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21世纪大学英语读写教程第二册 Unit9

时间:2006-02-21 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:yxdzgd5   字体: [ ]
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UNIT 9

Text A

Pre-reading Activities
First Listening
1. As you listen to the passage the first time, circle the words from the list that you hear.
ice hate perish snow fear suffice frost despair hold with rain desire know of fire sorrow wonder fog confusion suffer wind corruption1 favor

Second Listening
2. Natural disasters are as fascinating as they are frightening. What forms do they take, and what do you know about their causes?

Get Ready for Some Wild Weather

Per Ola & Emily D'aulaire

In March of 1997, Stephen Zebiak stared at his computer screen in alarm. The veteran climate researcher saw indications of a worldwide weather event that, over the years, has been blamed for droughts and floods, famine, fires and thousands of deaths. Called El Nino, it is the most disruptive climatic phenomenon on the planet.
Zebiak and Mark Cane2, research scientists at Columbia University, had developed a computerized forecast model that correctly predicted El Nino's occurrences in 1982, '86 and '91, and it had pointed3 to a recurrence4 in '98. But the data appearing on Zebiak's screen from satellite and sea-surface monitors across the Pacific were unmistakable: El Nino was already beginning. A huge pool of warm water — larger than the United States and some 600 feet deep — was moving slowly but surely eastward5 toward South America.
In June the equatorial trade winds reversed direction from westward6 to eastward. By September, waters off Northern California were roughly 17 degrees warmer than normal. Off the Washington coast, stunned7 fishermen caught tropical fish that seldom stray that far north. Storms were flooding central Chile, and heavier-than-normal snowfalls in the Andes trapped hundreds in the bitter cold. And all of this only foretold8 of even more devastating9 weather for the fall and winter.
El Nino means "little boy" in Spanish; when capitalized, it refers to the Christ child. This innocent-sounding name originated in the 19th century, when Peruvian sailors noticed that every few years around Christmastime, waters near the coasts warmed up and the current shifted southward. But this "little boy" plays havoc10 around the globe.
El Nino occurs when weather patterns in the tropical Pacific shift violently. Normally, strong westward-blowing trade winds off South America push surface water toward Asia. Just as blowing on hot coffee pushes the liquid up against the opposite side of the cup, the trade winds pile warm water against the coastlines of Australia, Indonesia and the Philippines. Above the warm water, moist air rises, lowering atmospheric11 pressure and triggering the tropical showers that nourish the rain forests of Asia. Meanwhile high-altitude winds travel back toward South America. There, the cooled air sinks, raising atmospheric pressure and suppressing rain along most of the Pacific coast, making it one of the driest regions in the world.
But with El Nino, the pattern reverses. Atmospheric pressure in the Western Pacific rises, setting the stage for drought from Australia to India. The trade winds decrease, or in extreme years reverse to blow eastward. As a result, a huge mass of warm water flows back toward South America, causing storms from Chile to California. Meanwhile, over the Pacific, ten-mile-high storm clouds further heat the atmosphere, fueling a stronger-than-normal jet stream, which often splits in two. One branch moves north, warming the Pacific Northwest, central Canada and Alaska. Another branch surges south, producing heavy rains in the U.S. Gulf12 States and Southwest.
El Nino's vast impact on humans has often been catastrophic. The El Nino of 1982-83 inflicted13 $13 billion in damage and claimed some 2,000 lives. In Australia day turned to night when a dust storm blanketed Melbourne; brush fires raged in its wake. In place of its normal monsoon14, Southern India got dried-up crops and the threat of mass starvation. At the same time, violent rainstorms devastated15 the Western Hemisphere: Peru's fishing industry — once one of the richest in the world — was wiped out, and seaside towns were washed into the Pacific.
Is there a good side to El Nino? There can be. Zebiak notes that the number of tropical hurricanes in the Atlantic is reduced during an El Nino year. One theory is that winds created by El Nino shear16 off the tops of Atlantic hurricanes, aborting18 them before they reach full force. And a team of scientists in Israel who study tree rings and satellite cloud pictures concluded that El Nino may bring precious moisture to the thirsty Middle East. "It is perhaps fitting that El Nino — the Christ child — should have a link to the Holy Land," notes scientist Dan Yakir.
This year, scientists around the world are keeping a sharp eye on El Nino. They know that the greater the temperature rise in Pacific waters off South America, the more powerful the El Nino. And this year's waters have heated up unusually fast. Climate-change researcher Michael Ghil of UCLA expects the impact to be "substantial." Ants Leetmaa, director of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climate Prediction Center in Maryland, agrees: This El Nino is shaping up as one of the most powerful ever.
According to forecasters, hardest hit in this country will likely be California, where heavy rains can send houses sliding down muddy slopes onto washed-out coastal19 highways. The nation's southern states — from California to Florida — can expect cooler and wetter weather than normal this winter and spring, with extensive storms in some areas. The Northwest should be warmer and drier than normal.
Wetter-than-normal conditions are expected in much of South America. The Asian monsoon rains could fail, resulting in food shortages in India. In Australia, where El Nino ypically means drought, strict water conservation is already under way.
El Nino's effects won't just be climatic, of course — the global economy is sure to suffer as well. Drought in Brazil and flooding in Colombia may result in higher prices for coffee and other crops. And fishing industries from Ecuador to California are already being hurt.
Clearly, the more accurately20 scientists can forecast El Nino, the more people everywhere can prepare. Insurance companies, farmers, power and irrigation companies, public-safety agencies and even tourist boards could benefit from knowing in advance when El Nino will strike.
"Reliable forecasting is still in its infancy," states Mark Cane. Someday, perhaps, scientists will be able to predict exactly how El Nino will behave. But for now, batten down the hatches and get ready for some wild weather!
(985 words)

New Words

indication
n. a sign or suggestion 迹象,暗示

*indicative
a. (of) showing or suggesting 指示的;标示的;暗示的

disruptive
a. causing disorder21 or trouble 破坏性的;制造混乱的;捣乱的

climatic
a. of or connected with the climate 气候的

occurrence
n. 1. the fact that sth. happens or is present in a particular situation 出现,发生
2. an event 发生的事情;事件

recurrence
n. the fact or process of happening again 重新出现;复发

*recur
v. (esp. of sth. unpleasant or unwelcome) happen or appear again, or more than once (尤指不好的事)一再发生;重现

data
n. (sing. datum) facts, information 资料;数据

sea-surface
n. the surface of the sea 海面

equatorial
a. 赤道的;赤道附近的

equator
n. 赤道

trade wind
a tropical wind that blows almost continually towards the equator from the northeast and southeast 信风,贸易风

*stray
vi. move away from a group, path or place, etc., usually with no particular purpose or destination 离群;走失;走离
a. 1. lost; wandering away from home 走失的;离群的
2. scattered22; met by chance 零星的;偶尔遇到的

foretell23
vt. tell (what will happen in the future) 预言;预示

devastating
a. causing great destruction 破坏性极大的;毁灭性的

capitalize,-ise
vt. 将…大写

innocent
a. 天真无邪的,纯真的;无害的;无罪的,无辜的

*originate
vi. start, occur for the first time 发源;始于

violently
ad. with a lot of force 剧烈地;强烈地

westward-blowing
a. blowing towards the west 向西刮的

coastline
n. the shape (outline) of a coast 海岸线

moist
a. slightly wet 潮湿的

atmospheric
a. 大气的;大气层的

*nourish
vt. cause to stay alive or grow by giving food, water, etc. 滋养;养育

altitude
n. 1. height, as of a mountain above sea level 高度;海拔
2. (often pl.)a high place or area [常复数]高处;高地

*suppress
vt. prevent from appearing 阻止;压制

region
n. 1. a large area of land 地区;地带
2. 行政区

decrease
v. (cause to) become less in size, number, strength, amount, or quality (使)减少;(使)减弱;(使)减轻
n. the act or action of decreasing; the state of being decreased 减少;减弱

jet stream
[气]急流

northwest
n. 西北;(N-)(一国或一地区的)西北部
a. 位于西北的;朝西北部的;来自西北的
ad. 在西北;向西北;从西北

gulf
n. 海湾

southwest
n. 西南;(S-)(一国或一地区)西南部
a. 位于西南的;向西南的;来自西南的
ad. 在西南;向西南;从西南

*inflict
vt. cause (damage, suffering, etc.) 导致(破坏、痛苦等)

dust storm
[气](干燥地区的)尘暴,沙暴

brush fire
bush fire 灌丛火

rage
vi. 1. (of fires, storms, battles, etc.) continue violently (烈火)熊熊燃烧;(浪)汹涌;激战
2. feel or express violent anger 发怒;怒斥

monsoon
n. 季风

violent
a. 1. uncontrollably fierce or dangerous in action 暴力的;强暴的
2. acting24 with or using great damaging force 猛烈的,剧烈的

*hemisphere
n. a half of the earth 半球

seaside
n. & a. (of) an area or town by the sea 海边(的),海滨(的)

*hurricane
n. 飓风;暴风雨

shear
v. 1. (off) 剪断
2. cut off wool (from sheep) 剪(羊毛等)

abort17
v. 1. end ( a job, plan, etc.) before the expected time because of some trouble (因中途遭遇困难而)中止(工作、计划等)
2. (of a job, plan, etc.) end in this way (工作,计划等)中止;未完成
3. (使)流产,坠胎

tree rings
(树木的)年轮

precious
a. valuable and useful 宝贵的;珍贵的

moisture
n. 1. 水分;降雨量
2. 水气;湿气

*fitting
a. suitable, appropriate, right for the purpose or occasion 适当的,恰当的

link
n. 1. relationship 联系,关系
2. a physical connection between two places or objects 连接
v. join or connect 连接;联系

holy
a. of God or religion; sacred 上帝的;宗教的;神圣的

oceanic
a. 1. 海洋的,大洋的
2. 在海洋中生活的;产于海洋的

forecaster
n. 天气预报员

*muddy
a. full of or covered with mud 泥泞的

washed-out
a. destroyed or made useless by the force of water 被洪水冲蚀的;受到侵蚀的

coastal
n. of or related to the coast 海岸的;沿岸的

extensive
a. 1. great in effect 巨大的;严重的
2. widespread, covering a large area 广阔的;广大的

conservation
n. the preservation25 of natural things to prevent them from being spoiled or destroyed (对自然资源的)保护;保存

insurance
n. 1. agreement by contract to pay money in case of misfortune 保险
2. 保险业

insure
v. to protect... by insurance 给…保险,为…提供保证

*irrigation
n. the supply of water (to dry land) 灌溉

agency
n. 1. 公众服务机构
2. a business or organisation26 providing a specified27 service 代理行;经销处

tourist
n. a person travelling for pleasure 旅游者
a. 旅游的

batten
vt. (down) (on ships) fasten with boards of wood 用板条固定

*hatch
n. (船的)舱口(盖);(飞机的)舱口
vt. 1. cause (an egg) to break, letting the young bird out 孵出
2. (up) make up (a plan or idea) 筹划;策划
vi. (of an egg) break, letting the young bird out; (of a young bird) break through an egg (蛋等)孵化;(小鸡等)出壳

Phrases and Expressions

point to
suggest that (sth.) is likely; indicate 说明(某事)很可能;表明

warm up
(cause to) get warmer (使)变暖

refer to
relate to; mention or speak of 与…有关;提到;谈到

set the stage for
prepare for; make possible 为…做好准备;使成为可能

in sth.'s wake / in the wake of sth.
coming after or following sth.; as a result of sth. 随着…而来;作为…的结果

wipe out
destroy completely 彻底摧毁;消灭

be washed into
be carried somewhere by water 被冲入某处

shear off
cut off 剪断;切掉

keep a sharp eye on
watch closely 密切注意

heat up
make or become hot or warm (使)变热

shape up
develop; assume a shape 发展;成形,形成

under way
in progress 在进行中;在前进中

benefit from
receive benefit or gain from 得益于

in advance
before, ahead of time 事先,事前

batten down the hatches (在暴风雨未来到前)封舱;(喻)未雨绸缪,做好准备

Proper Names

Per Ola
珀·奥拉

Emily D'aulaire
埃米莉·多莱尔

Stephen Zebiak
斯蒂芬·泽比埃克

El Nino
“厄尔尼诺”现象(指严重影响全球气候的太平洋热带海域的大风及海水的大规模移动)

Mark Cane
马克·凯恩

Columbia University
(美国)哥伦比亚大学

Chile
智利(南美洲西南部国家)

the Andes
安第斯山脉(南美洲西部)

Christ
基督

Peruvian
秘鲁的;秘鲁人

Christmastime
圣诞节时期

Indonesia
印度尼西亚(东南亚岛国)

the Philippines
菲律宾(东南亚岛国);菲律宾群岛

Alaska
阿拉斯加州(美国州名)

the Gulf States
美国濒墨西哥湾诸州(指佛罗里达、亚拉巴马、密西西比、路易斯安那和得克萨斯等五个州)

Melbourne
墨尔本(澳大利亚东南部港市)
Peru
秘鲁(南美洲西部国家)

Israel
以色列(全称以色列国,在西南亚巴勒斯坦地区)

the Holy Land
(基督教)圣地;宗教圣地

Dan Yakir
丹·亚克

Michael Ghil
迈克尔·吉尔

Ants Leetmaa
安茨·利特马

Maryland
马里兰州(美国州名)

Florida
佛罗里达州(美国州名)

Brazil
巴西(南美洲国家)

Colombia
哥伦比亚(南美洲西北部国家)

Ecuador
厄瓜多尔(南美洲西北部国家)


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 corruption TzCxn     
n.腐败,堕落,贪污
参考例句:
  • The people asked the government to hit out against corruption and theft.人民要求政府严惩贪污盗窃。
  • The old man reviled against corruption.那老人痛斥了贪污舞弊。
2 cane RsNzT     
n.手杖,细长的茎,藤条;v.以杖击,以藤编制的
参考例句:
  • This sugar cane is quite a sweet and juicy.这甘蔗既甜又多汁。
  • English schoolmasters used to cane the boys as a punishment.英国小学老师过去常用教鞭打男学生作为惩罚。
3 pointed Il8zB4     
adj.尖的,直截了当的
参考例句:
  • He gave me a very sharp pointed pencil.他给我一支削得非常尖的铅笔。
  • She wished to show Mrs.John Dashwood by this pointed invitation to her brother.她想通过对达茨伍德夫人提出直截了当的邀请向她的哥哥表示出来。
4 recurrence ckazKP     
n.复发,反复,重现
参考例句:
  • More care in the future will prevent recurrence of the mistake.将来的小心可防止错误的重现。
  • He was aware of the possibility of a recurrence of his illness.他知道他的病有可能复发。
5 eastward CrjxP     
adv.向东;adj.向东的;n.东方,东部
参考例句:
  • The river here tends eastward.这条河从这里向东流。
  • The crowd is heading eastward,believing that they can find gold there.人群正在向东移去,他们认为在那里可以找到黄金。
6 westward XIvyz     
n.西方,西部;adj.西方的,向西的;adv.向西
参考例句:
  • We live on the westward slope of the hill.我们住在这座山的西山坡。
  • Explore westward or wherever.向西或到什么别的地方去勘探。
7 stunned 735ec6d53723be15b1737edd89183ec2     
adj. 震惊的,惊讶的 动词stun的过去式和过去分词
参考例句:
  • The fall stunned me for a moment. 那一下摔得我昏迷了片刻。
  • The leaders of the Kopper Company were then stunned speechless. 科伯公司的领导们当时被惊得目瞪口呆。
8 foretold 99663a6d5a4a4828ce8c220c8fe5dccc     
v.预言,预示( foretell的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • She foretold that the man would die soon. 她预言那人快要死了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Must lose one joy, by his life's star foretold. 这样注定:他,为了信守一个盟誓/就非得拿牺牲一个喜悦作代价。 来自英汉 - 翻译样例 - 文学
9 devastating muOzlG     
adj.毁灭性的,令人震惊的,强有力的
参考例句:
  • It is the most devastating storm in 20 years.这是20年来破坏性最大的风暴。
  • Affairs do have a devastating effect on marriages.婚外情确实会对婚姻造成毁灭性的影响。
10 havoc 9eyxY     
n.大破坏,浩劫,大混乱,大杂乱
参考例句:
  • The earthquake wreaked havoc on the city.地震对这个城市造成了大破坏。
  • This concentration of airborne firepower wrought havoc with the enemy forces.这次机载火力的集中攻击给敌军造成很大破坏。
11 atmospheric 6eayR     
adj.大气的,空气的;大气层的;大气所引起的
参考例句:
  • Sea surface temperatures and atmospheric circulation are strongly coupled.海洋表面温度与大气环流是密切相关的。
  • Clouds return radiant energy to the surface primarily via the atmospheric window.云主要通过大气窗区向地表辐射能量。
12 gulf 1e0xp     
n.海湾;深渊,鸿沟;分歧,隔阂
参考例句:
  • The gulf between the two leaders cannot be bridged.两位领导人之间的鸿沟难以跨越。
  • There is a gulf between the two cities.这两座城市间有个海湾。
13 inflicted cd6137b3bb7ad543500a72a112c6680f     
把…强加给,使承受,遭受( inflict的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  • They inflicted a humiliating defeat on the home team. 他们使主队吃了一场很没面子的败仗。
  • Zoya heroically bore the torture that the Fascists inflicted upon her. 卓娅英勇地承受法西斯匪徒加在她身上的酷刑。
14 monsoon 261zf     
n.季雨,季风,大雨
参考例句:
  • The monsoon rains started early this year.今年季雨降雨开始得早。
  • The main climate type in that region is monsoon.那个地区主要以季风气候为主要气候类型。
15 devastated eb3801a3063ef8b9664b1b4d1f6aaada     
v.彻底破坏( devastate的过去式和过去分词);摧毁;毁灭;在感情上(精神上、财务上等)压垮adj.毁坏的;极为震惊的
参考例句:
  • The bomb devastated much of the old part of the city. 这颗炸弹炸毁了旧城的一大片地方。
  • His family is absolutely devastated. 他的一家感到极为震惊。
16 shear BzhwZ     
n.修剪,剪下的东西,羊的一岁;vt.剪掉,割,剥夺;vi.修剪,切割,剥夺,穿越
参考例句:
  • Every spring they shear off the sheep's wool and sell it.每年春天他们都要剪下羊毛去卖。
  • In the Hebrides they shear their sheep later than anywhere else.在赫伯里兹,剪羊毛的时间比其他任何地方都要晚。
17 abort Tzgzxu     
v.使流产,堕胎;中止;中止(工作、计划等)
参考例句:
  • The captain instructed them to abort the mission.上尉指示他们中止执行任务。
  • With this button the user can abort the audio sequence.用户可以用该按钮终止音频序列。
18 aborting f3376270ea6836eac66441a6ef3c55c3     
v.(使)流产( abort的现在分词 );(使)(某事物)中止;(因故障等而)(使)(飞机、宇宙飞船、导弹等)中断飞行;(使)(飞行任务等)中途失败
参考例句:
  • Target machine is rebooting due to a different deployment task. Aborting deployment. 由于有另一个部署任务,目标计算机正在重新启动。正在中止部署。 来自互联网
  • The number of seconds elapsed before aborting a connection attempt. 在中止连接尝试之前经过的秒数。 来自互联网
19 coastal WWiyh     
adj.海岸的,沿海的,沿岸的
参考例句:
  • The ocean waves are slowly eating away the coastal rocks.大海的波浪慢慢地侵蚀着岸边的岩石。
  • This country will fortify the coastal areas.该国将加强沿海地区的防御。
20 accurately oJHyf     
adv.准确地,精确地
参考例句:
  • It is hard to hit the ball accurately.准确地击中球很难。
  • Now scientists can forecast the weather accurately.现在科学家们能准确地预报天气。
21 disorder Et1x4     
n.紊乱,混乱;骚动,骚乱;疾病,失调
参考例句:
  • When returning back,he discovered the room to be in disorder.回家后,他发现屋子里乱七八糟。
  • It contained a vast number of letters in great disorder.里面七零八落地装着许多信件。
22 scattered 7jgzKF     
adj.分散的,稀疏的;散步的;疏疏落落的
参考例句:
  • Gathering up his scattered papers,he pushed them into his case.他把散乱的文件收拾起来,塞进文件夹里。
23 foretell 9i3xj     
v.预言,预告,预示
参考例句:
  • Willow trees breaking out into buds foretell the coming of spring.柳枝绽青报春来。
  • The outcome of the war is hard to foretell.战争胜负难以预卜。
24 acting czRzoc     
n.演戏,行为,假装;adj.代理的,临时的,演出用的
参考例句:
  • Ignore her,she's just acting.别理她,她只是假装的。
  • During the seventies,her acting career was in eclipse.在七十年代,她的表演生涯黯然失色。
25 preservation glnzYU     
n.保护,维护,保存,保留,保持
参考例句:
  • The police are responsible for the preservation of law and order.警察负责维持法律与秩序。
  • The picture is in an excellent state of preservation.这幅画保存得极为完好。
26 organisation organisation     
n.组织,安排,团体,有机休
参考例句:
  • The method of his organisation work is worth commending.他的组织工作的方法值得称道。
  • His application for membership of the organisation was rejected.他想要加入该组织的申请遭到了拒绝。
27 specified ZhezwZ     
adj.特定的
参考例句:
  • The architect specified oak for the wood trim. 那位建筑师指定用橡木做木饰条。
  • It is generated by some specified means. 这是由某些未加说明的方法产生的。
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TAG标签:   大学英语  读写教程  第二册  unit
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