英语 英语 日语 日语 韩语 韩语 法语 法语 德语 德语 西班牙语 西班牙语 意大利语 意大利语 阿拉伯语 阿拉伯语 葡萄牙语 葡萄牙语 越南语 越南语 俄语 俄语 芬兰语 芬兰语 泰语 泰语 泰语 丹麦语 泰语 对外汉语

21世纪大学英语读写教程第二册 Unit2

时间:2006-02-21 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:yxdzgd5   字体: [ ]
特别声明:本栏目内容均从网络收集或者网友提供,供仅参考试用,我们无法保证内容完整和正确。如果资料损害了您的权益,请与站长联系,我们将及时删除并致以歉意。
    (单词翻译:双击或拖选)

UNIT 2

Text A

Pre-reading Activities
First Listening
Before listening to the tape, have a quick look at the following blanks to prepare yourself to listen for the figures.
1. As you listen to the passage the first time, fill these blanks with the words you hear:
Asians and Asian Americans make up only _____ of the US population, but they come up to ____ of the undergraduates at Harvard, _____ at MIT, ______ at Yale and _____ at Berkeley.
Second Listening
Read the following words first to prepare yourself to answer them to the best of your ability.
Talent effort money concentration ambition intelligence pressure sacrifice discrimination tradition
2. Why are these statistics "amazing"? And what do you think the explanation is?

Why They Excel

Fox Butterfield

Kim-Chi Trinh was just nine when her father used his savings2 to buy a passage for her on a fishing boat that would carry her from Vietnam. It was a heartbreaking and costly3 sacrifice for the family, placing Kim-Chi on the small boat, among strangers, in hopes that she would eventually reach the United States, where she would get a good education and enjoy a better life.
It was a hard journey for the little girl, and full of risks. Long before the boat reached safety, the supplies of food and water ran out. When Kim-Chi finally made it to the US, she had to cope with a succession of three foster families. But when she graduated from San Diego's Patrick Henry High School in 1988, she had straight A's and scholarship offers from some of the most prestigious4 universities in the country.
"I have to do well," says the 19-year-old, now a second-year student at Cornell University. "I owe it to my parents in Vietnam."
Kim-Chi is part of a wave of bright, highly - motivated Asian - Americans who are suddenly surging into our best colleges. Although Asian - Americans make up only 2.4 percent of the nation's population, they constitute 17.1 percent of the undergraduates at Harvard, 18 percent at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and 27.3 percent at the University of California at Berkeley.
Why are Asian - Americans doing so well? Are they grinds, as some stereotypes5 suggest? Do they have higher IQs? Or can we learn a lesson from them about values we have long treasured but may have misplaced — like hard work, the family and education?
Not all Asians are doing equally well; poorly - educated Cambodian refugee children, for instance, often need special help. And many Asian - Americans resent being labeled a "model minority," feeling that this is reverse discrimination by white Americans — a contrast to the laws that excluded most Asian immigrants from the US until 1965, but prejudice nevertheless.
The young Asians' achievements have led to a series of fascinating studies. Perhaps the most disturbing results come from the research carried out by a University of Michigan psychologist, Harold W. Stevenson, who has compared more than 7,000 students in kindergarten, first grade, third grade and fifth grade in Chicago and Minneapolis with counterparts in Beijing, Taipei and Sendai. On a battery of math tests, the Americans did worst at all grade levels.
Stevenson found no differences in IQ. But if the differences in performance are showing up in kindergarten, it suggests something is happening in the family, even before the children get to school.
It is here that various researchers' different studies converge7: Asian parents are motivating their children better. "The bottom line is, Asian kids work hard," Stevenson says.
The real question, then, is how Asian parents imbue8 their offspring with this kind of motivation. Stevenson's study suggests a critical answer. When asked why they think their children do well, most Asian parents said "hard work." By contrast, American parents said "talent."
"From what I can see," criticizes Stevenson, "we've lost our faith in the idea that we can all get ahead in life through hard work. Instead, Americans now believe that some kids have what it takes and some don't. So we start dividing up classes into‘fast learners’and‘slow learners’, whereas the Chinese and Japanese feel all children can succeed in the same curriculum."
This belief in hard work is the first of three main factors contributing to Asian students' outstanding performance. It springs from Asians' common heritage of Confucianism, the philosophy of the 5th-century-BC Chinese sage1 whose teachings have had a profound influence on Chinese society. One of Confucius's primary teachings is that through effort, people can perfect themselves.
Confucianism provides another important ingredient in the Asians' success as well. In Confucian philosophy, the family plays a central role — an orientation9 that leads people to work for the honor of the family, not just for themselves. One can never repay one's parents, and there's a sense of obligation or even guilt10 that is as strong a force among Asians as Protestant philosophy is in the West.
There's yet another major factor in this bond between Asian parents and their children. During the 15 years I lived in China, Japan, and Vietnam, I noticed that Asian parents establish a closer physical tie to their infants than most parents in the United States. When I let my baby daughter crawl on the floor, for example, my Chinese friends were horrified11 and rushed to pick her up. We think this constant attention is old-fashioned or even unhealthy, but for Asians, it's highly effective.
Can we learn anything from the Asians? "I'm not naive12 enough to think everything in Asia can be transplanted," says Stevenson. But he offered three recommendations.
"To start with," he says, "we need to set higher standards for our kids. We wouldn't expect them to become professional athletes without practicing hard."
Second, American parents need to become more committed to their children's education, he declares. "Being understanding when a child doesn't do well isn't enough." Stevenson found that Asian parents spend more time helping13 their children with homework or writing to their teachers than American parents do.
And, third, our schools could be reorganized in simple but effective ways, says Stevenson. Nearly 90 percent of Chinese youngsters say they actually enjoy school, and 60 percent can't wait for school vacations to end. This is a vastly more positive attitude than youngsters in The US express. One reason may be that students in China and Japan typically have a break after each class, helping them to relax and to increase their attention spans.
"I don't think Asians are any smarter," says Don Lee, an Asian-American student at Berkeley. "There are brilliant Americans in my chemistry class. But the Asian students work harder. I see a lot of wasted potential among the Americans."
(975 words)

New Words

excel
v. (at) be the beat or better others (at sth.) 胜过他人

savings
n. money saved, esp. in a bank 积蓄;存款

heartbreaking
a. which causes great sorrow 令人悲痛的,令人心碎的

costly
a. expensive, costing a lot of money 代价高昂的;昂贵的

sacrifice
n. loss or giving up of sth. of value, esp. for what is believed to be a good purpose 牺牲
vt. 牺牲

risk
n. (of) a danger;sth. that might have undesirable14 results 危险;风险
vt. place in a dangerous situation 使遭受危险;冒…的风险

cope
vi. (with) deal successfully (with a difficult situation) (妥善地)应付或处理

succession
n. a series or the act of following one after the other (前后相接的)一系列,一连串;连续

successive
a. following each other closely 接连的,连续的,相继的

*foster
a. 收养孩子的;寄养的
vt. 收养;照料

scholarship
n. 1. 奖学金
2. 学识;学术成就

owe
vt. (to) 1. have sth. (usually sth. good) because of 把…归功于
2. have to pay, for sth. already done or given 欠

owing
a. (to) still to be paid 未付的,欠着的

motivate
vt. (often pass.) 1. provide (sb.) with a (strong) need, purpose or reason for doing sth. [常被动] 激发…的积极性
2. 使有动机

*surge
vi. move, esp. forward, in or like powerful waves (如浪潮般) 汹涌;奔腾
n. (感情等的)洋溢或奔放

constitute
vt. 1. form or make up 形成;构成
2. formally establish or appoint 组建;选派

constitution
n. 1. the act of establishing, making, or setting up;constituting 制定;设立;组成
2. (often cap.) [常大写] 宪法;法规;章程

*constitutional
a. allowed or limited by a political constitution 宪法规定的;合乎宪法的

grind
n. (AmE, often derog.) a student who is always working (美)[常贬义]用功的学生,书呆子
vt. 磨;磨碎

*stereotype
n. a fixed15 pattern which is believed to represent a type of person or event 固定形式,老套

misplace
vt. 1. lose (sth.),usu. for only a limited time (暂时)丢弃
2. put in an unsuitable or wrong place 把…放错地方

refugee
n. sb. who has been forced to leave their country for political reason or during a war 难民;流亡者

*resent
vt. feel anger and dislike about sth. 对…表示愤恨

label
vt. 1. describe as belonging to a particular kind or class 把…称为;把…列为
2. 加标签于;用标签标明
n. 标签

minority
n. 1. a small part of a population which is different from others in race, religion, etc. 少数民族;少数派
2. the small number or part;less than half 少数

minor6
a. 较少的,较小的

*discrimination
n. 1. the practice of unfairly treating sb. or sth. 区别对待;歧视
2. the ability to recognize the difference between two things 识别力;辨别力

reverse discrimination
the making of distinctions in favour of groups considered disadvantaged or underprivileged 逆向歧视,反其道而行之的歧视

*discriminate
v. 1. (against, in favor of) unfairly treat one person or group worse or better than others 有差别地对待
2. see or make a difference between things or people 区别,辨别,区分

contrast
n. (to, with) a strong difference between two people, objects or situations 对比;对照
v. examine (two things) in order to find or show differences 对比;对照

exclude
vt. keep out from a place or an activity 阻止…进入;把…排斥在外

exclusion16
n. the act of excluding or fact of being excluded 拒绝;排斥

exclusive
a. (of) not taking into account;without;excluding 不算;不包括;把…排斥在外

exclusively
ad. only;and nothing/no one else 排斥其他地;专有地;单独地

immigrant
n. a person who has come to live in a country from abroad 移民;侨民

prejudice
n. unfair and usually unfavorable feeling or opinion about a group—e.g.a nationality or race 歧视;偏见;成见

series
n. 1. (of) a set or group of things of the same kind or related in some way, coming one after another or in order 系列;连接
2. 丛书;广播(或电视)系列节目

fascinating
a. having great attraction or charm 吸引人的;迷人的

*fascinate
vt. (with) charm powerfully;be very interesting to 强烈地吸引;迷住

disturbing
a. causing worry or fright 令人不安的;令人烦恼的

disturb
vt. 1. break the peace or order of 扰乱;打扰
2. cause to become anxious or upset 使心神不安;使烦恼

*disturbance
n. 1. an act of disturbing or the state of being disturbed 打扰;扰乱
2. sth. that disturbs 造成干扰的事物

kindergarten
n. a school or class for young children, usu. between the ages of four and six 幼儿园

*counterpart
n. a person or thing that has the same purpose or does the same job as another in a different system 对应的人(或物);对手(方)

battery
n. 1. (of) a set or number of things of the same kind occurring in rapid succession 一组;一系列
2. 电池(组)

*converge
vi. (of two or more things) come together towards the same point (在一点上)会合;集中

the bottom line
the basic point 基本要点

imbue
v. (with)(usu. pass.) to fill with (sth., often a strong feeling or opinion) [常被动]灌输(某种强烈的情感或意见)

*offspring
n. a child or children from particular parents 子女;后代

critical
a. 1. providing a careful judgment17 of the good and bad qualities of sth. 判断(或评价)审慎的
2. 批判的
3. 关键的

criticize (-cise)
v. 1. make judgments18 about the good or bad points of 评论
2. judge with disapproval19;point out the faults of 批评;指责

criticism
n. unfavorable judgment or expression of disapproval 批评;指责

curriculum
n. the program of study offered in a school, college, etc. 课程,大纲

factor
n. any of the facts, conditions, influences, etc. that act with others to bring about a result 因素,要素

outstanding
a. 1. better than others, very good 杰出的;优秀的
2. easily seen, important 显要的;重要的

*heritage
n. a tradition, custom, or quality which is passed down over many years within a family, social group, or nation and which is thought of as belonging to all its members 继承物,遗产;传统

philosophy
n. 哲学

sage
n. sb., esp. an old man or historical person, known for his wisdom and long experience 圣贤;哲人

primary
a. 1. chief, main 主要的
2. earliest in time or order of development 最初的

ingredient
n. 1. one of the essential parts of a situation 因素;要素
2. 成分

central
a. 1. chief, main, of greatest importance 主要的,最重要的
2. being (at, in, or near) the center (位居)中心的

*orientation
n. a direction or position 取向;方位;定位

*repay
vt. reward;pay back 偿还;回报

obligation
n. sth. that one must do out of a duty or promise 义务;责任

guilt
n. 1. the feelings produced by knowledge or belief that one has done wrong 内疚
2. the fact of having broken a moral rule or official law 罪(行)

bond
n. 1. sth. that unites two or more people, or groups, such as a shared feeling or interest 联结;联系
2. 公债,债券
3. 合约

crawl
vi. & n. 爬(行)

horrify20
vt. shock greatly;fill with horror 吓;使感惊骇

unhealthy
a. 1. likely to cause illness or poor health 有碍健康的
2. not very strong or well, often ill 体弱多病的,不结实的,不健康的

*naivea. 1. too willing to believe or trust 轻信的
2. without experience (as of social rules or behaviour), esp. because one is young 幼稚的;天真的

*transplant
vt. move sth. from one place and plant, settle or establish elsewhere 移植;移居

recommendation
n. 1. suggestion, piece of advice 建议
2. 推荐信

vacation
n. (esp. AmE) holiday 假期;休假

vastly
ad. 1. very greatly 非常大地
2. 广阔地

vast
a. 1. very large and wide 广阔的;广大的
2. great in amount 大量的

positive
a. 1. (of people) sure, having no doubt about sth. 无疑问的;确定的
2. certain, beyond any doubt 肯定的
3. (of a statement) direct 正面的

span
n. 1. the length of time over which a stated thing continues or works well 持续时间
2. 跨度;跨距

attention span
a length of time over which one can concentrate 注意力的持续时间

Phrases and Expressions

make it (to) (a place)
succeed in getting (to) (a place) 成功抵达某地

owe to
have (sth. good) because of 把…归功于…

imbue with
(use. pass.) fill (sb), with (sth.), esp. a strong feeling or opinion [常被动] 向…灌输…

by contrast
very differently (from sth. previously21 mentioned);on the other hand 对比之下

get ahead
be successful in one's career 获得成功;出头

have what it takes
(infml.) have the qualifications necessary for success 具备取得成功的必要条件

spring from
be a product or result of;originate from 发源于;来自

can't wait (for sth.)
be excited about and eager (for sth.) 迫不及待,等不及

Proper Names

Fox Butterfield
富克斯·巴特菲尔德

Trinh Kim-Chi
郑金枝(越南人名)

Vietnam
n. 越南

San Diego
圣地亚哥(美国港市,位于加利福尼亚州南部)

Patrick Henry High School
帕特里克·亨利中学

Cornell University
康奈尔大学(美国纽约州一大学)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
(美国)马萨诸塞州理工学院(或译麻省理工学院)

IQ
intelligence quotient 智商

Cambodian
a. 柬埔寨的

University of Michigan
(美国)密歇根大学

Harold W. Stevenson
哈罗德·W·斯蒂文森

Minneapolis
明尼阿波利斯 (美国明尼苏达州东南部城市)

Taipei
台北(台湾省)

Sendai
仙台(日本本州岛东北岸港市)

Confucianism
n. 孔子学说,儒学

Confucius
孔子

Confucian
n. & a. 孔子(的);儒学(的);孔子信徒;儒士

Protestant
n. & a. 新教徒;新教(教徒)的

Lee Don
李·唐


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 sage sCUz2     
n.圣人,哲人;adj.贤明的,明智的
参考例句:
  • I was grateful for the old man's sage advice.我很感激那位老人贤明的忠告。
  • The sage is the instructor of a hundred ages.这位哲人是百代之师。
2 savings ZjbzGu     
n.存款,储蓄
参考例句:
  • I can't afford the vacation,for it would eat up my savings.我度不起假,那样会把我的积蓄用光的。
  • By this time he had used up all his savings.到这时,他的存款已全部用完。
3 costly 7zXxh     
adj.昂贵的,价值高的,豪华的
参考例句:
  • It must be very costly to keep up a house like this.维修这么一幢房子一定很昂贵。
  • This dictionary is very useful,only it is a bit costly.这本词典很有用,左不过贵了些。
4 prestigious nQ2xn     
adj.有威望的,有声望的,受尊敬的
参考例句:
  • The young man graduated from a prestigious university.这个年轻人毕业于一所名牌大学。
  • You may even join a prestigious magazine as a contributing editor.甚至可能会加入一个知名杂志做编辑。
5 stereotypes 1ff39410e7d7a101c62ac42c17e0df24     
n.老套,模式化的见解,有老一套固定想法的人( stereotype的名词复数 )v.把…模式化,使成陈规( stereotype的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  • Such jokes tend to reinforce racial stereotypes. 这样的笑话容易渲染种族偏见。
  • It makes me sick to read over such stereotypes devoid of content. 这种空洞无物的八股调,我看了就讨厌。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
6 minor e7fzR     
adj.较小(少)的,较次要的;n.辅修学科;vi.辅修
参考例句:
  • The young actor was given a minor part in the new play.年轻的男演员在这出新戏里被分派担任一个小角色。
  • I gave him a minor share of my wealth.我把小部分财产给了他。
7 converge 6oozx     
vi.会合;聚集,集中;(思想、观点等)趋近
参考例句:
  • The results converge towards this truth.其结果趋近于这个真理。
  • Parallel lines converge at infinity.平行线永不相交。
8 imbue 1cIz4     
v.灌输(某种强烈的情感或意见),感染
参考例句:
  • He managed to imbue his employees with team spirit.他成功激发起雇员的团队精神。
  • Kass is trying to imbue physics into simulated worlds.凯斯想要尝试的就是把物理学引入模拟世界。
9 orientation IJ4xo     
n.方向,目标;熟悉,适应,情况介绍
参考例句:
  • Children need some orientation when they go to school.小孩子上学时需要适应。
  • The traveller found his orientation with the aid of a good map.旅行者借助一幅好地图得知自己的方向。
10 guilt 9e6xr     
n.犯罪;内疚;过失,罪责
参考例句:
  • She tried to cover up her guilt by lying.她企图用谎言掩饰自己的罪行。
  • Don't lay a guilt trip on your child about schoolwork.别因为功课责备孩子而使他觉得很内疚。
11 horrified 8rUzZU     
a.(表现出)恐惧的
参考例句:
  • The whole country was horrified by the killings. 全国都对这些凶杀案感到大为震惊。
  • We were horrified at the conditions prevailing in local prisons. 地方监狱的普遍状况让我们震惊。
12 naive yFVxO     
adj.幼稚的,轻信的;天真的
参考例句:
  • It's naive of you to believe he'll do what he says.相信他会言行一致,你未免太单纯了。
  • Don't be naive.The matter is not so simple.你别傻乎乎的。事情没有那么简单。
13 helping 2rGzDc     
n.食物的一份&adj.帮助人的,辅助的
参考例句:
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
14 undesirable zp0yb     
adj.不受欢迎的,不良的,不合意的,讨厌的;n.不受欢迎的人,不良分子
参考例句:
  • They are the undesirable elements among the employees.他们是雇员中的不良分子。
  • Certain chemicals can induce undesirable changes in the nervous system.有些化学物质能在神经系统中引起不良变化。
15 fixed JsKzzj     
adj.固定的,不变的,准备好的;(计算机)固定的
参考例句:
  • Have you two fixed on a date for the wedding yet?你们俩选定婚期了吗?
  • Once the aim is fixed,we should not change it arbitrarily.目标一旦确定,我们就不应该随意改变。
16 exclusion 1hCzz     
n.拒绝,排除,排斥,远足,远途旅行
参考例句:
  • Don't revise a few topics to the exclusion of all others.不要修改少数论题以致排除所有其他的。
  • He plays golf to the exclusion of all other sports.他专打高尔夫球,其他运动一概不参加。
17 judgment e3xxC     
n.审判;判断力,识别力,看法,意见
参考例句:
  • The chairman flatters himself on his judgment of people.主席自认为他审视人比别人高明。
  • He's a man of excellent judgment.他眼力过人。
18 judgments 2a483d435ecb48acb69a6f4c4dd1a836     
判断( judgment的名词复数 ); 鉴定; 评价; 审判
参考例句:
  • A peculiar austerity marked his judgments of modern life. 他对现代生活的批评带着一种特殊的苛刻。
  • He is swift with his judgments. 他判断迅速。
19 disapproval VuTx4     
n.反对,不赞成
参考例句:
  • The teacher made an outward show of disapproval.老师表面上表示不同意。
  • They shouted their disapproval.他们喊叫表示反对。
20 horrify sc5x3     
vt.使恐怖,使恐惧,使惊骇
参考例句:
  • His family were horrified by the change.他的家人对这一变化感到震惊。
  • When I saw these figures I was horrified.我看到这些数字时无比惊骇。
21 previously bkzzzC     
adv.以前,先前(地)
参考例句:
  • The bicycle tyre blew out at a previously damaged point.自行车胎在以前损坏过的地方又爆开了。
  • Let me digress for a moment and explain what had happened previously.让我岔开一会儿,解释原先发生了什么。
本文本内容来源于互联网抓取和网友提交,仅供参考,部分栏目没有内容,如果您有更合适的内容,欢迎点击提交分享给大家。
------分隔线----------------------------
TAG标签:   大学英语  读写教程  第二册  unit
顶一下
(23)
92%
踩一下
(2)
8%
最新评论 查看所有评论
发表评论 查看所有评论
请自觉遵守互联网相关的政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
验证码:
听力搜索
推荐频道
论坛新贴