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21世纪大学英语读写教程第二册 Unit10

时间:2006-02-21 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:yxdzgd5   字体: [ ]
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UNIT 10

Text A

Pre-reading Activities
First Listening
1. Rapid advances in technology are affecting education just like every other field. Have a look at this list of products and services that students of the future will have, and imagine what each one does. Then, as you listen to the tape, circle the products and services that you hear the students talk about.
cyberbooks virtual classes automatic essay generators1 remote-control pencils Knowledge Transplant Centers

Second Listening
2. What other technological2 advances do you imagine will affect education in the 21st century? What about other aspects of human life and civilization?

The Next 30 years

Edward Cornish

In less than three years the world will reach the outstanding year 2000, and in less than four — on January 1, 2001, to be precise — a new millennium3 will begin. I am encouraged to offer my personal view of what is likely to happen in the next 30 years — a view that is heavily influenced by years of reading articles and books about the future.
To begin with, the next 30 years will almost certainly bring us incredible new achievements. The problems and dangers now facing the world are, in my judgement, far outweighed5 by solutions and opportunities. It is true enough that humans have an extraordinary genius for making mistakes, but it is balanced by our strong tendency to notice and correct them.

Rising Living Standards
The trends indicate that humans will be better off economically 30 years from now than they are today. Hundreds of millions of people will live in homes that will seem like palaces to their parents and grandparents. At the same time, brought together by telecommunications, people around the world will work together more efficiently6 than ever before. Expertise7 will flow easily and cheaply to places where it is needed. Computers and cellular8 phones will become commonplaces.
Thanks to genetic9 engineering, plants will grow bigger, mature faster, need less fertilizer, and resist insects and diseases. New materials will permit improvements in products ranging from refrigerators to automobiles10; roofs may rarely need repairs; stockings and underwear may not wear out during the owner's lifetime.

Living to Be 200 Years Old
Life expectancy11 will rise around the world, creating a rapidly growing proportion of old people in the population, as well as the age of the oldest humans — now above 120 years. Rapid progress in biotechnology suggests that breakthroughs may occur that will enable medical science to slow or reverse the aging process. This could mean that many people born in the next 30 years may live to be 200, 300, or more years old.
Increased life expectancy has some serious drawbacks, however. As people get older, more will find themselves disabled. Happily, increasingly sophisticated medicines and devices to assist the ill and disabled will become available in the coming decades. Researchers are finding ways to prevent and even partially12 cure blindness, deafness, muscular deterioration13, and other problems connected with aging. This means that increasing numbers of people will be able to work and support themselves for years beyond the typical retirement14 age of 65.

The Global Village
The nations of the world will become more tightly integrated because of rapidly improving telecommunications and transportation. A global culture will develop rapidly and take its pick of clothing styles, foods, drinks, games, sports and customs from countries everywhere.
A network of superhighways will link up the nations of Asia, Europe, and Africa. Engineers are already talking enthusiastically about a tunnel under the Mediterranean15 at Gibraltar to link Europe with Africa. And superhighways across the Eurasian land mass will allow residents of Shanghai and Hong Kong to drive comfortably and rapidly to destinations like Paris, Rome, and Stockholm. Travelers in a hurry will, of course, still prefer to fly, especially over long distances. Space-planes should be in service within the next 20 years, making flights from Tokyo to New York in only a couple of hours.

Humans Colonize16 Space
We will push the frontiers of human settlement in all directions. The Moon will acquire its first permanent base, and the human population living in space will rise steadily17, as manufacturing develops aboard spacecraft and the resources of other planets are explored. Meanwhile, advancing technology will also solve many of the problems of living and working in unfriendly environments on Earth, so the population of Antarctica and the Polar Regions will climb steadily. The forbidding Himalayas may experience a development boom, including, perhaps, luxury hotels for tourists.
The pace of ocean development will speed up as seaside nations increasingly assert their ownership of the resources off their shores. Ocean farming will become increasingly attractive as food prices rise. Studies have shown that the biological productivity of the ocean can be greatly increased by adding certain chemicals.

Future Dangers and Problems
The 21st century will be a century of fantastic achievement, but it may be accompanied by horrors on an unheard-of scale, as was the 20th century with its world wars and atomic bombs. The biggest single cloud hanging over the next 30 years is violence — crime, terrorism, and war. The Cold War is over, but hot wars on a smaller scale must be expected. In addition, nuclear weapons may be used by terrorists.
The world's growing population and intensifying18 economic activity are increasingly destroying forests and polluting land, water, and air. Successful programs for reducing air pollution in many cities and restoring forests in many areas have demonstrated that environmental destruction is not irreversible, but the job will take great effort on a global scale.
Unfortunately, the steady rise in world population makes it likely that, for the world as a whole, environmental conditions will continue to worsen for some years to come. Though a number of precious animal species such as pandas may be preserved, thousands upon thousands of others will almost certainly perish during the next 50 years as their habitats shrink.
If we cannot look forward to a peaceful, problem-free future, we can at least comfort ourselves with the realization19 that it will probably be the best period of history we humans have ever experienced.
(937 words)

New Words

precise
a. 1. exact in form, detail, measurements, time, etc. 精确的
2. particular; exact; very 恰好的
3. sharply clear 极清楚的

millennium
n. a period of 1,000 years 一千年,千年期

outweigh4
vt. 1. be greater in value or importance than 在价值(或重要性、影响等)上超过
2. be greater in weight 在重量上超过

grandparent
n. the parent of sb.'s father or mother 祖父或祖母;外祖父或外祖母

*telecommunication
n. 电信,远距离通信

efficiently
ad. in a way that works very well and without waste 效率高地;能胜任地

cellular
a. of a telephone system that works by radio 蜂窝移动电话系统的

*commonplace
n. things frequently seen, not anything special 寻常的事物,常见的事物
a. 平凡的,普通的

engineering
n. the science or profession of an engineer 工程学;工程师行业

fertilizer
n. a natural or chemical substance to help plants grow well 肥料

refrigerator
n. 冰箱

rarely
ad. seldom 很少,难得

underwear
n. 内衣

expectancy
n. 期望;预期;(根据概率统计求得的)预期数额

life expectancy
预期寿命

proportion
n. 1. (of) the relative amounts, sizes, etc., of two or more things 比例,比
2. (of) a part or share of a whole 部分;份额

proportional
1. (of) in proportion 成比例的
2. concerning proportion 比例(上)的

biotechnology
n. 生物工艺学(把工艺技术应用于生物科学,如生物工程)

*breakthrough
n. 突破;突破性进展;重大成就,关键问题的解决

enable
vt. make able; make possible 使能够,使可能

sophisticated
a. 1. refined and advanced 高级的,尖端的
2. having or showing a lot of experience of the world and social situations 老于世故的

assist
V. (in, with) help 帮助,帮忙

*muscular
a. 1. 肌肉的
2. 肌肉发达的,强健的

deterioration
n. 退化;恶化;变坏

*deteriorate
vi. become worse 变坏;恶化;退化

retirement
n. the condition of stopping working because of old age 退休,退职

integrate
vt. (with, into) combine (parts) into a whole 使结合;使成一体

network
n. 1. a large system of lines, tubes, wires, etc. that cross or meet one another 网状系统
2. 广播网;电视网;广播(或电视)联播公司

superhighway
n. 超级(高速)公路

tunnel
n. 隧道,地道

resident
n. a person who lives (in a place) and is not just a visitor 居民

*residential
a. (of part of a town) consisting of private houses, without offices or factories (市镇的)居住的,住宅区的

residence
n. the place where one lives; a house, esp. a large important one 住所;住宅;公馆

*reside
vi. to have one's home 居住

destination
n. a place to which sb. or sth. is going or is being sent 目的地,终点

space-plane
n. 宇宙飞机

colonize, -ise
vt. 在…开拓殖民地

frontier
n. 边境,边界;边疆(the~)(美)(靠近未开发地带的)开发地区边缘;边远地区

settlement
n. 1. 定居;移民,殖民
2. 殖民地;居留地

permanent
a. lasting20 for a long time or forever 持久的;永久的

aboard
prep. on or into (a ship, aircraft, train, bus, etc.) 在(船、飞机、车)上,上(船、飞机、车)

spacecraft
n. a vehicle able to travel in space 宇宙飞船

boom
n. (a period of) sudden growth or prosperity 迅速发展(期);繁荣(期)

*assert
vt. 1. state or declare forcefully and clearly 断言;坚持说;宣称
2. show, esp. forcefully, the existence of 有力地表明;明示

ownership
n. the right of having sth. as one's property 所有权

*productivity
n. the rate or efficiency of producing; the ability to produce things生产率;生产力

fantastic
a. 1. wonderful, great 了不起的,极好的
2. extraordinary 异乎寻常的
3. (of an idea, plan, etc.) too unrealistic to be practical or reasonable 幻想的,异想天开的

fantasy
n. imagination; sth. one imagines but is unlikely to happen 想象;幻想;想象的事物

atomic
a. 原子(能)的

atom
n. 原子

bomb
n. 炸弹
vt. 轰炸,投弹于

terrorism
n. 恐怖主义;恐怖行为

terrorist
n. 恐怖分子;暴徒

*intensify
v. (cause to) become more intense 加强;增强;强化

panda
n. (大)熊猫,(大)猫熊

preserve
vt. (from) keep (sth.) safe; prolong the lifetime or existence of (sth.) 保护;保存,保藏

*perish
vi. 1. be completely destroyed 被摧毁,毁灭;消亡
2. die as a result of accident or very hard conditions 卒;丧生

habitat
n. the natural home of an animal or plant (动植物的)生境,栖息地

shrink
v. (cause to) become smaller (使)收缩,(使)缩小

peaceful
a. 1. without war 和平的
2. quiet and calm without any worry or excitement 平静的,宁静的

problem-free
a. without any problems 没有问题的

realization
n. 1. (an experience of) understanding and believing 认识;领悟
2. (of a hope or purpose) becoming real (指希望或目的的)实现

realize, -ise
vt. 1. understand and believe; be or become conscious of 了解;领悟;认识到
2. make (a hope, purpose, fear, etc.) real 使(希望、目的、恐惧等)实现

Phrases and Expressions

to begin with
1. in the first place 首先,第一
2. at first 起初,本来

in sb.'s judgement
in sb.'s opinion 在某人看来

be better off
having more money; being in a better condition 富裕;境况(尤指经济境况)好起来

wear out
(cause to) become useless, threadbare, exhausted21 穿破,磨损;用坏;(使)疲倦;(使)耗尽

take one's pick
choose (sth. one likes from a group of things) (从…中)挑选(自己喜爱的东西)

link up
(cause to) join or connect 连接;联系
in service
being used; in use 在使用中

speed up
(cause to) move or develop faster (使)加快速度

on... scale
以…规模;在…范围内

as a whole
as one thing and not as separate parts 作为一个整体

look forward to
anticipate with pleasure 盼望;期待

Proper Names

Edward Cornish
爱德华·科尼什

Mediterranean
地中海(=Mediterranean Sea)

Gibraltar
直布罗陀海峡(=Strait of Gibraltar)

Eurasian
欧亚(大陆)的

Rome
罗马(意大利首都)
Tokyo
东京(日本首都)

the Himalayas
喜马拉雅山脉(位于亚洲)


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 generators 49511c3cf5edacaa03c4198875f15e4e     
n.发电机,发生器( generator的名词复数 );电力公司
参考例句:
  • The factory's emergency generators were used during the power cut. 工厂应急发电机在停电期间用上了。
  • Power can be fed from wind generators into the electricity grid system. 电力可以从风力发电机流入输电网。 来自《简明英汉词典》
2 technological gqiwY     
adj.技术的;工艺的
参考例句:
  • A successful company must keep up with the pace of technological change.一家成功的公司必须得跟上技术变革的步伐。
  • Today,the pace of life is increasing with technological advancements.当今, 随着科技进步,生活节奏不断增快。
3 millennium x7DzO     
n.一千年,千禧年;太平盛世
参考例句:
  • The whole world was counting down to the new millennium.全世界都在倒计时迎接新千年的到来。
  • We waited as the clock ticked away the last few seconds of the old millennium.我们静候着时钟滴答走过千年的最后几秒钟。
4 outweigh gJlxO     
vt.比...更重,...更重要
参考例句:
  • The merits of your plan outweigh the defects.你制定的计划其优点胜过缺点。
  • One's merits outweigh one's short-comings.功大于过。
5 outweighed ab362c03a68adf0ab499937abbf51262     
v.在重量上超过( outweigh的过去式和过去分词 );在重要性或价值方面超过
参考例句:
  • This boxer outweighed by his opponent 20 pounds. 这个拳击选手体重比他的对手重20磅。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • She outweighed me by ten pounds, and sometimes she knocked me down. 她的体重超过我十磅,有时竟把我撞倒。 来自百科语句
6 efficiently ZuTzXQ     
adv.高效率地,有能力地
参考例句:
  • The worker oils the machine to operate it more efficiently.工人给机器上油以使机器运转更有效。
  • Local authorities have to learn to allocate resources efficiently.地方政府必须学会有效地分配资源。
7 expertise fmTx0     
n.专门知识(或技能等),专长
参考例句:
  • We were amazed at his expertise on the ski slopes.他斜坡滑雪的技能使我们赞叹不已。
  • You really have the technical expertise in a new breakthrough.让你真正在专业技术上有一个全新的突破。
8 cellular aU1yo     
adj.移动的;细胞的,由细胞组成的
参考例句:
  • She has a cellular telephone in her car.她的汽车里有一部无线通讯电话机。
  • Many people use cellular materials as sensitive elements in hygrometers.很多人用蜂窝状的材料作为测量温度的传感元件。
9 genetic PgIxp     
adj.遗传的,遗传学的
参考例句:
  • It's very difficult to treat genetic diseases.遗传性疾病治疗起来很困难。
  • Each daughter cell can receive a full complement of the genetic information.每个子细胞可以收到遗传信息的一个完全补偿物。
10 automobiles 760a1b7b6ea4a07c12e5f64cc766962b     
n.汽车( automobile的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • When automobiles become popular,the use of the horse and buggy passed away. 汽车普及后,就不再使用马和马车了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Automobiles speed in an endless stream along the boulevard. 宽阔的林荫道上,汽车川流不息。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
11 expectancy tlMys     
n.期望,预期,(根据概率统计求得)预期数额
参考例句:
  • Japanese people have a very high life expectancy.日本人的平均寿命非常长。
  • The atomosphere of tense expectancy sobered everyone.这种期望的紧张气氛使每个人变得严肃起来。
12 partially yL7xm     
adv.部分地,从某些方面讲
参考例句:
  • The door was partially concealed by the drapes.门有一部分被门帘遮住了。
  • The police managed to restore calm and the curfew was partially lifted.警方设法恢复了平静,宵禁部分解除。
13 deterioration yvvxj     
n.退化;恶化;变坏
参考例句:
  • Mental and physical deterioration both occur naturally with age. 随着年龄的增长,心智和体力自然衰退。
  • The car's bodywork was already showing signs of deterioration. 这辆车的车身已经显示出了劣化迹象。
14 retirement TWoxH     
n.退休,退职
参考例句:
  • She wanted to enjoy her retirement without being beset by financial worries.她想享受退休生活而不必为金钱担忧。
  • I have to put everything away for my retirement.我必须把一切都积蓄起来以便退休后用。
15 Mediterranean ezuzT     
adj.地中海的;地中海沿岸的
参考例句:
  • The houses are Mediterranean in character.这些房子都属地中海风格。
  • Gibraltar is the key to the Mediterranean.直布罗陀是地中海的要冲。
16 colonize mqzzM     
v.建立殖民地,拓殖;定居,居于
参考例句:
  • Around 700 Arabs began to colonize East Africa.公元700年阿拉伯人开始把东非变为殖民地。
  • Japan used to colonize many countries in Asia.日本曾经殖民过许多亚洲国家。
17 steadily Qukw6     
adv.稳定地;不变地;持续地
参考例句:
  • The scope of man's use of natural resources will steadily grow.人类利用自然资源的广度将日益扩大。
  • Our educational reform was steadily led onto the correct path.我们的教学改革慢慢上轨道了。
18 intensifying 6af105724a108def30288b810d78b276     
v.(使)增强, (使)加剧( intensify的现在分词 );增辉
参考例句:
  • The allies are intensifying their air campaign. 联军部队正加大他们的空战强度。 来自辞典例句
  • The rest of the European powers were in a state of intensifying congestion. 其余的欧洲强国则处于越来越拥挤的状态。 来自英汉非文学 - 历史
19 realization nTwxS     
n.实现;认识到,深刻了解
参考例句:
  • We shall gladly lend every effort in our power toward its realization.我们将乐意为它的实现而竭尽全力。
  • He came to the realization that he would never make a good teacher.他逐渐认识到自己永远不会成为好老师。
20 lasting IpCz02     
adj.永久的,永恒的;vbl.持续,维持
参考例句:
  • The lasting war debased the value of the dollar.持久的战争使美元贬值。
  • We hope for a lasting settlement of all these troubles.我们希望这些纠纷能获得永久的解决。
21 exhausted 7taz4r     
adj.极其疲惫的,精疲力尽的
参考例句:
  • It was a long haul home and we arrived exhausted.搬运回家的这段路程特别长,到家时我们已筋疲力尽。
  • Jenny was exhausted by the hustle of city life.珍妮被城市生活的忙乱弄得筋疲力尽。
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