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21世纪大学英语读写教程第二册 Unit4

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UNIT 4

Text A

Pre-reading Activities
First Listening
1. As you listen the first time, tick the questions that are answered in the listening passage. Don't worry about answering the questions yet - just identify which questions are answered.
1) What problem is Eddie having in school?
2) How many examples does the teacher give?
3) Does Eddie's mother understand the teacher's viewpoint?
4) Does Eddie agree with his teacher?
5) What does the teacher think Eddie's parents should do?

Second Listening
2. Provide very brief answers to the questions above after the second listening.
3. Now a question for discussion: What do you think of the teacher's ideas?

Turning failure into Success Fredelle Maynard

Vicky — beautiful, talented, very bright, voted "Most Likely to Succeed" in college — got a promising1 job with a large company after graduation. Then, after two years without promotions3, she was fired. She suffered a complete nervous breakdown4. "It was panic," she told me later. "Everything had always gone so well for me that I had no experience in coping with rejection5. I felt I was a failure." Vicky's reaction is an extreme example of a common phenomenon.
Our society places so much emphasis on "making it" that we assume that any failure is bad. What we don't always recognize is that what looks like failure may, in the long run, prove beneficial. When Vicky was able to think coolly about why she was fired, for example, she realized that she was simply not suited for a job dealing6 with people all the time. In her new position as a copy editor, she works independently, is happy and once again "successful."
People are generally prone7 to what language expert S. I. Hayakawa calls "the two-valued orientation8." We talk about seeing both sides of a question as if every question had only two sides. We assume that everyone is either a success or a failure when, in fact, infinite degrees of both are possible. As Hayakawa points out, there's a world of difference between "I have failed three times" and "I am a failure." Indeed, the words failure and success cannot be reasonably applied9 to a complex, living, changing human being. They can only describe the situation at a particular time and place.
Obviously no one can be brilliant at everything. In fact, success in one area often precludes10 success in another. A famous politician once told me that his career had practically destroyed his marriage. "I have no time for my family," he explained. "I travel a lot. And even when I'm home, I hardly see my wife and kids. I've got power, money, prestige — but as a husband and father, I'm a flop11."
Certain kinds of success can indeed be destructive. The danger of too early success is particularly acute. I recall from my childhood a girl whose skill on ice skates marked her as "Olympic material." While the rest of us were playing, bicycling, reading and just loafing, this girl skated — every day after school and all weekend. Her picture often appeared in the papers, and the rest of us envied her glamorous12 life. Years later, however, she spoke13 bitterly of those early triumphs. "I never prepared myself for anything but the ice," she said. "I peaked at 17 — and it's been downhill ever since."
Success that comes too easily is also damaging. The child who wins a prize for a carelessly - written essay, the adult who distinguishes himself at a first job by lucky accident faces probable disappointment when real challenges arise.
Success is also bad when it's achieved at the cost of the total quality of an experience. Successful students sometimes become so obsessed14 with grades that they never enjoy their school years. They never branch out into tempting15 new areas, because they don't want to risk their grade - point average.
Why are so many people so afraid of failure? Simply because no one tells us how to fail so that failure becomes a growing experience. We forget that failure is part of the human condition and that "every person has the right to fail."
Most parents work hard at either preventing failure or shielding their children from the knowledge that they have failed. One way is to lower standards. A mother describes her child's hastily made table as "perfect!" even though it's clumsy and unsteady. Another way is to shift blame. If John fails math, his teacher is unfair or stupid.
The trouble with failure - prevention devices is that they leave a child unequipped for life in the real world. The young need to learn that no one can be best at everything, no one can win all the time — and that it's possible to enjoy a game even when you don't win. A child who's not invited to a birthday party, who doesn't make the honor roll or the baseball team feels terrible, of course. But parents should not offer a quick consolation16 prize or say, "It doesn't matter," because it does. The youngster should be allowed to experience disappointment — and then be helped to master it.
Failure is never pleasant. It hurts adults and children alike. But it can make a positive contribution to your life once you learn to use it. Step one is to ask, "Why did I fail?" Resist the natural impulse to blame someone else. Ask yourself what you did wrong, how you can improve. If someone else can help, don't be shy about inquiring.
When I was a teenager and failed to get a job I'd counted on, I telephoned the interviewer to ask why. "Because you came ten minutes late," I was told. "We can't afford employees who waste other people's time." The explanation was reassuring17 (I hadn't been rejected as a person) and helpful, too. I don't think I've been late for anything since.
Success, which encourages repetition of old behavior, is not nearly as good a teacher as failure. You can learn from a disastrous18 party how to give a good one, from an ill-chosen first house what to look for in a second. Even a failure that seems total can prompt fresh thinking, a change of direction.
A friend of mine, after 12 years of studying ballet, did not succeed in becoming a dancer. She was turned down by the ballet master, who said, "You will never be a dancer. You haven't the body for it." In such cases, the way to use failure is to take stock courageously19, asking, "What have I left? What else can I do?" My friend put away her toe shoes and moved into dance therapy, a field where she's both competent and useful.
Though we may envy the assurance that comes with success, most of us are attracted by courage in defeat. There is what might be called the noble failure — the special heroism20 of aiming high, doing your best and then, when that proves not enough, moving bravely on. As Ralph Waldo Emerson said: "A man's success is made up of failures, because he experiments and ventures every day, and the more falls he gets, moves faster on....I have heard that in horsemanship — a man will never be a good rider until he is thrown; then he will not be haunted any longer by the terror that he shall tumble, and will ride whither he is bound."
(1108 words)

New Words

vote
vt. 1. choose (sb.) to have (a particular title); elect 推选
2. 投票选举(或制定、决定、赞成、支持、通过)
vi. (for, against, on) express one's choice officially at a meeting or in an election 投票;选举;表决
n. 选举;投票;选票

*promising
a. likely to be very good or successful 有前途的;有希望的

promotion2
n. 1. advancement21 in rank or position 提升,晋级
2. attempt to make a product or an event popular or successful, esp. by advertising22 促销;宣传

*breakdown
n. 1. physical, mental, or nervous collapse23 崩溃;衰竭
2. (关系、计划或讨论等的)中断

nervous breakdown
an unnatural24 condition of deep worrying, anxiety, weeping or tiredness 精神崩溃

rejection
n. the act of rejecting or being rejected (遭到)拒绝;摒弃

reaction
n. response or change caused by the action of another 反应;感应

extreme
a. 1. greatest possible; of the highest degree 极端的;极度的;最大的
2. furthest possible; at the very beginning or end 末端的;尽头的
n. 极端;极度(状态)

emphasis
n. (on, upon) special force or attention given to sth. to show that it is particularly important 强调;重点;重要性

beneficial
a. producing favourable25 effects or useful results 有益的;有帮助的

editor
n. 1. a person who checks and corrects texts before they are published 校订者;(文字)编辑
2. 编辑;主编

editorial
a. of or done by an editor 编辑的,编者的

edit
v. 1. prepare for printing, broadcasting, etc., by deciding what shall be included or left out, putting right mistakes, etc. (为出版、广播等而)编辑,编选;剪辑
2. be the editor of 主编;充任(报纸等的)编辑

edition
n. a particular version of a book, magazine, or newspaper that is printed at one time 版本

*prone
a. (to) habitually26 likely to do sth. (usu. undesirable) 有…倾向的,易于…的

apply
vt. (to) bring or put into use or operation 应用;实施
vi. (to, for) request sth., esp. officially and in writing (尤指以书面形式)申请;请求

complex
a. 1. difficult to understand, explain, or deal with; not clear or simple 错综复杂的
2. (词或句子)复合的,复杂的
n. a system consisting of a large number of closely related parts 综合体;复合体;群落

*preclude
vt. (fml.) (from) make impossible; prevent 妨碍,阻止;排除;防止

practically
ad. 1. (infml.) very nearly; almost 几乎,差不多
2. in a practical way 实际上;从实际角度

*prestige
n. general respect or admiration27 felt in men's mind for sb. or sth. by reason of having, or being connected with, rank, proved high quality 声望;威望;威信

flop
n. (infml.) a failure 失败(者)
vi. move or fall heavily or awkwardly 笨重地行动;沉重地落下

*destructive
a. causing or be capable of causing great damage, harm or injury 破坏(性)的

acute
a. 1. severe, strong, deep 剧烈的,激烈的;深切的
2. (of the mind or the senses) able to notice small differences; working very well; sharp(思想或感官)敏锐的;灵敏的;尖锐的
3. 尖的,锐的;成锐角的

loaf
vi. (infml.) stand or wait in a place without doing anything interesting or useful 游荡,闲逛
n. bread, usu. fairly large, in a shape that can be cut into slices (一个)面包

*glamo(u)rous
a. having the quality of being more attractive, exciting, or interesting than ordinary people or things 富有魅力的;令人向往的

*glamo(u)r
n. the exciting and charming quality of sth. unusual or special, with a magical power of attraction 魅力;迷人的力量

peak
vi. reach the highest value, level, point, etc. 达到顶峰;达到最大值
n. (山)峰;顶峰;尖顶

downhill
a. & ad. 1. (becoming) worse or less successful 走下坡路的(地)
2. (going) towards the bottom of a hill 向坡下(的):向下(的)

damage
n. harm; loss 损害;损失
vt. cause damage to 损害;损坏;毁坏

distinguish
vt. 1. (~oneself) behave or perform noticeably well 使出众
2. recognize 辨别;区分

probable
a. likely 很可能发生的

*obsess
vt. (usu. pass.) completely fill the mind of (sb.) so that no attention is given to other matters [常被动]使着迷

grade-point average, GPA
(美)(学生各科成绩的)平均积分点

shield
vt. (from) protect or hide from harm or danger 保护;庇护
n. 盾,盾牌

hastily
ad. too quickly 匆忙地;草率地;性急地

haste
n. quick movement or action 急忙,匆忙

device
n. 1. a method of achieving sth. 策略;手段
2. an object that has been invented for a particular purpose 装置;设备

unequipped
a. not equipped with the necessities 未配备所需物品的;无准备的

honor roll
(美)光荣榜(指优秀学生名单、当地服兵役公民名单等)

consolation
n. comfort during a time of sadness or disappointment 安慰;慰问

consolation prize
a prize given to sb. who has not won the competition 安慰奖

alike
ad. in (almost) the same way; equally 同样地;相似地;以同样程度
a. similar in appearance, quality, character, etc. 想像的,同样的

*impulse
n. 1. a sudden desire to do sth. (一时的)冲动
2. 冲力;脉冲;神经冲动

inquire, enquire28
v. ask For information 询问;查问

inquiry29, enquiry
n. (into, about) an act of inquiring 询问;查问

afford
vt. 1. be able to buy 买得起
2. be able to do, spend, give, bear, etc., without serious loss or damage 担负得起(损失、费用、后果等)

repetition
n. the act of repeating, or sth. repeated 重复;反复

ill-chosen
a. not well chosen 选择不恰当的

ill
ad. 1. not well. not enough 不恰当地;拙劣地
2. unfavourably; badly, unpleasantly or cruelly 不利地;恶劣地;冷酷无情地
3. hardly 几乎不;困难地

prompt
vt. cause or urge; encourage or help sb. to continue 促使;推动;激励
a. done without any delay; not late 迅速的;及时的

*ballet
n. 芭蕾舞(剧)

*stock
n. 1. a supply(of sth.)for use 库存物;储备物
2. the thick part of a tree trunk 树桩;树干
v. (up) keep supplies of; store 备货;储备

courageously
ad. bravely; in a way showing courage 英勇地,无畏地

toe
n. 脚趾;足尖

toe shoe
芭蕾舞鞋

therapy
n. the treatment of mental or physical illness (心理或生理)疗法,治疗

heroism
n. the quality of being a hero; great courage 大无畏精神;英勇

horsemanship
n. the practice or skill of horse-riding 马术;骑术

*haunt
vt. (often pass.) be always in the thoughts of (sb.); visit regularly [常被动](思想、回忆等)萦绕;缠扰;常去

terror
n. (sb. or sth. that causes) extreme fear 恐怖;引起恐怖的人(或物)

tumble
vi. (down) fall suddenly or helplessly; collapse 摔下;跌倒;倒塌,坍塌

whither
conj. & ad. (archaic) (to) where 〈古体〉(无论)去哪里

bound
a. 1. (for, to) going to or intending to go to 准备到…去的
2. very likely; certain 一定的;注定的

Phrases and Expressions

place/lay/put emphasis on/upon
give sth. special force or attention to show that it is particularly important 强调;把重点放在,着重于

in the long run
after enough time; in the end 从长远观点来看;终究

a world of
a lot of 大量的,无数的

be brilliant/best at sth.
having or showing great skill at sth. 在某一方面极为出色

at the cost of
以…为代价

branch out
(into) add to the range of one's interests or activities 扩大(兴趣、活动、业务等的)范围

count on/upon
expect; depend on 指望;料想;依靠

turn down
refuse (a request or offer or the person that makes it); reject 拒绝(某人或其请求、忠告等)

take stock
consider a situation carefully so as to take a decision 作出判断,进行评估

Proper Names

Fredelle Maynard
弗雷德勒·梅纳德(男子名)

Vicky
维姬(Victoria的昵称)(女子名)

S. I. Hayakawa
S·I 早川(日本人名)

Olympic
a. 奥运会的

Ralph Waldo Emerson
拉尔夫·沃尔多·爱默生(1802—1882,美国思想家、散文作家、诗人)


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 promising BkQzsk     
adj.有希望的,有前途的
参考例句:
  • The results of the experiments are very promising.实验的结果充满了希望。
  • We're trying to bring along one or two promising young swimmers.我们正设法培养出一两名有前途的年轻游泳选手。
2 promotion eRLxn     
n.提升,晋级;促销,宣传
参考例句:
  • The teacher conferred with the principal about Dick's promotion.教师与校长商谈了迪克的升级问题。
  • The clerk was given a promotion and an increase in salary.那个职员升了级,加了薪。
3 promotions ea6aeb050f871384f25fba9c869cfe21     
促进( promotion的名词复数 ); 提升; 推广; 宣传
参考例句:
  • All services or promotions must have an appeal and wide application. 所有服务或促销工作都必须具有吸引力和广泛的适用性。
  • He promptly directed the highest promotions and decorations for General MacArthur. 他授予麦克阿瑟将军以最高的官阶和勋奖。
4 breakdown cS0yx     
n.垮,衰竭;损坏,故障,倒塌
参考例句:
  • She suffered a nervous breakdown.她患神经衰弱。
  • The plane had a breakdown in the air,but it was fortunately removed by the ace pilot.飞机在空中发生了故障,但幸运的是被王牌驾驶员排除了。
5 rejection FVpxp     
n.拒绝,被拒,抛弃,被弃
参考例句:
  • He decided not to approach her for fear of rejection.他因怕遭拒绝决定不再去找她。
  • The rejection plunged her into the dark depths of despair.遭到拒绝使她陷入了绝望的深渊。
6 dealing NvjzWP     
n.经商方法,待人态度
参考例句:
  • This store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing.该商店因买卖公道而享有极高的声誉。
  • His fair dealing earned our confidence.他的诚实的行为获得我们的信任。
7 prone 50bzu     
adj.(to)易于…的,很可能…的;俯卧的
参考例句:
  • Some people are prone to jump to hasty conclusions.有些人往往作出轻率的结论。
  • He is prone to lose his temper when people disagree with him.人家一不同意他的意见,他就发脾气。
8 orientation IJ4xo     
n.方向,目标;熟悉,适应,情况介绍
参考例句:
  • Children need some orientation when they go to school.小孩子上学时需要适应。
  • The traveller found his orientation with the aid of a good map.旅行者借助一幅好地图得知自己的方向。
9 applied Tz2zXA     
adj.应用的;v.应用,适用
参考例句:
  • She plans to take a course in applied linguistics.她打算学习应用语言学课程。
  • This cream is best applied to the face at night.这种乳霜最好晚上擦脸用。
10 precludes a6099ad5ef93a1df2eb33804a8db6373     
v.阻止( preclude的第三人称单数 );排除;妨碍;使…行不通
参考例句:
  • Lack of time precludes any further discussion. 由于时间不足,不可能进行深入的讨论。
  • The surface reactivity of many nonblack fillers generally precludes strong bonding with this type of matrix. 许多非碳黑填料的表面反应性一般阻碍与该种基质形成牢固的粘结。 来自辞典例句
11 flop sjsx2     
n.失败(者),扑通一声;vi.笨重地行动,沉重地落下
参考例句:
  • The fish gave a flop and landed back in the water.鱼扑通一声又跳回水里。
  • The marketing campaign was a flop.The product didn't sell.市场宣传彻底失败,产品卖不出去。
12 glamorous ezZyZ     
adj.富有魅力的;美丽动人的;令人向往的
参考例句:
  • The south coast is less glamorous but full of clean and attractive hotels.南海岸魅力稍逊,但却有很多干净漂亮的宾馆。
  • It is hard work and not a glamorous job as portrayed by the media.这是份苦差,并非像媒体描绘的那般令人向往。
13 spoke XryyC     
n.(车轮的)辐条;轮辐;破坏某人的计划;阻挠某人的行动 v.讲,谈(speak的过去式);说;演说;从某种观点来说
参考例句:
  • They sourced the spoke nuts from our company.他们的轮辐螺帽是从我们公司获得的。
  • The spokes of a wheel are the bars that connect the outer ring to the centre.辐条是轮子上连接外圈与中心的条棒。
14 obsessed 66a4be1417f7cf074208a6d81c8f3384     
adj.心神不宁的,鬼迷心窍的,沉迷的
参考例句:
  • He's obsessed by computers. 他迷上了电脑。
  • The fear of death obsessed him throughout his old life. 他晚年一直受着死亡恐惧的困扰。
15 tempting wgAzd4     
a.诱人的, 吸引人的
参考例句:
  • It is tempting to idealize the past. 人都爱把过去的日子说得那么美好。
  • It was a tempting offer. 这是个诱人的提议。
16 consolation WpbzC     
n.安慰,慰问
参考例句:
  • The children were a great consolation to me at that time.那时孩子们成了我的莫大安慰。
  • This news was of little consolation to us.这个消息对我们来说没有什么安慰。
17 reassuring vkbzHi     
a.使人消除恐惧和疑虑的,使人放心的
参考例句:
  • He gave her a reassuring pat on the shoulder. 他轻拍了一下她的肩膀让她放心。
  • With a reassuring pat on her arm, he left. 他鼓励地拍了拍她的手臂就离开了。
18 disastrous 2ujx0     
adj.灾难性的,造成灾害的;极坏的,很糟的
参考例句:
  • The heavy rainstorm caused a disastrous flood.暴雨成灾。
  • Her investment had disastrous consequences.She lost everything she owned.她的投资结果很惨,血本无归。
19 courageously wvzz8b     
ad.勇敢地,无畏地
参考例句:
  • Under the correct leadership of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, the army and civilians in flooded areas fought the floods courageously, reducing the losses to the minimum. 在中共中央、国务院的正确领导下,灾区广大军民奋勇抗洪,把灾害的损失减少到了最低限度。
  • He fought death courageously though his life was draining away. 他虽然生命垂危,但仍然勇敢地与死亡作斗争。
20 heroism 5dyx0     
n.大无畏精神,英勇
参考例句:
  • He received a medal for his heroism.他由于英勇而获得一枚奖章。
  • Stories of his heroism resounded through the country.他的英雄故事传遍全国。
21 advancement tzgziL     
n.前进,促进,提升
参考例句:
  • His new contribution to the advancement of physiology was well appreciated.他对生理学发展的新贡献获得高度赞赏。
  • The aim of a university should be the advancement of learning.大学的目标应是促进学术。
22 advertising 1zjzi3     
n.广告业;广告活动 a.广告的;广告业务的
参考例句:
  • Can you give me any advice on getting into advertising? 你能指点我如何涉足广告业吗?
  • The advertising campaign is aimed primarily at young people. 这个广告宣传运动主要是针对年轻人的。
23 collapse aWvyE     
vi.累倒;昏倒;倒塌;塌陷
参考例句:
  • The country's economy is on the verge of collapse.国家的经济已到了崩溃的边缘。
  • The engineer made a complete diagnosis of the bridge's collapse.工程师对桥的倒塌做了一次彻底的调查分析。
24 unnatural 5f2zAc     
adj.不自然的;反常的
参考例句:
  • Did her behaviour seem unnatural in any way?她有任何反常表现吗?
  • She has an unnatural smile on her face.她脸上挂着做作的微笑。
25 favourable favourable     
adj.赞成的,称赞的,有利的,良好的,顺利的
参考例句:
  • The company will lend you money on very favourable terms.这家公司将以非常优惠的条件借钱给你。
  • We found that most people are favourable to the idea.我们发现大多数人同意这个意见。
26 habitually 4rKzgk     
ad.习惯地,通常地
参考例句:
  • The pain of the disease caused him habitually to furrow his brow. 病痛使他习惯性地紧皱眉头。
  • Habitually obedient to John, I came up to his chair. 我已经习惯于服从约翰,我来到他的椅子跟前。
27 admiration afpyA     
n.钦佩,赞美,羡慕
参考例句:
  • He was lost in admiration of the beauty of the scene.他对风景之美赞不绝口。
  • We have a great admiration for the gold medalists.我们对金牌获得者极为敬佩。
28 enquire 2j5zK     
v.打听,询问;调查,查问
参考例句:
  • She wrote to enquire the cause of the delay.她只得写信去询问拖延的理由。
  • We will enquire into the matter.我们将调查这事。
29 inquiry nbgzF     
n.打听,询问,调查,查问
参考例句:
  • Many parents have been pressing for an inquiry into the problem.许多家长迫切要求调查这个问题。
  • The field of inquiry has narrowed down to five persons.调查的范围已经缩小到只剩5个人了。
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TAG标签:   大学英语  读写教程  第二册  unit
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