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新视野大学英语读写教程词汇 第二册 Unit 2b

时间:2010-12-18 05:59来源:互联网 提供网友:wokan222   字体: [ ]

  <TITLE>New Words</TITLE>
  |@|<1>competition  |n.|[U] the activities of competing |竞争
  || ||There has always been intense competition between companies for bigger market shares. |公司之间一直进行着激烈的竞争,以获得更大的市场份额。
  || ||Five students were selected to go in for the provincial physical competition. |有五位学生被挑选参加全省的物理竞赛。
  |@|<2>sake |n.|(for the ~ of) |
  || ||1. [U] for the purpose of |为了...目的
  || ||Do you think that I am talking for the sake of talking? Please listen carefully! |你以为我是在为讲话而讲话?请仔细听着!
  || ||2. [U] for the good or benefit of |为了...好处
  || ||I understand that Father is strict with me just for my sake. |我明白父亲是为了我好才对我要求严格。
  || ||The poor mother worked day and night to make money for the sake of her sick daughter. |可怜的母亲为了生病的孩子日夜劳作挣钱。
  ||<3>athlete |n.|[C] sb. who competes in sports competitions |运动员
  || ||Carl Lewis is one of the most extraordinary athletes in the US. |卡尔·刘易斯是美国最卓越的运动员之一。
  || ||Do you believe that athletes compete with each other for nothing but honor? |你相信运动员仅仅是为了荣誉而相互竞争吗?
  |@|<4>sacrifice |vt.|give up sth., esp. for a good purpose or belief |牺牲;奉献
  || ||It is absolutely unwise to sacrifice your health for your work. |为了工作牺牲健康绝对是不明智的。
  || ||My wife sacrificed a lot to take good care of the baby. |为了照顾宝宝,我妻子牺牲了很多。
  ||<5>injury |n.|[C,U] a wound or damage to part of one's body |伤害;损害
  || ||All construction workers should be insured against injury at work. |所有的建筑工人都应该保工伤险。
  || ||Tears came to her eyes when she saw the serious injuries on her boy's legs. |她看到儿子腿上严重的伤口,眼眶里不禁盈满了泪水。
  |@|<6>exploit |vt.|use sth. fully so as to get benefit from it |利用;剥削
  || ||It has been reported that his company exploits the employees in various ways. |据报道他的公司以各种方式剥削工人。
  || ||I won't exploit your difficulty to beat you in competition. |我不会利用你的困难来在比赛中取胜。
  |@|<7>glory |n.|[U] great honor |光荣;荣誉
  || ||The athletes came back with glory after they won the championship. |运动员们夺得冠军后载誉归来。
  || ||Those who sacrificed themselves for the sake of our nation deserve everlasting glory. |为了我们国家而牺牲自己的人应该获得永恒的荣誉。
  |@|<8>virtue |n.|[C] a good quality in character or behavior |美德
  || ||The young man was admired by all because of his virtues: courage and truthfulness. |年轻人因为勇敢和诚实的美德而受到大家的钦佩。
  || ||A man of virtue deserves respect no matter whether he is rich or not. |有德行的人无论贫富都值得尊重。
  |@|<9>determination |n. |[U] the strong will to do sth. |决心;毅力
  || ||My sister is a girl of determination—once she decides to do something, she will never gives up easily. |我妹妹是个意志坚强的人——她一旦下决心做某事,就绝不会轻易放弃。
  || ||The athletes' determination is something worth admiring. |运动员们的毅力是值得赞赏的。
  ||<10>dash |n.|1. [sing., C] a short race for runners |短距离赛跑
  || ||His classmates cheered for him after he won the first prize in the 100-meter dash. |他在100米短跑中获得第一名后,同班同学为他欢呼。
  || ||2. [sing., C] a sudden, quick run |奔;冲
  || ||The dog made a dash for the strangers and frightened them away. |狗向陌生人冲了过去,把他们吓走了。
  || ||Hearing the fire alarm, she made a dash for the door. |一听到火警声,她就往大门奔去。
  || |vi.|run quickly and suddenly |奔;冲
  || ||The young man dashed through the crowd to catch the thief. |年轻人从人群中冲过去抓小偷。
  || ||When he was dashing cross the street to catch the bus, he knocked down a middle-aged woman. |他冲过街道去赶公共汽车时撞倒了一位中年妇女。
  ||<11>competitive |a. |1. liking to compete |喜欢竞争的;好胜的
  || ||She is always after something because of her competitive nature. |由于她争强好胜,总是在追求些什么。
  || ||My brother is so competitive that he always tries to be the best in everything. |我弟弟非常好胜,任何事情都要尽力做到最好。
  || ||2. relating to competition |竞争的;有竞争力的
  || ||To remain competitive in the local market, our products need to be improved. |我们的产品需要加以改进才能保持在当地市场的竞争力。
  || ||I promise to offer you the most competitive price. |我保证给你最具竞争力的价格。
  ||<12>defy |vt.|1. do sth. that is considered impossible; challenge |向...挑战
  || ||I defy you to prove that I am wrong. |我倒要看看你能不能证明是我错了.
  || ||Carl's friends defied him to jump into the river from the bridge. |卡尔的朋友们激他从桥上跳到河里去。
  || ||2. refuse to obey sb. or sth. |违抗;不服从
  || ||Many kids defy their parents and play the computer games for hours everyday. |很多孩子不听父母的话,每天要打好几个小时的电子游戏。
  || ||When the teacher asked the boy to come to the front, he defied her by remaining in his seat. |老师让那男孩到前面来,他却不服从,仍旧坐在自己座位上。
  |★|<13>stopwatch |n.|[C] a watch used for measuring the exact time it takes to do sth., esp. in a race |秒表
  || ||A stopwatch is different from a wrist watch. |秒表和普通手表不一样。
  |@|<14>pursue |vt.|1. continue doing an activity or trying to achieve sth. over a long period of time |从事;追求
  || ||Seeing that no agreement would be reached at the meeting, they decided not to pursue the matter any more. |他们发现在会上不可能达成任何协议,于是决定不再继续讨论此事。
  || ||Pursuing her study in a foreign country, she always felt homesick. |她在异国求学时经常想家。
  || ||2. chase sb. or sth. in order to catch them |追赶;追逐
  || ||The hunter had been pursuing a wounded bear for days in the forest. |猎人连续几天都在森林里追捕一只受伤的熊。
  || ||The policeman wounded himself while pursuing an escaped prisoner. |警察在追捕逃犯的时候受了伤。
  |@|<15>strip |n.|[C] a narrow piece |条;带
  || ||a strip of paper |纸条
  || ||a strip of land |一块狭长的土地
  || |vt.|remove the covering of sth. |剥去;除去
  || ||It took me several hours to strip the wallpaper from the walls. |我花了几小时将壁纸从墙上撕下来。
  || ||The girl stripped leaves off the mulberry tree to feed her silkworms. |女孩从桑树上摘下桑叶来喂蚕。
  |@|<16>singular |a.|1. very great or very noticeable |卓越的;非凡的
  || ||He showed singular wisdom in dealing with the matter. |他处理这一事件时展现了非凡的智慧。
  || ||His singular achievements rank him among the greatest scientists. |他卓越的成就使他成为最伟大的科学家之一。
  || ||2. of or being a word representing one |单数的
  || ||The noun "datum" is singular; it's the singular form of "data". |名词datum是单数,它是data一词的单数形式。
  |@|<17>phenomenon |n. |1. [C] sb. or sth. that is very unusual |奇才;奇迹
  || ||His son could recite lots of poems at three and was considered a phenomenon. |他儿子三岁时就能背诵许多诗,被认为是奇才。
  || ||Unable to explain natural phenomena, ancient people believed in the existence of many gods. |古代人因为无法解释大自然的奇特现象,就相信许多神的存在。
  || ||2. [C] an event or situation that can be seen to happen or exist |现象
  || ||The modern society has witnessed the increasing phenomenon of the single parent family. |现代社会单亲家庭的情况越来越普遍。
  || ||In my home town, heavy snow in winter is a common phenomenon. |我家乡冬天下大雪是很平常的事儿。
  ||<18> <em>phenomenal<em> |a.|very unusual; very great or impressive |异常的;惊人的
  || ||The hero showed phenomenal courage in danger and saved quite a few people from the big fire. |这位英雄在危险中表现出非凡的勇气,从大火中救出了很多人。
  || ||Look! The sun now looks like a ring! What a phenomenal view! |看!太阳现在看上去是个圆环!真是奇异的景象啊!
  |@|<19>horizon |n.|1. (~s) the limit of one's ideas, knowledge, and experience |范围;眼界;视野
  || ||Many people travel around to broaden their horizons. |许多人四处旅游以开阔眼界。
  || ||While reading extensively, Dora found her horizons expanded. |多拉博览群书的同时发现自己的视野也随之开阔了。
  || ||2. (the ~) the line far away where the sky seems to meet the earth |地平线
  || ||The sun disappeared below the horizon gradually and the day ended. |太阳逐渐消失在地平线下,白天结束了。
  || ||Seeing a ship appear on the horizon in the distance, the man went almost wild with joy. |看见一只船出现在远处的地平线上,那人简直欣喜若狂。
  ||<20> <em>sprinter</em> |n.|[C] an athlete for a short race |短跑运动员
  || ||He is a well-known sprinter. |他是著名短跑运动员。
  ||<21>observer |n.|1. [C] sb. who sees or looks at sth. |观看者
  || ||He has been a devoted observer of nature since his childhood. |他从小就是一个热衷于观察大自然的人。
  || ||The stories told by the observers were almost the same. |旁观者们的讲述几乎是一致的。
  || ||2. [C] sb. who attends meetings, events, etc. to observe what is happening |观察员
  || ||The committee will send several observers to be present at the meeting. |委员会将派几名观察员出席会议。
  || ||The president suggested that a team of UN observers should be sent to the Mid-east peace talk. |总统建议应该派一队联合国观察员参加中东和平谈判。
  |@|<22>crack |n.|[C] a sudden loud sound |爆裂声;劈啪声
  || ||Hearing a crack of a gun, the police rushed in and saw the man lying on the floor, dead. |警察听到枪响后冲了进去,看到这人躺在地板上,已经死了。
  || ||Did you hear a crack just now? Something must have happened! |你刚才有没有听到爆裂声?肯定出事了!
  || |v.|1. (cause to) make a sudden loud sound |(使)发出爆裂声
  || ||The rider cracked his whip and the horse ran even faster. |骑马的人把鞭子挥得啪啪作响,马儿跑得更快了。
  || ||Thunder cracked while it was raining very heavily. |大雨滂沱,雷声轰隆。
  || ||2. (cause to) break |(使)破裂
  || ||The glass on the table was cracked but not broken. |桌上的玻璃裂了,但还没碎。
  || ||I don't know when the bowl cracked, but I will throw it away now. |我不知道桌上的碗什么时候裂开来的,但我现在就扔掉它。
  ||<23>trail |vi. |move slowly, esp. behind other people |拖沓地走;无精打采地慢走
  || ||Bob trailed along the street, wondering where he could find a job. |鲍伯沿街无精打采地走着,不知哪儿能找到工作。
  || ||Feeling very tired, the girl trailed behind her friends on the way back home. |在回家的路上,女孩感到十分疲惫,慢吞吞地走在朋友们的后面。
  || |vt.|follow sb. secretly |跟踪;尾随
  || ||The hunter trailed the wounded bear to its cave. |猎人追踪受伤的熊到了它的洞穴。
  || ||I trailed her to the railway station and then she disappeared suddenly. |我跟踪她到了火车站,她这时突然就消失了。
  |@|<24>explosive |a.|1. sudden and rapid |迅猛的
  || ||There was an explosive growth in our business in the early 1990s. |我们的业务在二十世纪九十年代早期有个迅猛的增长。
  || ||The small city has taken on a new look because of its explosive development. |这个小城市因为发展迅速已呈现出一派新气象。
  || ||2. likely to explode |易爆炸的;易发作的
  || ||Explosive materials must be kept far away from fire. |易爆炸的物品必须远离火苗。
  || ||Don't talk about explosive issues with your business partners when you are chatting with each other. |当你和商业伙伴闲聊时,不要谈论容易引起争端的事件。
  || |n.|[C, U] a substance that can cause an explosion |爆炸物
  || ||Explosives must be handled carefully. |爆炸物必须小心轻放。
  || ||The police searched his apartment and found one hundred pounds of explosives. |警察搜查他的公寓,发现了一百磅的爆炸物品。
  |@|<25>overcome  |vt.|(overcame, overcome) fight and win against sb. or sth. |战胜;击败
  || ||The parents tried to help their little girl to overcome her fear of darkness. |父母设法帮助他们的小女孩战胜对黑暗的恐惧。
  || ||You must be self-confident enough to overcome difficulties. |要克服困难,你必须有足够的自信。
  |@|<26>committee |n.|[C] a group of people chosen to do a particular job or for special duties |委员会
  || ||The government decided to set up a special committee to deal with this problem. |政府决定设立一个专门的委员会来处理这一问题。
  || ||All committee members were required to make a close study of the report. |所有的委员会成员都被要求仔细研究一下这份报告。
  |@|<27>indicate |vt.|show that sth. is true or exists |表明;显示
  || ||He shook his head to indicate that he didn't agree with me. |他摇头表示不同意我的看法。
  || ||Our research indicates that women are better than men at dealing with stress. |我们的研究表明女人比男人更擅长处理压力。
  |■|<28>steroid |n.|[C] |类固醇
  ||<29>conquest |n. |[U] the act of taking control of sb. or sth. |攻占;占领;征服
  || ||This region was once one of the French conquests in Africa. |这地区曾经是法国在非洲的占领地之一。
  || ||People used to talk bout the conquest of nature, but now we realize we must stay in harmony with it. |人们过去常常谈论征服大自然,但我们现在意识到了我们必须和自然和平相处。
  ||<30>condemn |vt.|express strong disapproval of sb. or sth. |谴责
  || ||People all condemned him for ill-treating animals. |大家都谴责他虐待动物。
  || ||Those who always act selfishly without consideration for others should be condemned by all. |那些经常行为自私而不考虑他人的人应该受到大家的谴责。
  |★|<31>condemnation |n. |[C, U] the act of condemning |谴责
  || ||The young man kept swearing at his mother despite others' condemnation. |尽管别人都谴责他,年轻人还是继续咒骂他的母亲。
  || ||His rude behavior deserves condemnation. |他粗鲁的行为应该受到谴责。
  |@|<32>opponent |n.|[C] sb. who takes the opposite side, esp. in playing or fighting |对手;敌手
  || ||He has only a small chance of beating his opponent. |他击败对手的希望渺茫。
  || ||As a very traditional person, old Jim was always an opponent to new ideas. |老吉姆是个非常传统的人,总是反对新思想。
  |@|<33>deny |vt.|1. say that sth. is not true, or that one does not believe sth. |否认
  || ||Why should I deny it if I really said those words to her? |如果我真的对她说了那些话,为什么要否认呢?
  || ||There is no denying that my sister is more beautiful and intelligent, but it doesn't mean that she could insult me. |无可否认我妹妹比我更美丽聪慧,但这并不意味着她可以侮辱我。
  || ||2. not allow sb. to have or do sth. |拒绝(给予)
  ||        ||The girl was denied the chance of the job just because of her gender. |女孩仅仅因为她的性别而没有得到工作机会。
  || ||It does no good to your boy if you never deny him anything. |如果你对儿子有求必应,对他并没有任何益处。
  |@|<34>counter  |v.|reply to a criticism that one disagrees with |反驳
  || ||He is so arrogant that he countered any criticism of him. |他非常自大,对他的任何批评他都会反驳。
  || ||She had tried every means to counter the original charge, but failed. |她想尽了一切办法想要推翻原判,但都失败了。
  ||<35>rumor |n. |(BrE rumour) [C, U] information that is passed from one person to another and which may or may not be true |谣言,传闻
  || ||Rumor has it that the general manager will leave his position next month. |有传言说总经理将于下个月离职。
  || ||I just wonder where all these rumors about her illness come from. |我正想知道有关她生病的种种传说是哪里来的。
  ||<36>formula |n. |1. [C] a method or set of principles for dealing with a problem or achieving a result |方法;方案
  || ||We're still searching for a peace formula. |我们仍在寻求取得和平的方案。
  || ||Her formula for success should be written down and turned into a book. |她的成功秘诀应该写成书出版。
  || ||2. [C] a series of numbers or letters that represent a rule in science or mathematics |公式;方程式
  || ||The scientist was famous for developing a series of physical formulas. |这位科学家因创立一系列的物理公式而著名。
  || ||chemical formulas |化学公式
  ||<37>suspicion   |n. |1. [C, U] a feeling of not trusting sb. or sth. |猜疑;不信任
  || ||When asked whether he had told the truth, he didn't even dare to look at me, which aroused my suspicion. |当被问到是否讲了真话时,他都不敢看着我,这就引起了我的猜疑。
  || ||Lily treated everyone with suspicion, no matter how well she knows him. |丽丽对每个人都持怀疑态度,不管她有多了解他。
  || ||2. [C, U] a feeling that sb. has done sth. wrong |怀疑;疑心
  || ||On hearing that her boyfriend had been arrested under suspicion of spying, the girl was greatly astonished. |当听说自己的男朋友因涉嫌犯了间谍罪而被逮捕时,女孩惊呆了。
  || ||On suspicion of using drugs, the athlete was required to go through a drug test. |这位运动员因被怀疑使用了药物而被要求进行药检。
  ||<38>erosion |n.|[U] the process by which sth. is gradually reduced or destroyed |侵蚀;腐蚀
  || ||Soil erosion might be prevented if more trees can be planted here. |如果能在这儿种植更多的树木,就有可能预防土地受侵蚀。
  || ||The president's speech did little to prevent the erosion of people's confidence in the government. |总统的演说没能阻止人们逐渐对政府失去信心。
  ||<39>participation |n.  |[U] the act of taking part in an activity or event |参与,参加
  || ||The participation of the middle management in decision-making will do good to our company. |中间管理层参与决策将对我们公司有利。
  || ||These students were praised for their active participation in campus activities. |这些学生因积极参加校园活动而受到表扬。
  |■|<40>sprint |vi.|run at one's fastest speed, esp. at a short distance |冲刺
  || ||The racers sprinted towards the finish line. |赛跑者们冲向终点线。
  || ||I had sprinted to meet her as she got off the bus. |她下车时,我已飞奔过去迎接她。
  |★|<41>relay |n.|[C] |接力赛
  ||<42>reception |n.|1. [sing.] a welcome for sb. or sth. |接待;欢迎
  || ||The official felt somewhat surprised at the cool reception he got in his home town. |这位官员对在家乡受到的冷遇有些惊讶。
  || ||The president got an unfriendly reception during his visit to that European country. |总统在出访那个欧洲国家时受到的接待并不友好。
  || ||2. [C] a large formal party to welcome sb. or to celebrate sth. |招待会;欢迎会
  || ||They are making preparations for a reception to welcome the new mayor. |他们正在为欢迎新市长而举行的招待会做准备。
  || ||About five hundred people will be present at the wedding reception. |大概会有五百个人出席婚宴。
  ||<43>amazing |a.|causing great surprise |令人惊异的
  || ||The film is so amazing that I'd like to see it again. |这部电影太精彩了,我想再看一遍。
  || ||It's really amazing that all three of her daughters are students of Tsinghua University. |她的三个女儿都是清华大学的学生,这太令人吃惊了!
  <TITLE>Phrases and Expressions</TITLE>
  ||<44>act as|have the role or function of |作为
  |||The blind man has a nice dog acting as a reliable guide for him. |这个盲人有一条不错的狗当他可靠的向导。
  |||My dictionaries act as great helpers in my study. |我的词典是我学习中的好帮手。
  ||<45>above all|most importantly |最重要的是
  |||And above all, your room must be kept clean all the time. |最重要的是,你的房间必须一直保持整洁。
  |||We should respect people around us, above all those elderly people. |我们应该尊重身边的人,尤其是老人。
  ||<46>not hear of it|refuse to accept a suggestion or offer |不听;拒绝听取
  |||If I suggested you stop working and have a rest, I know you wouldn't hear of it. |虽然我建议你停下工作来休息一会儿,可我知道你不会那样做的。
  |||When my father asked me to spend more time preparing for the exam, I simply wouldn't hear of it. |我父亲要求我多花些时间准备考试时,我就是不愿意。
  ||<47>set one's mind on|be determined to do sth. or obtain sth. |决心做某事(或得到某物)
  |||Having set his mind on a better job, Joe began to read job advertisement in newspapers carefully. |乔伊下定决心找份更好的工作后便开始仔细阅读报上的招聘广告。
  |||If you have set your mind on a nice future for yourself, study hard from now on. |如果你决心为自己创造一个美好的未来,那就从现在开始努力学习吧。
  ||<48>set the stage for|make preparations for an event to take place |为...做好准备
  |||They have done everything to set the stage for the coming conference. |他们已经为即将召开的会议作好了一切准备。
  |||Susan is the head of the group responsible for setting the stage for the opening ceremony. |苏珊是负责为开幕式做准备工作的小组组长。
  ||<49>focus on|1. arrange the lens in an instrument so as to obtain a clear picture of sth. |聚焦于
  |||All cameras were focused on the movie star when she tripped and fell. |当那位影星绊倒时,所有的照相机都对准了她。
  |||The detective focused his telescope on his target. |侦探把望远镜对准了他的目标。
  |||2. concentrate on sth. and pay particular attention to it |集中(精力)于
  |||George was so sleepy that he couldn't focus on his work at all. |乔治太困了,根本无法集中精力工作。
  |||We will focus on some complaints made by our customers in today's meeting. |今天的会议上我们将主要讨论客户的一些投诉。
  ||<50>be used to (doing) sth.|be familiar with sth. because of having done or experienced it many times |习惯于
  |||Janet doesn't complain any more when her colleagues smoke at the office—she has simply become used to it. |同事们在办公室抽烟时,珍妮特不再抱怨了——她完全已经习惯了。
  |||Being used to working overtime, she would put some chocolate into her handbag every morning. |她习惯了加班工作,每天早上都会在包里放些巧克力。
  ||<51>hold one's breath|stop breathing for a moment because of anxiety or excitement |屏住呼吸
  |||People held their breath when the chairman was declaring which city would host the 2008 Olympics. |当主席宣布将由哪个城市主办2008年奥运会时,人们屏住了呼吸。
  |||The horror movie made us hold our breath from time to time. |恐怖片使得我们不时地屏住呼吸。
  ||<52>strip sb. of sth.|take property, rights, titles, etc. away from sb. |剥夺
  |||His wife said she would always be with him even if he were stripped of everything. |他妻子说即使他变得一无所有她也会一直和他在一起的。
  |||The athlete was stripped of the honor and banned from the Olympics for the rest of his life. |那名运动员被取消了奖牌,并终生不得参加奥运会。
  ||<53>charge sb. with sth. |say openly that sb. has done sth. wrong |指控;控诉
  |||The nice-looking girl was charged with stealing the jewels on exhibition. |这个漂亮的女孩被指控偷了展览会上的珠宝。
  |||While he was charged with murder, he asserted he was not guilty. |虽然他被指控犯了谋杀罪,他仍然宣称自己是无辜的。
  <TITLE>Proper Names</TITLE>
  ||<54>Carl Lewis | |卡尔·路易斯
  ||<55>Ben Johnson | |本·约翰逊

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