em>preferably</em> |ad.    |used for saying what sb. likes or prefers |更可取地;更好地
  ||||They want to buy a new house, near the sea preferably. |他们想要买一所新房子,最好是离海近些的。
  ||||Put the potatoes into boiling water, preferably after taking the skin off. |把土豆放入沸水中煮,最好先把皮剥掉。
  ||<28>civilization |n.  |(BrE civilisation) [U] the state of having developed an advanced culture |文明
  ||||Some people think that nuclear war would mean the end of civilization. |有人认为核战争意味着文明的终结。
  ||||Once humans had invented civilization, they never lost it. |文明一经创造,将不会被失去。
  ||<29>incredible|a. |very difficult to believe |难以置信的
  ||||What an incredible statement—not a word of it is true! |多么令人难以置信的言论——没有一句话是靠得住的!
  ||||She's only 12 years old? I find that completely incredible. |她只有12岁吗?我觉得简直让人难以置信。
  |@ |<30>contribution |n.   |1. [C] sth. one does that helps to achieve sth. or to make it successful |贡献
  ||||She didn't make much of a contribution at the meeting this morning. |今天早上的会上她没怎么贡献她的意见。
  ||||Every word makes its contribution to the general effect. |每字每句都为达到整体效果发挥着作用。
  ||||2. [C] an amount of money or sth. else that helps to achieve sth. or to make it successful |捐助;捐款
  ||||Everyone made a contribution of $25 to people of the poverty-stricken area. |每个人都给贫困地区的人们捐了25美元。
  ||||All contributions, no matter how small, will be much appreciated. |所有捐献,无论多小,我们都表示深深感谢。
  ||<31>artistic|a. |relating to art or culture |艺术的;与艺术有关的
  ||||Artistic independence was increased when the city started to have art exhibitions every year. |这个城市开始举办年度艺术展览时,艺术家们就享有了更多的艺术独立性。
  ||||Do you think films are entertaining or artistic? |你认为电影是娱乐性的还是艺术性的?
  |@ |<32>diverse|a. |very different from each other |不同的;多样的
  ||||I never realized that the landscape in Africa is so diverse. |我从来没有想到非洲的风景如此多姿多彩。
  ||||It is difficult to design a program that will meet the diverse needs of all our users. |要设计一个能满足所有使用者各种需求的程序非常困难。
  |@ |<33>wisdom|n. |[U] the ability to make good decisions based on knowledge or experience |智慧;睿智
  ||||She had gained much wisdom during her long life. |她在漫长的生活中获得了许多智慧。
  ||||Before I went off to university my father gave me a few words of wisdom. |在我上大学之前,父亲给我讲了一些至理名言。
  |@|<34>union|n.|1. [C] an organization formed by workers to protect their rights |工会;联合会
  ||||Labor Union |(美)工会
  ||||Trade Union |(英)工会
  ||||I am one of the members of the Students' Union. |我是学联会成员。
  ||||2. [sing., U] the process of uniting or being united |联合;合并
  ||||Please support the union between our two parties. |请支持我们两党的联合。
  ||||At the same time the argument on European political union continues. |与此同时,有关欧洲政治同盟的辩论仍在继续。
  ||<35> <em>short-sighted</em> |a.     |1. failing to consider the possible effects in the future of sth. that is happening now |目光短浅的;缺乏远见的
  ||||She was being stupidly short-sighted in snapping at this man. |她对那个男子发脾气,真是没有远见,愚蠢透顶。
  ||||The government was severely criticized in the media for its short-sighted policies. |政府因其缺乏远见的政策大受媒体批评。
  ||||2. unable to see things clearly if they are far away |近视的
  ||||His short-sighted eyes blinked at the stranger in his kitchen. |他眨着近视的眼睛,看着站在他厨房里的陌生人。
  ||||She was short-sighted and could not see into the auditorium. |她是近视眼,看不清观众席。
  |@ |<36>accumulate |vt. |get more and more of sth. over a period of time |积累
  ||||We've accumulated so much rubbish over the years. |这些年我们已经积起这么多垃圾。
  ||||Over the years he has accumulated hundreds of books. |这些年他积累了数百本书。
  ||<37>depict |vt.|describe sb. or sth. using words or pictures |描绘;描述
  ||||The drawing depicts her sitting on a sofa. |这幅画描绘的是她坐在沙发上的姿态。
  ||||Her novel depicts the lives of ordinary people in the last century. |她的小说描写了上个世纪普通人的生活情况。
  |@ |<38>puzzle |vt.    |confuse sb. or make them worried |使迷惑;使费解
  ||||It puzzled me why she said that. |我弄不懂她为什么那么说。
  ||||What puzzled us was how the accident could have happened. |令我们感到困惑的是事故发生的原因。
  |||n.|[C] sth. that is difficult to understand or explain |难题;谜
  ||||Their reason for doing it is still a puzzle to me. |他们干那件事的动机仍令我费解。
  ||||Their son is a puzzle to them. |他们的儿子令他们很伤脑筋。
  |& |<39>intercom |n. |[C] |内部通话系统
  ||||They live in a flat, and visitors have to ask through an intercom to be let in. |他们住在公寓里,来客必须通过内部通话设备联系后才能进入。
  ||||The company president had an intercom that she could use to talk to everyone in the building at the same time. |公司总裁有一个内部通话系统,她能通过该系统向大楼内所有的人同时讲话。
  |@ |<40>distinguish |v.  |recognize the difference between people or things |辨别;区分
  ||||The twins look so much like each other that no one can distinguish one from the other. |这对双胞胎长得非常像,无人能分辨得清。
  ||||I sometimes have difficulty distinguishing between Spanish and Portuguese. |有时候我难以辨别西班牙语和葡萄牙语。
  ||<41> <em>roommate</em> |n.  |[C] a person with whom one shares a bedroom |室友;住同室的人
  ||||I shared a taxi with my former roommate, who had come to meet me at the airport. |我与从前的室友合乘一辆出租车,是他来机场接的我。
  ||||My roommate and I were sitting on the floor drinking beer out of plastic glasses, talking all night. |我和室友坐在地板上用塑料杯喝啤酒,谈了一宿。
  ||<42>classical|a. |(of music or art) serious and traditional in style |古典的
  ||||Do you prefer classical music or popular music? |你喜欢古典音乐还是流行音乐?
  ||||He is one of our greatest classical actors. |他是我们最伟大的古典派演员之一。
  |■|<43>FM |n.|[U] |调频
  ||||an FM radio |调频收音机
  ||||Can you get the station on FM as well as on medium wave? |除中波外,你还可以收听调频台吗?
  <TITLE>Phrases and Expressions</TITLE>
  ||<44>be wasted on sb. |not understand sth. or not realize how valuable sth. is |被浪费在某人身上
  |||I'm not going to waste any more words on him. |我不想再和他费什么口舌了。
  |||Don't waste your money on me; keep it for yourself. |别在我身上浪费钱了,你自己留着用吧。
  ||<45>if only |used to express a strong wish, esp. when one knows that what they want cannot happen |但愿;要是...就好了
  |||If only I had gone by taxi. |要是我乘出租车去就好了。
  |||If only the earth were closer to the sun, winter wouldn't be so cold. |要是地球离太阳近一些就好了,冬天就不会这么冷。
  ||<46>well off |rich or having enough money to live well |富裕的
  |||You don't need to look for another job—you're well off where you are. |你没有必要再去找工作——你现在的经济情况就相当不错了。
  |||This is the best way of getting help to those families who are less well off. |对于那些不太富裕的家庭来说,这是获得帮助的最佳途径。
  ||<47>at a low |at a low level or degree |处于低水平
  |||The pound has been at a new low. |英镑的价位已降到新的最低点。
  |||Things have been at a bit of a low. |最近的情况一直不太好。
  ||<48>be meant to do sth. |should do sth. or have a responsibility to do sth. |应该做某事
  |||You are meant to pay before you come in. |你得交费后才能进入。
  |||You're meant to ask yourself this question from time to time. |你得时常问问自己这个问题。
  ||<49>read of |get information from books, newspapers, etc. |读到;从...得知
  |||I read of her in today's paper. |我从今天的报纸上读到了她的情况。
  |||It was sad to read of the death of the famous old actress in this morning's newspaper. |在今天早上的报纸上读到了那位著名的老演员的死讯,真是令人悲痛。
  ||<50>only to do sth.|used for saying that what happens next is disappointing or unpleasant |不料;反而;结果却
  |||I arrived at the airport only to find that the plane had taken off. |我抵达了机场,却发现飞机已经起飞,
  |||He returned after the war, only to find that his wife had left him. |他战后归来,发现妻子已离他而去。
  ||<51>in the long run |not immediately but at a time in the future |从长远来看
  |||In the long run, the prices are bound to rise. |价格终究是要上涨的。
  |||My mother always told me that in the long run I would be glad I didn't give up the piano. |我母亲总是对我说,将来我定会为自己没有放弃弹钢琴而高兴的。
  ||<52>send in|arrange for sb. to go to a place |派(人)去
  |||The hospital sent in a doctor to take special care of the patient. |医院派了一名医生专门照顾这位病人。
  |||Troops were sent in as part of the peace-keeping force. |军队被派去维护和平。
  <TITLE>Proper Names</TITLE>
  ||<53>Macon| |梅肯(美国乔治亚州中部城市)
  ||<54>Robins Resident Center | |罗宾斯住宿中心
  ||<55>Baxter| |巴克斯特(人名)
  ||<56>Oscar Wilde| |奥斯卡·王尔德(1854-1900,爱尔兰作家、诗人,19世纪末英国唯美主义的主要代表)

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