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21世纪大学英语读写教程第二册 Unit3

时间:2006-02-21 16:00来源:互联网 提供网友:yxdzgd5   字体: [ ]
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UNIT 3

Text A

Pre-reading Activities
First Listening
1. As you listen to the tape the first time, fill in the missing parts in the blanks.
A) Jack1 is interested in a job as an ________ manager located in _______.
B) His qualifications include _______ years of experience knowing how to use ________.
C) He believes that people are _______ everywhere.

Second Listening
2. What is the disagreement about? Whose opinion do you agree more with? Why?

The Tale of a Cultural Translator

Joint2 ventures involving Western and Japanese companies often run into conflicts — a multitude of little things that escalate3 into big emotional battles in which all the parties keep exclaiming: "What's wrong with them!? Can they understand that ...?!" But because the conflicts are mainly due to cultural differences, neither side can understand—unless they have a "cultural translator".
The first cultural translator I ever met was an installation engineer, George by name, who worked for an American company where I was the director of international operations. The company had just started a joint venture with a Japanese firm, and the American management needed someone to train the Japanese employees in its unique technology. George's solid understanding of the equipment, its installation and use made him the best-qualified4 employee for the job, so everyone was happy when George accepted a two-year contract for temporary transfer to Japan.
From the start, George was well accepted by all the Japanese employees. Japanese managers often distrust anyone sent to represent US owners, but George was so naturally nonassertive that no one could see him as a threat to their careers. So they felt comfortable asking his advice on a wide range of matters, including the odd behavior of their partners across the ocean. Engineers throughout the company appreciated George's expertise5 and his friendly and capable help, and they got into the habit of turning to him whenever they had a problem — any problem. And the secretaries in the office were eager to help this nice bachelor learn Japanese.
Sooner than anyone expected, the company became a profitable, thriving and growing venture. George's first two-year contract came to an end. By then, he could speak good Japanese, and had picked up Japanese habits. He drank green tea at all hours, ate rice at every meal and had even learned to sit properly on Japanese tatami mats. So when George was offered a second two-year Japanese contract, he accepted at once. Another contract followed, and George's love affair with Japanese culture continued.
But as George's sixth year in the country was coming to an end, an unexpected difficulty became apparent: The Japanese engineers had surpassed George in their knowledge of the rapidly - changing technology. He had nothing left to teach them.
Was this the end for poor George? Was there nothing more he could offer to the now-mature joint venture he had served so loyally? Would he have to leave the country he had come to love? No! Faced with the threat of an unwilling6 departure from Japan, George reinvented himself as a "cultural translator".
The idea came to George one day when the Japanese joint-venture president was — again — offended by a message from the American management. As usual in such situations, he stormed into George's office and threw the message in front of him in a fury. And George, as usual, read the message and explained in his calm manner what the Americans had really meant by it, not what it sounded like in the context of Japanese culture.
Fortunately for everyone, both the Japanese and American sides of the joint venture had heard enough horror stories about cultural conflicts to recognize the value of George's skills, so when he proposed this new position for himself, the idea was quickly approved. The wisdom of this decision was proved again and again over the years.
At times something far more important than good English was needed. One such case was when the Japanese accountant had to explain the $46,534 spent on 874 December-holiday presents. Or there was the time when the Japanese personnel manager had to justify7 keeping a chemist on the payroll8 even though the company no longer needed his expertise. In cases like these, everyone turned to George.
Somehow or other, he made their messages sound at least halfway9 sensible to Americans. And when there was something that even George couldn't "translate" into American - style sense, he would write, "This will sound crazy, but you should go along with it anyway."
It worked the other way around, too. When the American managers visited Japan, George accompanied us everywhere to ensure that we didn't do or say anything too stupid from the Japanese viewpoint. Whenever we did that anyway, he came to the rescue at once: "What they really mean is...." Whole multitudes of difficulties never arose thanks to George's skill at smoothing over small conflicts before they became big, emotional and costly10.
Since leaving that company in George's capable hands, I've advised many firms on international operations. And my first recommendation is always the same: Don't worry about language problems — the first thing you need is a cultural translator.
(776 words)

New Words

joint
a. shared, held or done by two or more people 共享的;共有的;共同做的

joint venture
n. 合资企业

conflict
n. 1. a state of serious disagreement or argument about sth. important 抵触;争论
2. war or battle; struggle 战争;战斗;冲突
vi. (with) 冲突;抵触

*multitude
n. a large number of 大批;大量

*escalate
v. make or become greater or more serious (使)逐步升级;(使)逐步加剧

emotional
a. 1. having or causing strong feelings (令人)情绪激动的
2. concerned with emotions and feelings 感情(上)的;情绪(上)的

party
n. a person or group of people involved in an argument, agreement, or other activity, esp. a legal matter (条约、诉讼、争论等中的)一方,当事人

exclaim
v. speak or say loudly and suddenly, because of surprise or other strong feelings (由于惊讶、痛苦、愤怒、高兴等而)叫嚷,叫喊

installation
n. 1. 安装;设置
2. 装置;设备

management
n. 1. the people who control and organize a business or other organization 管理层;管理部门
2. 管理;经营

equipment
n. the set of things needed for a particular activity 设备;装备

qualified
a. having suitable knowledge or qualifications, esp. for a job 胜任的;合格的

qualify
v. (cause to) gain a certain level of knowledge, ability, or performance, or a qualification(使)取得资格

contract
n. a formal written agreement, having the force of law, between two or more people or groups 合同,契约
v. l. 订(约);承包
2. 收缩,缩小

distrust
v. lack trust in; mistrust 不信任;怀疑
n. lack of trust; mistrust 不信任;怀疑

represent
vt. 1. act or speak officially for (another person or group of people) 代表
2. 象征;体现

naturally
ad. 1. in a manner to be expected, as a natural result 可预期地,自然地
2. according to the nature of sb. or sth. 天生地;天然地

nonassertive
a. not expressing or tending to express strong opinions or claims 谦虚的;不武断的

behavio(u)r
n. manner of acting11 行为;举止

partner
n. a person who shares (in the same activity) 合伙人;合作者;伙伴

*expertise
n. special skill or knowledge in a particular field 专门知识(或技能、意见等),专长

*bachelor
n. an unmarried man 未婚男子;单身汉

*profitable
a. producing or resulting in profit or advantage 有利(可图)的,有赢利的;有益的

thrive
vi. develop well and be healthy, strong, or successful 繁荣;茁壮成长

properly
ad. 1. suitably, correctly, sensibly 适当地;正确地
2. really, actually, exactly 真正地

tatami
n. (日)榻榻米(指日本人铺在房内地板上的稻草垫)

mat
n. 1. a small piece of carpet or other thick material which is put on the floor for protection, decoration, or comfort 地席;席子
2. 垫子

apparent
a. 1. (to) clearly seen or understood 显然的,明明白白的
2. seeming; according to appearance 表面上的

*surpass
vt. exceed; go beyond in amount, quality, or degree 超过;超越

loyally
ad. faithfully 忠诚地,忠实地

loyal
a. faithful 忠诚的,忠实的

departure
n. 1. the act of leaving a place 离开;启程
2. turning away from what is planned or what is usually done 背离;违反

context
n. 1. the general conditions in which sth. takes place 背景;环境
2. what comes before and after a word or sentence which helps to fix the meaning 上下文

horror
a. (of a story or film) intended to be very frightening (文学作品、电影等)意在引起恐怖的
n. a strong feeling caused by sth. extremely unpleasant 恐惧;震惊

propose
vt. 1. suggest; put forward for consideration 建议;提出
2. (as, to be) put forward to be voted on 提名,推荐

approve
r. (of) agree (officially) to 同意,批准

accountant
n. 会计师

personnel
n. 1.the department in an organization that deals with employees, keeps their records, and helps with any problems they might have 人事部门
2. [总称]职员

justify
vt. give a good reason for 证明…正当(或有理)

*justification
n. a good or proper reason for doing sth. 正当的理由;辩解的理由

payroll
n. a list of workers employed by a company and the amount of wages each person is to be paid 工资表;在职人员名单

sensible
a. 1. reasonable;having or showing good sense 合情合理的;明白事理的
2. (of) knowing;aware 知道的;意识到的

crazy
a. 1. (infml.) foolish or strange 愚蠢的;古怪的
2. (infml.) wildly excited; very keen or interested 着迷的;热衷的

accompany
vt. 1. go with, esp. on a journey 陪同;陪伴
2. (fml.) appear or exist at the same time or in the same place as 和…一起发生(存在)

ensure
vt. (esp. BrE) make (sth.) certain to happen 保证,担保

viewpoint
n. point of view; a particular way of considering or judging a situation, person, event, etc. 观点;看法

    Phrases and Expressions

run into
unexpectedly begin to experience; meet by chance 意外遇到;偶然遇到

a multitude of/multitudes of
a very large number of 许多,众多

due to
because of; caused by 由于,因为

by name
with the name of 名叫

get into the habit of
develop a regular way of doing (sth.) 养成…的习惯

come to an end
(of sth. which goes on for a while) finish, stop 结束;终了

pick up
acquire without effort 获得;学会

be faced with
be confronted with 面临着(某种情况)

at times
sometimes; once in a while 有时;间或

keep sb. on the payroll
keep sb. employed 使某人留任

somehow or other
in one way or another 以某种方式

go along with
agree with; accept; support 同意;接受;支持

the other way around
in the opposite way 相反地;倒过来;以相反方式

thanks to
owing to, because of 幸亏;由于;因为

smooth over
make (problems or difficulties) seem less serious and easier to deal with 缓和;减轻

leave in sb.'s hands
give sb. the responsibility for dealing12 with sth. 把…交某人管理


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 jack 53Hxp     
n.插座,千斤顶,男人;v.抬起,提醒,扛举;n.(Jake)杰克
参考例句:
  • I am looking for the headphone jack.我正在找寻头戴式耳机插孔。
  • He lifted the car with a jack to change the flat tyre.他用千斤顶把车顶起来换下瘪轮胎。
2 joint m3lx4     
adj.联合的,共同的;n.关节,接合处;v.连接,贴合
参考例句:
  • I had a bad fall,which put my shoulder out of joint.我重重地摔了一跤,肩膀脫臼了。
  • We wrote a letter in joint names.我们联名写了封信。
3 escalate biszi     
v.(使)逐步增长(或发展),(使)逐步升级
参考例句:
  • It would tempt Israel's neighbors to escalate their demands.它将诱使以色列的邻国不断把他们的要求升级。
  • Defeat could cause one side or other to escalate the conflict.失败可能会导致其中一方将冲突升级。
4 qualified DCPyj     
adj.合格的,有资格的,胜任的,有限制的
参考例句:
  • He is qualified as a complete man of letters.他有资格当真正的文学家。
  • We must note that we still lack qualified specialists.我们必须看到我们还缺乏有资质的专家。
5 expertise fmTx0     
n.专门知识(或技能等),专长
参考例句:
  • We were amazed at his expertise on the ski slopes.他斜坡滑雪的技能使我们赞叹不已。
  • You really have the technical expertise in a new breakthrough.让你真正在专业技术上有一个全新的突破。
6 unwilling CjpwB     
adj.不情愿的
参考例句:
  • The natives were unwilling to be bent by colonial power.土著居民不愿受殖民势力的摆布。
  • His tightfisted employer was unwilling to give him a raise.他那吝啬的雇主不肯给他加薪。
7 justify j3DxR     
vt.证明…正当(或有理),为…辩护
参考例句:
  • He tried to justify his absence with lame excuses.他想用站不住脚的借口为自己的缺席辩解。
  • Can you justify your rude behavior to me?你能向我证明你的粗野行为是有道理的吗?
8 payroll YmQzUB     
n.工资表,在职人员名单,工薪总额
参考例句:
  • His yearly payroll is $1.2 million.他的年薪是120万美元。
  • I can't wait to get my payroll check.我真等不及拿到我的工资单了。
9 halfway Xrvzdq     
adj.中途的,不彻底的,部分的;adv.半路地,在中途,在半途
参考例句:
  • We had got only halfway when it began to get dark.走到半路,天就黑了。
  • In study the worst danger is give up halfway.在学习上,最忌讳的是有始无终。
10 costly 7zXxh     
adj.昂贵的,价值高的,豪华的
参考例句:
  • It must be very costly to keep up a house like this.维修这么一幢房子一定很昂贵。
  • This dictionary is very useful,only it is a bit costly.这本词典很有用,左不过贵了些。
11 acting czRzoc     
n.演戏,行为,假装;adj.代理的,临时的,演出用的
参考例句:
  • Ignore her,she's just acting.别理她,她只是假装的。
  • During the seventies,her acting career was in eclipse.在七十年代,她的表演生涯黯然失色。
12 dealing NvjzWP     
n.经商方法,待人态度
参考例句:
  • This store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing.该商店因买卖公道而享有极高的声誉。
  • His fair dealing earned our confidence.他的诚实的行为获得我们的信任。
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TAG标签:   大学英语  读写教程  第二册  unit
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